List of Frankish queens

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See also List of Frankish kings
Marguerite of Provence, Queen of Louis IX was the last French queen to use the title of Queen of the Franks. After 14 June 1237 she became the first Queen of France.

This is a list of the women who have been Queens consort of the Frankish people. As all monarchs of the Franks have been required by law and tradition to be male, there has never been a Queen regnant of the Franks (although some women have governed as regents).

A timeline of consorts Frankish rulers is difficult since the realm was, according to old Germanic practice, frequently divided among the sons of a leader upon his death and then eventually reunited. Another factor is the practice of polygamy in the Frankish society, and it is unclear who was a concubine, a mistress, or a legal wife. Most of early Merovingian queens are nothing but names, and almost nothing is known about them.

This list starts from he earliest dates of Frankish history from the early Queen of the Salian Franks, to Saint Clotilde, the first Queen of All the Franks, until the three way split up of the Frankish Empire in the Treaty of Verdun in 843 and then from there to the rise of Hugh Capet in Western Francia and Otto the Great in Eastern Francia.

Merovingian dynasty (509–751)[edit]

The marital status of some wives of early Frankish kings are unclear and polygamy was practiced.

Queen of the Salian Franks (until 509)[edit]

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Basine? Questionable, said to be the mother of Merovech. Clodio
Hildegund of Colonia Marcomero, King of Colonia 399  ? 448
husband's death
450
Basina Childeric.jpg Basina of Thuringia Basin, King of the Thuringii 445  ? 481
husband's death
491 Childeric I
Evochildis ("Of Cologne")  ? Princesa Franco-renana (Probably a Franco-Rhenish Princess; likely mother of Theuderic I)[1][clarification needed] 462 484  ? 510 Clovis I
Vitrail Florac 010609 12.jpg Clotilde of Burgundy Chilperic II of Burgundy 475 493 509
became Queen of All Franks
545
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

Queen of All the Franks (509–511)[edit]

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Vitrail Florac 010609 12.jpg Clotilde of Burgundy Chilperic II of Burgundy 475 493 509
husband's ascession
27 November 511
husband's death
545 Clovis I
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

Clovis I united all the Frankish petty kingdoms as well as most of Roman Gaul under his rule, conquering the Domain of Soissons of the Roman general Syagrius as well as the Visigothic Kingdom of Toulouse. He took his seat at Paris, which along with Soissons, Reims, Metz, and Orléans became the chief residences. Upon his death, the kingdom was split among his four sons:

Queen of Soissons (511–558)[edit]

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Guntheuc of Burgundy Godomar of Burgundy around 495
[2]
after 523 524/540
[2]
Chlothar I
St. Radegund Saint-Germain l'Auxerrois.jpg Radegund of Thuringia Bertachar of Thuringia 486-516 525/545
[2]
after 531
repudiated
13 August 586
Ingund of Thuringia Baderic of Thuringia 490-510 526/550
[2]
unknown, maybe 546 or after
[2]
Waldrada of the Lombards Wacho, King of the Lombards
(Lethings)
521-542 555/559 555/61
given in marriage to Garibald I, Duke of Bavaria under the advice of the bishops
unknown, after 526
[2]
Became Queens of All the Franks
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

Queen of Paris (511–558)[edit]

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Ultrogotha  ? 497  ? 27 November 511
husband's accession
23 December 558
husband's death
566 Childebert I
Kingdom passed to Soissons
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

Queen of Orléans (511–524)[edit]

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Guntheuc of Burgundy Godomar of Burgundy 495 514 or 521 21 June 524
husband's death
532 Chlodomer
Kingdom passed to Soissons, Paris, and Rheims
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

Queen of Reims (511–555)[edit]

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Eustere of the Visigoths Alaric II, King of the Visigoths 488 511  ? 521 Theuderic I
Suavegotha of Burgundy Sigismund, King of the Burgundians 495/96/504 516/7 534
husband's death
554
Wisigard of the Lombards Wacho, King of the Lombards  ?  ? 534
husband's ascession
 ?  ? Theudebert I
Deuteria Gallo-Roman descent  ?  ?  ? 548
husband's death
 ?
Waldrada of the Lombards Wacho, King of the Lombards 531  ? 548?
husband's ascession
555?
husband's death
572 Theodobald
Kingdom passed to Soissons
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

