List of fatal Formula One accidents

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A man in red overalls, with his left hand at the rear of his head.
Ayrton Senna, the last driver to die at an F1 World Championship Grand Prix.

Formula One (F1) is the highest class of open-wheeled auto racing defined by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA), motorsport's world governing body.[1] The "formula" in the name refers to a set of rules to which all participants and vehicles must conform. The F1 World Championship season consists of a series of races, known as Grands Prix, held usually on purpose-built circuits, and in a few cases on closed city streets. The results of each race are combined to determine two annual Championships, one for drivers and one for constructors.

Safety standards have improved since the first World Championship Grand Prix at Silverstone in 1950, where there was no medical back-up or safety measures in case of an accident.[2] In the 1960s helmets and overalls became mandatory and the FIA assumed responsibility for safety at the circuits.[2] Further steps were taken to improve the safety of the Formula One car in the 1970s: the cockpit opening was enlarged allowing the driver quicker escape in the event of an accident and outside mirrors became mandatory.[3] In the 1980s the carbon fibre monocoque replaced aluminium, increasing protection upon impact.[4] Following the death of Ayrton Senna and Roland Ratzenberger at Imola in 1994, a number of measures were introduced in an attempt to slow the cars down, including a wooden undertray. In 1998 grooved tyres replaced racing slick tyres to reduce cornering speed.[5] Safety measures continued to be introduced into the 21st century, with a number of circuits changing their configuration to improve driver safety.[6]

This list includes drivers who have died during a FIA World Championship race weekend, and those who have died while driving a Formula One car outside of the World Championship. Track marshals and other race attendees who have died as a result of these accidents are not included in the list. Fifty drivers have died driving a Formula One car, with Cameron Earl being the first in 1952. Thirty-two of the drivers died during a World Championship Grand Prix race weekend, seven as the result of injuries suffered in a test session and eleven during a non-championship Formula One event. The Indianapolis Motor Speedway has seen the most fatalities; seven drivers have died there during the course of the Indianapolis 500. Fifteen drivers died in the 1950s; fourteen in the 1960s; twelve in the 1970s; four in the 1980s and two in the 1990s. Following Senna's death in 1994, no driver had died from injuries sustained in a World Championship-related accident until María de Villota died in 2013 from complications of injuries she sustained in a testing accident for Marussia the previous year.[A][7] Only two Formula One Champions have died while racing or practicing in Formula One, Jochen Rindt in 1970, and Ayrton Senna in 1994. Rindt is the only driver to win the championship posthumously.[8]

Accidents[edit]

