List of fraternities and sororities at the University of Minnesota

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The number of Fraternities and Sororities at the University of Minnesota is extensive. Counting past and present, more than half of its 200 organizations remain active today, the pioneers of which have had a presence on the University of Minnesota campus for over 140 years. The University's "Greek System" includes Professional Fraternities, Honor Societies, Service Fraternities, and Religious Fraternities along with the highly visible residential undergrad Academic and Social chapters.

Segmented by category, a comprehensive list of chapters follows this brief overview of what these societies are, and how they evolved.

The terms "Fraternity" and "Sorority" are used somewhat interchangeably, with men's and co-ed groups always using Fraternity, and women's groups using either Fraternity or Sorority.[1] For convenience, the term "Greek Letter Society" is a generic substitute. The word, "Greek," in this case refers to the use of Greek Letters for each society's name, and not to Greek ethnicity.

Historical Sketch[edit]

Editors of the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook created iconic etchings to highlight fraternity and sorority pages, this example from 1922.

The University of Minnesota Greek system is over 140 years old, having grown steadily with the rapid growth of the University. Its first men's fraternity, Chi Psi, dates to 1874, and its first women's fraternity, Kappa Kappa Gamma, dates to 1880, long before the term 'sorority' was popularized as a term for the women's 'houses'.

Yet these pioneers did not themselves mark the beginnings of fraternal presence at the school. Many of Minnesota's early University presidents and department heads were fraternity men or women from 'back East,' having experienced undergraduate life in the flourishing literary societies and old line fraternities that in turn were born out of America's earliest institutions of higher learning. These include William Watts Folwell, the University's first president, who was a member of Alpha Delta Phi at Hobart College, Cyrus Northrop, who was an Alpha Sigma Phi at Yale,[2] Ada Comstock, Dean of Women, and a member of Delta Gamma at Minnesota, president George Vincent who was a member of Delta Kappa Epsilon at Yale, and president James Morrill who was also an Alpha Sigma Phi, at Ohio State.

Still, because Minnesota's is one of the oldest fraternity systems in the nation, many of the University's Greek chapters are consequently among the oldest of their respective organizations, and often have single-letter or first-series chapter names or designations. Similarly, the age, prestige, size and breadth of the University of Minnesota have resulted it its hosting many of the nation's honor and professional fraternities for most disciplines. As early as 1925, the Minnesota Gopher yearbook reported the presence of 25 national academic fraternities, 18 national academic sororities, and 33 national professional chapters on campus. Most of these, undergrad or professional, are (or were) residential.

Almost 90 years later, as of 2013, Minnesota hosts 38 academic fraternities, 20 academic sororities, 56 honors societies, 31 professional societies, and 2 service-focused chapters.[3]

Impact on Campus, and Population[edit]

Since inception, these organizations have delivered an outsized influence and benefit to the campus: A first indicator of this impact is the fact of hundreds of pages devoted to the myriad of Greek Letter organizations in each issue of the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook during its century-long publication run.[4] These organizations have served as a primary hub of the student experience at the University for their entire existence, for active members, regular guests and alumni.

The high water mark for Greek Life participation by percentage, indicated by review of senior photos and club membership, was in 1910 through 1920, when approximately 1/4 of undergraduates participated in one or more of the academic or professional societies.[5] The peak number of residential chapters came at approximately 75 in 1930.[6] While membership continued to expand into the 1930s, the membership percentage decreased as the Minnesota campus grew less residential. Through this period, interest in Greek chapter membership was not as strong among commuters, 'night class,' and non-traditional students. The Membership percentage of the overall undergraduate population reached a low point of 3% in the late 1960s. Later, an upturn resulted in a numeric peak that came during the early 1980s: In 1981 the Office of Fraternity and Sorority Life reported 3,100 net members, while 3,964 participated in 1984.[6]:33 In another downturn, participation hit a marked numeric low point in about 2005, but recovering to 1,795 active members in 2011, its population has continued increasing through to the present day. In mid-2014 participation included approximately 2,800 net undergraduate members reported in June 2014, which reflected about 8% of the undergraduate population and about 12% of 2013-14's incoming freshmen.[7][8] Fifty-three campus chapters are residential today.[9]

Building Fraternity Row[edit]