Queen of All the Franks (558–561)[edit]

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Corset1905 035Fig19.png Aregund of Thuringia Baderic of Thuringia 515  ? 558
husband's ascession
561
husband's death
573 Chlothar I
Chunsina  ?  ?  ? 558?
husband's ascession
561?
husband's death
 ?
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

Queen of Neustria (Soissons, 561–613)[edit]

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Albert Maignan-Audovère Repudiée.jpg Audovera  ? 525? 549/550? 561?
husband's ascession
 ?
repudiated
October/November 580 Chilperic I
Galswinthe & Chilperic00.jpg Galswintha of the Visigoths Athanagild, Visigothic king of Hispania 540 567 568
Chilperic I & Fredegunde00.jpg Fredegund  ?  ? 568 September 584
husband's death
8 December 597
Haldetrude  ? 575/594  ?  ?  ? 604/629 Chlothar II
Bertrude.jpg Bertrude Wagon II, Count of Vermandois 582  ?613? 618/619
Sichilde count Brunulphe II of the Ardennes 590  ?618? 627
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

Queen of Paris (561–567)[edit]

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Ingoberga 519?  ?  ?  ?
repudiated
589 Charibert I
Merofleda a wool-carder  ? after 561  ?  ?
Marcovefa  ? after 561  ? before 567
Theudechild a cowherd  ? after 561  ? 567
Partition between Neustria, Burgundy and Austrasia
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

Queen of Burgundy (Orléans, 561–613)[edit]

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Vénérande a slave  ?  ?  ?  ?  ? Guntram
Marcatrude Magnar (Magnacaire d'Outre-Jura)  ? 565? 566?
Austerchild  ?  ? 567 after 580
Faileube  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ? Childebert II
Ermenberga of the Visigoths Witteric, King of the Visigoths  ? 606 607
repudiated
 ? Theuderic II
United to Austrasia in 612 and passed Neustria in 613.
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

Queen of Austrasia (Reims and Metz, 561–613)[edit]

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Brunhilda.jpg Brunhilda of the Visigoths Athanagild, King of the Visigoths 543? 567 December 575
husband's death
613 Sigebert I
Faileube  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ? Childebert II
Bilichilde Witteric, King of the Visigoths  ? 608 610 Theudebert II
Théoudehilde  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?
Passed to Burgundy in 612.
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

Queen of All the Franks (613–629)[edit]

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Bertrude.jpg Bertrude Wagon II, Count of Vermandois 582  ?613? 618/619 Chlothar II
Sichilde  ? c. 590 618 18 October 629
husband's death
ap. 627
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

Queen of Neustria and Burgundy (629–691)[edit]

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Gomentrude  ? 598 628 629
répudiée
after 630 Dagobert I
Nanthild the Saxon  ? c. 610 c. 629 19 January 639
husband's death
642
Dagobert I Ragnetrude Sigibert3.jpg Ragintrudis  ? 610?  ?  ?  ?  ?
Wulfefundis  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?
Bertechildis  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?
St. Bathild Saint-Germain l'Auxerrois.jpg Balthild Anglo-Saxon aristocrat 626 or 627 649 27 November 655 or 658
husband's death
30 January 680 Clovis II
Amatilda  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ? Chlothar III
Bilichild of Austrasia Sigebert III of Austrasia 654 668 673
invasion of Neustria and Burgundy
675 Childeric II
Clotilda of Heristal Ansegisel 650 675 679
Became Queen of All the Franks
3 June 699 Theuderic III
United with Austrasia to form a single Frankish state
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

Queen of Austrasia (623–679)[edit]