Key
Race was not part of Formula One World Championship Indicates the race was not part of the Formula One World Championship
  • The "During" column refers to what part of the Grand Prix weekend the accident occurred in.
List of people who died during a FIA World Championship race weekend, or elsewhere while driving a Formula One car
Driver Date of accident Race Circuit Car During Ref(s).
 Earl, CameronCameron Earl (UK) June 18, 1952 Test MIRA ERA Test [9]
 Miller, ChetChet Miller (USA) May 15, 1953 1953 Indianapolis 500[B] Indianapolis Motor Speedway Kurtis Kraft Practice [10]
 de Tornaco, CharlesCharles de Tornaco (BEL) September 18, 1953 1953 Modena Grand PrixRace was not part of Formula One World Championship Modena Autodrome Ferrari Tipo 500 Practice [11]
 Marimón, OnofreOnofre Marimón (ARG) July 31, 1954 1954 German Grand Prix Nürburgring Maserati 250F Practice [10]
 Alborghetti, MarioMario Alborghetti (ITA) April 11, 1955 1955 Pau Grand PrixRace was not part of Formula One World Championship Pau circuit Maserati 4CLT Race [12]
 Ayulo, MannyManny Ayulo (USA) May 16, 1955 1955 Indianapolis 500[B] Indianapolis Motor Speedway Kuzma Practice [10]
 Vukovich, BillBill Vukovich (USA) May 30, 1955 1955 Indianapolis 500[B] Indianapolis Motor Speedway Kurtis Kraft Race [10]
 Castellotti, EugenioEugenio Castellotti (ITA) March 14, 1957 Test Modena Autodrome Ferrari 801 Test [13]
 Andrews, KeithKeith Andrews (USA) May 15, 1957 1957 Indianapolis 500[B] Indianapolis Motor Speedway Kurtis Kraft Practice [10]
 O'Connor, PatPat O'Connor (USA) May 30, 1958 1958 Indianapolis 500[B] Indianapolis Motor Speedway Kurtis Kraft Race [10]
 Musso, LuigiLuigi Musso (ITA) July 6, 1958 1958 French Grand Prix Reims-Gueux Ferrari 246 F1 Race [10]
 Collins, PeterPeter Collins (UK) August 3, 1958 1958 German Grand Prix Nürburgring Ferrari 246 F1 Race [14]
 Lewis-Evans, StuartStuart Lewis-Evans (UK) September 19, 1958 1958 Moroccan Grand Prix Ain-Diab Circuit Vanwall Race [10]
 Unser, Jr., JerryJerry Unser, Jr. (USA) May 17, 1959 1959 Indianapolis 500[B] Indianapolis Motor Speedway Kurtis Kraft Pre-race test [10]
 Cortner, BobBob Cortner (USA) May 19, 1959 1959 Indianapolis 500[A] Indianapolis Motor Speedway Cornis Pre-race test [10]
 Schell, HarryHarry Schell (USA) May 13, 1960 1960 BRDC International TrophyRace was not part of Formula One World Championship Silverstone Cooper T51 Practice [10]
 Bristow, ChrisChris Bristow (UK) June 19, 1960 1960 Belgian Grand Prix Circuit de Spa-Francorchamps Cooper T51 Race [10]
 Stacey, AlanAlan Stacey (UK) June 19, 1960 1960 Belgian Grand Prix Circuit de Spa-Francorchamps Lotus 18 Race [10]
 Summers, ShaneShane Summers (UK) June 1, 1961 1961 Silver City TrophyRace was not part of Formula One World Championship Brands Hatch Cooper Practice [15]
 Cabianca, GiulioGiulio Cabianca (ITA) June 15, 1961 Test Modena Autodrome Cooper T51 Test [16]
 von Trips, WolfgangWolfgang von Trips (GER) September 10, 1961 1961 Italian Grand Prix Autodromo Nazionale Monza Ferrari 156 F1 Race [17]
 Rodríguez, RicardoRicardo Rodríguez (MEX) November 1, 1962 1962 Mexican Grand Prixdagger Autódromo Hermanos Rodríguez Lotus 24 Practice [18]
 Hocking, GaryGary Hocking (Rhodesia and Nyasaland) December 21, 1962 1962 Natal Grand PrixRace was not part of Formula One World Championship Westmead Circuit Lotus 24 Practice [10]
 Godin de Beaufort, CarelCarel Godin de Beaufort (NED) August 2, 1964 1964 German Grand Prix Nürburgring Porsche 718 Practice [10]
 Taylor, JohnJohn Taylor (UK)[C] August 7, 1966 1966 German Grand Prix Nürburgring Brabham Race [19]
 Bandini, LorenzoLorenzo Bandini (ITA)[D] May 7, 1967 1967 Monaco Grand Prix Circuit de Monaco Ferrari 312 Race [20]
 Anderson, BobBob Anderson (UK) August 14, 1967 Test Silverstone Brabham Test [21]
 Schlesser, JoJo Schlesser (FRA) July 7, 1968 1968 French Grand Prix Rouen-Les-Essarts Honda RA302 Race [22]
 Mitter, GerhardGerhard Mitter (GER) August 2, 1969 1969 German Grand Prix Nürburgring BMW Practice [10]
 Brain, MartinMartin Brain (UK) May 25, 1970 Nottingham Sports Car Club meetingRace was not part of Formula One World Championship Silverstone Cooper Race [23][24]
 Courage, PiersPiers Courage (UK) June 7, 1970 1970 Dutch Grand Prix Circuit Park Zandvoort De Tomaso Race [25]
 Rindt, JochenJochen Rindt (AUT) September 5, 1970 1970 Italian Grand Prix Autodromo Nazionale Monza Lotus 72 Qualifying [8]
 Siffert, JoJo Siffert (SUI) October 24, 1971 1971 World Championship Victory RaceRace was not part of Formula One World Championship Brands Hatch BRM P160 Race [26]
 Williamson, RogerRoger Williamson (UK) July 29, 1973 1973 Dutch Grand Prix Circuit Park Zandvoort March Race [10]
 Cevert, FrançoisFrançois Cevert (FRA) October 6, 1973 1973 United States Grand Prix Watkins Glen Tyrrell Qualifying [27]
 Revson, PeterPeter Revson (USA) March 22, 1974 1974 South African Grand Prix Kyalami Shadow DN3 Pre-race test [28]
 Koinigg, HelmuthHelmuth Koinigg (AUT) October 6, 1974 1974 United States Grand Prix Watkins Glen Surtees Race [29]
 Donohue, MarkMark Donohue (USA) August 19, 1975 1975 Austrian Grand Prix Österreichring Penske Practice [10]
 Pryce, TomTom Pryce (UK)[E] March 5, 1977 1977 South African Grand Prix Kyalami Shadow DN5 Race [30]
 McGuire, BrianBrian McGuire (AUS) August 29, 1977 1977 Shellsport Championship Round 11Race was not part of Formula One World Championship Brands Hatch Williams Practice [31]
 Peterson, RonnieRonnie Peterson (SWE)[F] September 10, 1978 1978 Italian Grand Prix Autodromo Nazionale Monza Lotus 79 Race [32]
 Depailler, PatrickPatrick Depailler (FRA) August 1, 1980 Test Hockenheimring Alfa Romeo 179 Test [33]
 Villeneuve, GillesGilles Villeneuve (CAN) May 8, 1982 1982 Belgian Grand Prix Circuit Zolder Ferrari 126 C Qualifying [34]
 Paletti, RiccardoRiccardo Paletti (ITA) June 13, 1982 1982 Canadian Grand Prix Circuit Gilles Villeneuve Osella Race [10]
 de Angelis, ElioElio de Angelis (ITA) May 15, 1986 Test Circuit Paul Ricard Brabham BT55 Test [35]
 Ratzenberger, RolandRoland Ratzenberger (AUT) April 30, 1994 1994 San Marino Grand Prix Autodromo Enzo e Dino Ferrari Simtek S941 Qualifying [36]
 Senna, AyrtonAyrton Senna (BRA) May 1, 1994 1994 San Marino Grand Prix Autodromo Enzo e Dino Ferrari Williams FW16 Race [36]
 Dawson-Damer, JohnJohn Dawson-Damer (UK) June 24, 2000 2000 Goodwood Festival of SpeedRace was not part of Formula One World Championship Goodwood Hillclimb Lotus 63 Run [37]
 Glatz, FritzFritz Glatz (AUT) July 14, 2002 2002 EuroBOSS Series seasonRace was not part of Formula One World Championship Autodrom Most Footwork FA17 Race [38][39]
 Welch, DenisDenis Welch (GBR) July 27, 2014 Silverstone Classic Jack Brabham Memorial Trophy Race was not part of Formula One World Championship Silverstone Circuit Lotus 18 Race [40]