Minnesota's fraternities and sororities built up their housing prospects in three distinct phases, according to the 2003 Minneapolis Historical Commission Study.[6] Before 1900, most early chapters served their membership with rented private homes. Between 1900 and 1917, rentals gave way to properties built for the chapters, resulting in several iconic examples of Beaux Arts, Georgian and Classical styles. Finally, between 1921 and 1936, Minnesota's fraternity chapters engaged in that same popular building spree which was sweeping across other early private and land grant colleges and universities from New York to California. The result of this last phase was the often stately homes occupied by many Greek chapters today, upgrades from boarding house-style clapboard and stucco homes, to the many Fraternity Row mansions that are visible at Minnesota along University Avenue SE, on 4th and 5th Street SE, and the 10th Avenue "Sorority Row," all in Minneapolis. Similarly, the St. Paul campus is home to several stately chapter buildings, or chapterhouses, along Cleveland Avenue. It is a testament to the alumni of many of these chapters that their buildings survived, as so many were financed by the 1920s financial bubble, having endured weak membership eras during the Great Depression and then the twin turmoils of WWII and 1960s anti-establishment unrest. Past university yearbooks, now digitally available, often picture these buildings, some with addresses and photos or professionally crafted etchings. A final wave of chapter building, usually in the Modernist style, occurred during the period 1950 to 1973.[6]:17

Greek societies also provide a visible link with the past. Residential Greek chapters have been cited as architectural gems, "projecting a positive image through architecture, and setting an architectural standard for more than a century."[10] Important examples of period architecture include Tudor with half-timber, Georgian and Federal variants of the American Colonial style, Vienna secessionist, English Gothic, Elizabethan or Georgian, and more recently, International Modernist styles. While many of these buildings are significant, enough to warrant the City of Minneapolis declaring the area a Greek Letter Chapter House Historical District in 2003, a few examples should be noted:

  • Phi Gamma Delta (FIJI) was one of the earliest built Row mansions, exhibiting the Vienna secessionist style, an offshoot of the Arts and Crafts movement.[11]
  • Gamma Eta Gamma (ΓΗΓ) law fraternity is a smaller example of Richardsonian Revival, perhaps with Queen Anne elements.
  • Theta Tau (ΘΤ), an engineering fraternity, is an example of the International Modernist style.
  • Chi Psi (ΧΨ) is an exceptional variant of an English Tudor country house, "built to convey masculine dignity and prestige."
  • Phi Sigma Kappa (ΦΣΚ) is an Elizabethan-revival "romantic-era masterpiece."
  • Sigma Phi Epsilon (ΣΦΕ), built by B.O. Cutter and restored by the fraternity, this "gingerbread" home is a showcase of the Carpenter Gothic revival style.
  • Phi Kappa Psi (ΦΚΨ) combines elements of Georgian and Greek revival styles.
  • Kappa Kappa Gamma (ΚΚΓ) offers a "dramatic and striking" mix of the English Tudor style, influenced by the Arts and Crafts movement popular at the time of its construction."[10]

These and many other Minnesota chapterhouses exhibit exceptional elements of their architectural styles. The owners, often the same entities that built these homes, have maintained them in spite of age, sometimes hard use and the financial strain of student organizations that can ebb and flow in popularity. Addresses may be found in the footnotes for these chapters, where they are listed below. Most style descriptions courtesy of the referenced Architecture Minnesota article.[10]

Constrained somewhat by busy University Avenue and 4th Street, expansion of Greek housing has been discussed at several points. The Zellie study, cited among the references, notes that there had been planned a "Fraternity Court" in the early 1920s.[6]:28 This stately road was to have been on the site where Williams Arena was later built, to host a number of new buildings between 19th Avenue and Oak Street. This plan conflicted with the University's own development plan for the basketball arena though, and the Fraternity Court was not built, with the exception of the ΑΧΡ house, that eventually became ΧΦ, and today, is ΚΣ. In the 1960s, an early phase plan for a fraternity housing area on the river flats below the Washington Avenue Bridge was discussed. This plan did not materialize beyond the discussion stage. More recently, Community Student Housing Inc. (CSHI), a consortium of several fraternities, has discussed building shared dormitory space and new house fronts between University and 4th Street.[12]

Loss of original or long-term Greek properties[edit]