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Gomentrude  ? 598 628 629
répudiée
after 630 Dagobert I
Nanthild the Saxon  ? c. 610 c. 629 c. 629
kingdom went to stepson
642
Dagobert I Ragnetrude Sigibert3.jpg Ragintrudis  ? 610?  ?  ?  ?  ?
Wulfefundis  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?
Bertechildis  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?
Chimnechild of Burgundy  ?  ? 647  ?  ? Sigebert III
Amatilda  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ? Chlothar III
Bilichild of Austrasia Sigebert III of Austrasia 654 668 675 Childeric II
Clotilda of Heristal Ansegisel 650 675 679
Became Queen of All the Franks
3 June 699 Theuderic III
United with Neustria and Burgundy to form a single Frankish state
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

Queen of Aquitaine (629–632)[edit]

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Gisela of Gascony? Amand of Gascony  ?  ? 18 October 629
husband's ascession
8 April 632
husband's death
 ? Charibert II
Fulberte?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?
Kingdom passed to Neustria and Burgundy in 632; dukes were appointed to Aquitaine
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

Queen of All the Franks (629–751)[edit]

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Gomentrude  ? 598 628 629
répudiée
after 630 Dagobert I
Nanthild the Saxon  ? c. 610 c. 629 634
kingdom partitioned
642
Dagobert I Ragnetrude Sigibert3.jpg Ragintrudis  ? 610?  ?  ?  ?  ?
Wulfefundis  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?
Bertechildis  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?
Amatilda  ?  ?  ? 661
husband's ascession
662
husband loses Austrasia
 ? Chlothar III
Bilichild of Austrasia Sigebert III of Austrasia 654 668 673
husband's ascession
675 Childeric II
Clotilda of Heristal Ansegisel 650 675 679
husband's ascession
691
husband's death
3 June 699 Theuderic III
Edonne Most likely this a fabricated name of the unnamed wife of Childebert III and mother of Dagobert III. Childebert III
Ermenchilde (c. 680 — c. 696). Unknown Clovis IV
Ermenchilde Unknown Childebert III
Clotilde de Saxe Unknown Dagobert III
Chrotaudis Unknown Chilperic II
Gisele  ? 715  ? 743
husband's ascession
751
husband's death
755 Childeric III
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

Carolingian dynasty (751–987)[edit]

Queen of the Franks (751–843)[edit]

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Bertrada of Laon Jardin du Luxembourg.jpg Bertrada of Laon Caribert, Count of Laon 710/27 740 November 751
as sole-Queen consort of the Franks
24 September 768
husband's death
12 July 783 Pepin I
Gerberga  ?  ?  ? 24 September 768
as co-Queen consort of the Franks
4 December 771
husband's death
 ? Carloman I
Gerperga of the Lombards Desiderius, King of the Lombards  ? 770
as co-Queen consort of the Franks
771
repuditated
 ? Charles I
Hildegard 1499.jpg Hildegard of Vinzgouw Gerold of Vinzgouw 758 771
as sole-Queen consort of the Franks
774
as Queen consort the Lombards
781
as co-Queen consort the Lombards
30 April 783
Fastrada de Franconie Raoul III de Franconie et d'Aéda de Bavière 765 784
as sole-Queen consort of the Franks and co-Queen consort the Lombards
10 October 794
Luitgard de Sundgau Luitfrid II, Count of Sundgau 776 794
as sole-Queen consort of the Franks and co-Queen consort the Lombards
4 June 800
Ermengarde of Hesbaye Ingerman, Count of Hesbaye 778 794/5 813
as Holy Roman Empress and Queen consort of the Franks 817
as senior Holy Roman Empress
3 October 818 Louis I
Wgt Stifterbüchlein 11v.jpg Judith of Bavaria Welf I, Count of Altdorf 805 819
as senior Holy Roman Empress and Queen consort of the Franks
20 June 840
husband's death
19/23 April 843
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

After the Verdun[edit]

The Frankish kingdom was then divided by the Treaty of Verdun in 843. Lothair I was allowed to keep his imperial title and his kingdom of Italy, and granted the newly created Kingdom of Middle Francia, a corridor of land stretching from Italy to the North Sea, and including the Low Countries, the Rhineland (including Aachen), Burgundy, and Provence. Charles the Bald was confirmed in Aquitaine, where Pepin I's son Pepin II was opposing him, and granted West Francia (modern France), the lands west of Lothair's Kingdom. Louis the German was confirmed in Bavaria and granted East Francia (modern Germany), the lands east of Lothair's kingdom. Ermentrude of Orléans (first wife of Charles II) became the Queen of Western Francia (eventually France); Emma of Altdorf (wife of Louis II) became the Queen of Eastern Francia (eventually Germany); and Ermengarde of Tours (wife of Lothair I) became the Queen of Middle Francia (eventually Lotharingia). The title of Queen of the Franks continued on to the 12th and 13th century in France.