By circuit[edit]

Fatalities by circuit
Circuit Total First Last
Indianapolis Motor Speedway 7 1953 1959
Nürburgring 5 1954 1969
Modena Autodrome 3 1953 1961
Silverstone Circuit 4 1960 2014
Brands Hatch 3 1961 1977
Autodromo Nazionale Monza 3 1961 1978
Circuit de Spa-Francorchamps 2 1960 1960
Circuit Park Zandvoort 2 1970 1973
Watkins Glen 2 1973 1974
Kyalami 2 1974 1977
Autodromo Enzo e Dino Ferrari 2 1994 1994
MIRA 1 1952 1952
Pau circuit 1 1955 1955
Reims-Gueux 1 1958 1958
Ain-Diab Circuit 1 1958 1958
Westmead Circuit 1 1962 1962
Autódromo Hermanos Rodríguez 1 1962 1962
Circuit de Monaco 1 1967 1967
Rouen-Les-Essarts 1 1968 1968
OsterreichringRed Bull Ring 1 1975 1975
Hockenheimring 1 1980 1980
Circuit Zolder 1 1982 1982
Circuit Gilles Villeneuve 1 1982 1982
Circuit Paul Ricard 1 1986 1986
Goodwood Hillclimb 1 2000 2000
Autodrom Most 1 2002 2002

By constructor[edit]

Fatalities by constructor
Car Total
Ferrari 7
Lotus 7
Kurtis Kraft 5
Cooper 5
Brabham 3
Shadow 2
Williams 2
Maserati 2
Honda 1
Surtees 1
De Tomaso 1
BRM 1
Vanwall 1
Kuzma 1
Porsche 1
Alfa Romeo 1
Simtek 1
March 1
Tyrrell 1
BMW 1
Cornis 1
Osella 1
Penske 1
ERA 1
Footwork 1

Notes[edit]

A. a Two drivers have died since 1994; John Dawson-Damer in 2000 and Fritz Glatz in 2002. These drivers died while driving Formula One cars outside of World Championship Grands Prix.[37][39]

B. a b c d e f g From 1950 to 1960, the Indianapolis 500 was part of the F1 World Championship.[41]

C. ^ Taylor died of 50 per cent burns five weeks after the accident.[19]

D. ^ Bandini died of his injuries three days after the accident.[20]

E. ^ As well as Tom Pryce, Jansen Van Vuuren, a teenage volunteer safety marshal, died in the accident after Pryce collided with him at high speed.[30]