Late 1950s construction of highway 35W resulted in condemnation of multiple fraternity homes bordering what was 9th Avenue SE, many of which were sororities or professional fraternities.[13] In Stadium Village, several stately houses along Washington Avenue SE were lost to commercial development. More recently, restrictive zoning has both helped and harmed chapters, where economics of scale no longer allow viability without remodeling, expansion or additional parking.[14] Some chapters celebrate their buildings' local historic zone status,[15] which has slowed the pace of demolition, while others see this as a cost burden.[16] Nevertheless, some chapter buildings have been lost to multi-unit development, or have been sold to non-Greek buyers. A few examples of still-existing former Greek properties should be noted. Market forces may allow some of these to become available to Greek ownership again:

  • Delta Delta Delta (ΔΔΔ) sorority built the structure at 316 10th Avenue SE in 1917, owning it until at least 2004. The building is now occupied by Luther House, a Christian service group affiliated with the Lutheran Church, Missouri Synod.
  • Theta Chi (ΘΧ) fraternity built the structure at 315 16th Avenue SE in 1930, owning it until at least 2000, and which was later purchased by a private party. It was renovated as a coffee house and boarding house and is leased by Kappa Pi Alpha (ΚΠΑ) Christian fraternity.
  • Psi Upsilon (ΨΥ) fraternity built the structure at 1721 University Avenue SE, owning it from 1908 to 1941. The Student Co-op was established during WWII and has been resident in that property ever since.
  • Tau Kappa Epsilon (ΤΚΕ) fraternity built the structure at 1901 University Avenue SE, owning it from 1925 to 1938. In 1982 it was purchased by the YMCA, who sold it to the University in 2000.[17]
  • Chi Omega (ΧΩ) sorority was a long-term owner of the structure at 315 Tenth Avenue SE, owning it from 1928 until at least 1989. Originally built by Zeta Psi (ΖΨ) fraternity, the structure is now owned by the Maranatha Church.
  • Acacia fraternity owned 1206 Fifth Street SE from 1915 until at least 1955. It had been occupied and then owned by the Heart of the Earth survival school, associated with the American Indian Movement, since 1980. In 2013 the building was purchased by a private developer for residential housing.[18]
  • Kappa Delta (ΚΔ) sorority owned 1025 6th Street SE for almost 50 years, a property now rented out for general student housing.
  • Alpha Delta Pi (ΑΔΠ) sorority built 1000 5th Street SE in 1952, occupying it until their closure in 1987. The building was sold to the Unification Church (the "Moonies").
  • Kappa Sigma (ΚΣ) fraternity lived at 1125 5th Street SE for over 75 years, moving in 2002. Their former building is now a day care.
  • Alpha Xi Delta (ΑΞΔ) sorority owned 1115 5th Street SE for almost 40 years. It later was occupied by Sigma Phi Epsilon fraternity, and was sold to a private owner to become a Bed & breakfast.

These are examples. Other significant properties along University Avenue, Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Streets SE, and the adjacent avenues were once home to Greek chapters and are now in private hands. A search of this page lists addresses where chapters once existed.

Future Housing Prospects[edit]

The need to improve and expand Greek chapter housing is a priority for the Greek Society.[8]:70 A 2012 University task force report showed that one of the biggest challenges faced by the present Greek System is the occasionally degraded state of chapter buildings.[8]:78–81 Owned privately by not-for-profit alumni associations, some of these show signs of deferred maintenance. Several recent remodeling and renovation programs have allowed significant improvement to some chapters, including recent full renovations by Chi Psi, Gamma Phi Beta, Kappa Alpha Theta, Phi Sigma Kappa, and Alpha Gamma Rho.[which?] Lack of housing for growing groups is also a problem[by whom?], only partially remedied by the opening of the new (2013) 17th Avenue Freshman Dorm. This project has allowed two ground level rental suites along University Avenue for chapters new to campus, intended to serve as a long-term incubator.[7]

For a more extensive review of Greek Row buildings, past and present, see the University of Minnesota Greek Letter Chapter House Designation Study, as prepared for the Minneapolis Heritage Preservation Commission in 2003.[6][19]

Greek Chapter Oversight[edit]

Individual chapters are managed by elected officers. Incorporated alumni groups own the residential chapter buildings where they exist, serving in the role of property manager. Additional local alumni oversight varies by chapter. National organizations provide organizational and operational guidance, extending to disciplinary action where warranted. In partnership with national organizations, University oversight of the Academic and Social chapters is managed on a day-to-day basis by the Office for Fraternity and Sorority Life, a unit of the Office for Student Affairs.