Queen of the Franks (843–987)[edit]

West Francia Middle Francia East Francia Spouse
Ermentruda kralovna.jpg

Ermentrude of Orléans
Queen of Aquitaine:
842–855
Queen of the East Franks:
843–869

Ermengarde of Tours
Queen of Italy: 818–844
Queen of the Middle Franks: 843–851
Holy Roman Empress: 821–851
Hemma.jpg
Emma of Altdorf
Queen of Bavaria:
817–843
Queen of the East Franks:
843–876
Charles II
Lothair I
Louis II
Engelberga of Parma
Queen of Italy: 851–875
Holy Roman Empress: 850–875
Teutberga
Queen of Lotharingia: 855–869
Charles II
Louis II
Lothair II
Louis II
RichildaofProvence.jpg
Richilde of Provence
Queen of the West Franks: 870–877
Queen of Italy: 875–877
Holy Roman Empress: 875–877
Hemma.jpg
Emma of Altdorf
Queen of Bavaria: 817–843
Queen of the East Franks: 843–876
Charles II
Louis II
Adela hlava.jpg
Adelaide of Friuli
Queen of the West Franks:
877–879
Luitgarda.jpg
Liutgard of Saxony
Queen of Saxony: 879–882
Queen of Bavaria: 880–882
Queen of the East Franks: 880–882
Louis II
Louis III
Saint Richardis (fragment of The Ordeal by Fire by Dierec Bouts the Older).jpg
Richardis of Swabia
Holy Roman Empress: 881–888
Queen of the East Franks: 882–887
Queen of the West Franks: 884–888
Charles III
Théodrate of Troyes
Queen of the West Franks: 888–898
Ota
Queen of the East Franks: 888–899
Queen of Italy: 896–899
Holy Roman Empress: 896–899
Odo
Arnulf
Frederonne
Queen of the West Franks: 907–917
Cunigunde of Swabia
Queen of the East Franks: 913–918
Duchess of Franconia: 913–918
Charles III
Conrad I
Eadgifu of England ludvik4 mini.jpg
Eadgifu of England
Queen of the West Franks: 919–922
Matilda of Ringelheim.jpg
Matilda of Ringelheim
Queen of the East Franks: 919–936
Duchess of Saxony: 912–936
Charles III
Robert I
Rudolph
Henry I
Béatrice of Vermandois
Queen of the West Franks: 922–923
Emma of France
Queen of the West Franks: 923–934
Gerberga.jpg
Gerberga of Saxony
Queen of the (West) Franks: 939–954
After the death of Henry,
the last King of the East Franks,
the only remaining Frankish kings
were in Western Francia,
which would become the
modern state of France.
Louis IV
Emma of Italy
Queen of the (West) Franks: 965–986
Lothair
Adelaide of Anjou
Queen of Aquitaine: 980–982
Louis V
Queens of West Francia Queens of Middle Francia Queens of East Francia Spouse

After the death of Louis V of France, the last male line Carolingian king of the Franks, in 987, the Capetian succeeded to the Frankish titles and their consort bear the title Queen consort of the Franks until 1227. Although history known them better as Queen consorts of France.

Although some of these Frankish queens held titles such as Holy Roman Empress, Queen consort of Italy, Aquitaine, Saxony, Burgundy, Orléans, Paris, Bavaria, Provence, Soissons, Lotharingia, Swabia, and Alamannia; this is not a complete list of those consorts.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "World Genealogy = ID: I6831". RootsWeb. Ancestry.com. Archived from the original on 28 February 2013. Retrieved 28 February 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f Historic guesses. No one is sure when this occurred.

Source[edit]