F. ^ Peterson died the following day in hospital, as a result of fat embolism.[42]

G. ^ María de Villota was found dead on 11 October 2013. Neurologial injuires sustained in the July 2012 accident were determined to have caused her death.[43]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "About FIA". Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA). Retrieved 31 October 2008. 
  2. ^ a b "The fifties and sixties". Formula 1. Retrieved 19 August 2012. 
  3. ^ "The seventies". Formula 1. Retrieved 19 August 2012. 
  4. ^ "The eighties". Formula 1. Retrieved 19 August 2012. 
  5. ^ "The nineties". Formula 1. Retrieved 19 August 2012. 
  6. ^ "The 21st century". Formula 1. Retrieved 19 August 2012. 
  7. ^ Williamson, Martin. "A Brief History of Formula One". ESPN. Retrieved 19 August 2012. 
  8. ^ a b Benson, Andrew (13 March 2012). "Formula 1's Greatest Drivers. Number 20: Jochen Rindt". BBC Sport. Retrieved 18 August 2012. 
  9. ^ "Killed While Testing Racing Car". The Times (London). 19 June 1952. p. 4. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s "Deaths in Formula One". ESPN. Retrieved 18 August 2012. 
  11. ^ "Charles de Tornaco". ESPN. Retrieved 18 August 2012. 
  12. ^ "XVI Grand Prix de Pau". Motor Sport (Teesdale Publishing) XXXI (5): 264–265. May 1955. 
  13. ^ Diepraam, Mattijs; Muelas, Felix. "The dashing Milanese that stayed young forever". Autosport. Retrieved 18 August 2012. 
  14. ^ "Silverstone '58 – Hawthorn & Collins' all-English affair". Formula 1. 6 July 2010. Retrieved 18 August 2012. 
  15. ^ "Racing Driver Dies After Crash". The Times (London). 2 June 1961. p. 23. 
  16. ^ "Four die in Italian race car crash". The Times (London). 16 June 1961. p. 13. 
  17. ^ Williams, Richard (5 September 2011). "When motor racing was a matter of life and death". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 18 August 2012. 
  18. ^ "Ricardo Rodríguez". ESPN. Retrieved 18 August 2012. 
  19. ^ a b "John Taylor". ESPN. Retrieved 18 August 2012. 
  20. ^ a b "Lorenzo Bandini". ESPN. Retrieved 18 August 2012. 
  21. ^ "Bob Anderson". ESPN. Retrieved 18 August 2012. 
  22. ^ "Schlesser dies in experimental honda at Rouen". ESPN. Retrieved 18 August 2012. 
  23. ^ "Racing car death". The Times (London). 26 May 1970. p. 2. 
  24. ^ "Martin Brain". Motorsport Memorial. Retrieved 14 December 2011. 
  25. ^ Edworthy, Sarah (19 July 2003). "Piers Courage lived life to the full and was tipped for GP greatness". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 18 August 2012. 
  26. ^ "Jo Siffert". ESPN. Retrieved 18 August 2012. 
  27. ^ "François Cevert". ESPN. Retrieved 18 August 2012. 
  28. ^ "Peter Revson". ESPN. Retrieved 18 August 2012. 
  29. ^ Katz, Michael (7 October 1974). "Driver Is Killed as Fittipaldi Wins Title at Watkins Glen". The New York Times. p. 45. Retrieved 18 August 2012. 
  30. ^ a b "Plaque to commemorate F1 winner". BBC News. 11 June 2009. Retrieved 18 August 2012. 
  31. ^ "News in Brief: Brands Hatch crash kills 2". The Times (London). 30 August 1977. p. 1. 
  32. ^ "Formula 1's Greatest Drivers – 19 Ronnie Peterson". Autosport. Retrieved 18 August 2012. 
  33. ^ "Patrick Depailler". ESPN. Retrieved 18 August 2012. 
  34. ^ Benson, Andrew (4 July 2012). "Formula 1's greatest drivers. Number 12: Gilles Villeneuve". BBC Sport. Retrieved 18 August 2012. 
  35. ^ "Elio de Angelis". ESPN. Retrieved 18 August 2012. 
  36. ^ a b Benson, Andrew (21 April 2004). "A death that shocked the world". BBC Sport. Retrieved 9 September 2010. 
  37. ^ a b Savill, Richard (26 June 2000). "Brother of earl dies in Goodwood hill climb". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 19 August 2012. 
  38. ^ "Fritz Glatz". GrandPrix.com. 19 July 2002. Retrieved 22 August 2012. 
  39. ^ a b "Most: Qualifying report". Motorsport.com. 17 July 2002. Retrieved 22 August 2012. 
  40. ^ "Historic racer Denis Welch dies in Silverstone Classic accident". Autosport. 28 July 2014. Retrieved 29 July 2014. 
  41. ^ "United States Grand Prix history". Formula 1. 16 June 2004. Retrieved 5 July 2012. 
  42. ^ "Ronnie Peterson". ESPN. Retrieved 18 August 2012. 
  43. ^ "Maria De Villota died from 2012 crash injuries, family told". BBC Sport. 12 October 2013. Retrieved 12 October 2013. 

External links[edit]