Professional and Honor societies are coordinated at a lower level of administrative involvement by the various academic departments within the University and its several colleges, and of these, some operate merely cooperatively, with no involvement from the University at all.

Since gaining its first chapter in 1874, Minnesota administrators have maintained an open, if not always supportive relationship with its chapters[citation needed]. An impulse to exert administrative management on these highly visible registered student organizations has at times been offset by interest in limiting liability exposure where it could be claimed that the administration was responsible but did not do enough to prevent an unsafe or illegal occurrence. Minnesota's Greek System has, on balance, avoided the frequency of harmful events, as have occurred at other large schools; this primarily as the result of self-policing.[7][20] The original, more active relationship between the Greeks and the Administration had been marginalized somewhat after the turbulent late 1960s and during the lassaiz-faire commuter-student years of 1970-1990. This coincided with national scrutiny and bad publicity over hazing events elsewhere in the US. With the return to a more residential campus, both the Minnesota Greek System and its relationship with the University are thriving: An estimated 2,800 Greeks on campus participate in 58 separate undergraduate Academic and Social chapters.[7] In addition, Professional and honor societies, many accepting undergraduates, number more than 80. Because of this and other factors, the University is again improving its relationship with the Greek Community:

"In March 2012, President Kaler announced the formation of a Greek Community Strategic Task Force (GCSTF) and issued a Charge to the GCSTF Steering Committee which emphasized the need to develop a “sustainable and robust relationship between the University and the Greek community.” [8]

Criticism[edit]

Over the decades, Minnesota's Greek system, like others nationwide, has had its detractors. Most notably in the late 1960s, anti-establishment agitation resulted in decreased interest and participation. This negative environment abated with the end of the Vietnam War. While membership again surged beginning in the late 1970s, the campus population was swelling even faster. While hitting numeric highs, Greeks at Minnesota thus never achieved the pre-Vietnam era participation level as a percentage of the campus. For some, Greeks were "too exclusive." Commuting students may have had little occasion to socialize with them on the largely non-residential campus. Some students chafed at overt culture differences where Prep-era Greek men would wear blazers and ties to Monday meetings. Occasional surveys of detractors would declare a perception that membership was akin to buying friends.[21] For others, it was simply a monitory concern, with a reluctance to include fraternity or sorority dues into a tight college budget.[21] The hugely popular movie, "Animal House" also branded for a generation the image of a lethargic, disruptive and academically inferior "frat boy" on the national consciousness.[22]

Nationally reported hazing incidents on other campuses, and highly publicized reports of underage drinking and sexual assaults, while not limited to the Greek system, nevertheless have resulted in a segment of students that are decidedly anti-Greek or reluctant to participate in its activities.[citation needed]

Response to Criticism[edit]

Fixing Problems[edit]

Greek organizations both nationally and locally sponsor many risk avoidance programs for the real benefits of student safety and well-being, as well as to avoid harmful bad publicity. Hence, these organizations have learned to address criticism quickly: Chapters and national bodies have adopted extensive changes to reduce incidents of hazing and other harmful behaviors. The recent announcement by Sigma Alpha Epsilon to ban "pledging" nationwide is only the latest of such announcements, of revised prospective member programs now adopted by many fraternities.[23] While not limited to fraternities and sororities, harmful activities like underage drinking and hazing are often headlined as local news stories, with fraternity chapters as the most visible examples.[24] In this area too, active and alumni Greek leaders have responded to such negative publicity and the resulting criticism with programs that seek to reduce alcohol abuse and eliminate underage or binge drinking, with risk management training, by self-policing their own chapters, and with more stringent procedures to discipline offenders. All sororities and some fraternity chapters have banned alcohol in their living facilities. National fraternities, through the NIC and sororities through their national and local governing boards require member training each year to combat hazing, underage drinking, sexual assault and other harmful behaviors.[25] Hence, individual chapters are not alone in addressing these problems. Inter-chapter governing boards at Minnesota (listed below by chapter groupings) provide event monitoring services and local risk management training, culminating in the introduction in 2012 of Arkeo, which serves as an inter-Greek cooperative monitoring program to help chapters avoid risk.[26][27]

One area of criticism that has gone silent is the mis-perception that Greek students' grades suffer.[citation needed] Rather, the contrary is true.[citation needed] Fraternity Men's grades nationally were cited in a 1986 study by the Center for the Study of the College Fraternity[unreliable source?] as trending above the men's average, with the women's groups trending even higher in comparison to their baseline. This trend has continued: A survey of both men's and women's grades over the past three years at Minnesota confirms the same result - Greeks perform academically better than their peer averages.[7][dubious ]

Keenly aware of the potential for bad press and liability, University administrators have used a variety of techniques to moderate negative behaviors. The Administration's more recent tighter relationship with the Greeks provides leverage to the small Office of Fraternity and Sorority Life, which sponsors a variety of programming designed to raise awareness and teach essential skills. Undergraduate members, alumni advisors, national fraternities and University administration regularly collaborate on the shared goal of reducing risks. Self-policing by peer moderators and the incorporation of live-in adult mentors have been important tools in addressing this goal.[7][20]

Response to Perceptions[edit]

As to the financial cost of participation, fraternity leaders note that the vast majority of Greek students work their way through school [according to whom?]. In fact, the Office of Fraternity and Sorority Life claims that the average cost burden for fraternity chapter membership adds 3% to a student budget. Services will vary, and some fraternities or sororities may be more expensive than others, as determined by the students themselves. Services offered will vary by chapter. Finally, additional scholarship funding is often available, sometimes covering far more than the cost of membership.[27]

Addressing the claim of exclusivity in recruitment materials, Greek leaders will accept that label as another way of saying they promote high standards[peacock term]. All fraternities are by definition self-selective. But, they clarify, so are all friendships. Further, they state, "U" students all have passed a bar of exclusivity by getting into the increasingly selective University itself. With an array of student groups numbering in the thousands, and a multitude of Greek chapter personalities, fraternity and sorority proponents are confident that all students who wish to join a Greek society can find one where they can flourish.[27] The matter of religious and race exclusivity appears to have passed several generations ago: While some chapters are historically black, Hispanic, or Asian-oriented, there is no race exclusivity or other discrimination exclusivity in any of Minnesota's chapters. All are integrated, and have been for some time. Minnesota was the second Big Ten school (after Wisconsin) to see its fraternities and sororities drop all bias clauses (race, color or creed) from their bylaws and policies. Older chapters have been integrated since the 1950s and 1960s[6] and the multi-cultural Greek chapters since their founding in more recent years.[28]

Benefits to Student and Campus[edit]

Greek society participation is strongly correlated with a more positive student experience.[peacock term] According to several studies since the 1990s, former Greeks have reported a substantially higher positive experience compared with the average student.[citation needed] Greeks at Minnesota graduate in less time and are more likely to graduate than the average student, and with a higher grade point average than the baseline.[29][dubious ] Recent national polling by Gallup attempts to confirm this idea, and offers a clear picture of the value Greek proponents claim from their experience: "...43% of fraternity and sorority members [nationally] who are employed full time for an employer are engaged in the workplace, compared to 38% of all other college graduates." [Gallup] also attributes that "fraternity and sorority members are more likely than all other college graduates to be thriving in each of the five elements of well-being [identified by the survey: (purpose, social, financial, community, and physical)]. More fraternity and sorority members (37%) from the Gallup sample agreed that their institution prepared them for life after college than all other college graduates (27%)." [30] In both Fall 2012 and Spring 2013, according to the Office for Fraternity and Sorority Life annual report.[7][29]

Minnesota's Fraternity and Sorority system is 140 years old.

This positive experience has resulted in more generous alumni.[citation needed] To this day, certain Greek alumni continue to contribute monetarily on a scale that dwarfs non-members: In the 1980s run-up to funding the Carlson School of Business, former Greek Curt Carlson discovered that he and fellow Greeks were responsible for what he estimated to be 67% of all donations received by the UM Foundation - this from a community whose undergraduate population had at the time been 3% of the school's population.[12][dubious ] More recently, the Greek-affiliated "Community Student Housing" consortium reported to the Board of Regents in May 2011, the Greeks are ...an alumni constituency that has contributed more than $100,000,000 to the University over the last decade. [12] CSHI was incorporated by several chapters to improve Greek Housing. While CSHI's proposed Greek Village development for the 1700 block of University Avenue was not adopted in 2011, in March 2012, University President Kaler followed up on his promise at that time with formation of a Greek Community Strategic Task Force (GCSTF), with the Charge to the group that "emphasized the need to develop a sustainable and robust relationship between the University and the Greek community.” He stated, "[The Greeks] get better grades, graduate sooner, and give more money to the University."[citation needed] Under his direction, the UM Foundation has been collecting data on Greek participation for all students, a data point that had been only sporadically kept prior to 2012.[8]

Academic and Social Fraternities and Sororities[edit]

For brevity, the sections below make extensive use of Greek letters, one of the first items in a new member's instruction program. Most fraternities use two or three Greek letters to signify their symbolic or secret names; a few use non Greek words. The main listing for each fraternity or sorority shows their full name at least once, with references and Wikilinks as available.

Fraternities Constituting the Interfraternity Council (IFC)[edit]

Listed with dates of local founding and national conference membership, these are men's organizations at the University of Minnesota, voluntarily coordinating their efforts within the campus IFC. While most IFC chapters are based in Minneapolis, several call St. Paul their home. After a period of level membership, for various reasons, fraternity membership is increasing rapidly. Average chapter size is 50, and several chapters exceed 100 men.

Fraternity buildings are generally owned by chapter alumni organizations. Some chapters are non-residential, while a few rent or lease space.

As part of IFC or national organization self-governance, or University disciplinary action, chapters may be suspended ("de-recognized") or closed for a time. When a chapter is closed and/or forfeits its housing, it will be listed as a dormant chapter. See the Office for Fraternity and Sorority Life (OFSL) for current recognized IFC members.
(NIC) indicates members of the North-American Interfraternity Conference.
(PFA) indicates members of the Professional Fraternity Association.

Active Academic and Social Fraternity Chapters at Minnesota

Chapters Whose Names Changed

Sororities etching, frontispiece for section in 1916 Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, p.305.jpg

Sororities Constituting the Panhellenic Council (PHC)[edit]

Listed with dates of local founding and national conference membership, these are women's organizations, voluntarily coordinating their efforts within the PHC. For convenience, the term "sorority" is used throughout, though some of these organizations are "women's Fraternities," and were so named prior to the popularization of the term, sorority. The terms are synonymous, After a period of level membership representing about 3% of campus women, for various reasons, sorority membership is increasing rapidly. Chapter size in almost all cases now exceeds 120 women.

Interest and recruitment is strong enough that, in 2013, the University of Minnesota was opened to PHC expansion for the first time in 30 years, and the resulting two colonization efforts (welcoming Chi Omega and Phi Mu) are now underway.

Sorority properties are generally owned by a chapter's alumni club, though some chapters do not have housing, and others rent or lease space. As part of PHC or national organization self-governance, or University disciplinary action, chapters may be suspended ("de-recognized") or closed for a time. If a chapter is closed and/or forfeits its housing, it will be listed as a dormant chapter. See the Office for Fraternity and Sorority Life (OFSL) for current PHA members and for expansion support.
(NPC) indicates members of the National Panhellenic Conference.

Active Academic and Social Sorority Chapters

Chapters Whose Name Changed

Multicultural (MGC) and National Pan-Hellenic Councils (NPHC)[edit]

Originally ethnic or language-affiliated, these organizations are now fully integrated - as are Minnesota's general Greek letter organizations. Their historical affiliation may be reviewed by reading their local or national histories. Some of the men's groups also participate in IFC events, and the women's groups in PHC events.

MGC and NPHC chapters are non-residential.

Listed with dates of local founding and national conference membership, these are either men's or women's organizations, voluntarily coordinating their efforts within the larger Multicultural Greek Council (MGC) and for some, in the National Pan-Hellenic Council (NPHC). See the Office for Fraternity and Sorority Life (OFSL) for current MGC and NPHC chapters.
(NALFO) indicates members of the National Association of Latino Fraternal Organizations;
(NAPA) indicates members of the National APIA Panhellenic Association;
(NPHC) indicates members of the National Pan-Hellenic Council.

Mens NPHC Chapters

Mens MGC Chapters

Women's NPHC Chapters

ΣΓΡ - Sigma Gamma Rho, 1970-19xx (NPHC), dormant [157]

Women's MGC Chapters

The inter-Greek councils often cooperate on programs and policies, as do individual chapters from among the several Greek councils.

Frontispiece from the 1922 Minnesota Gopher Yearbook introducing the year's list of Honors Societies.

Honor, Professional, Service and Recognition Societies[edit]

These organizations have a similarly long pedigree on the Minnesota campus. Historically, they are grouped with the undergraduate social fraternities because of their use of chapter and national organizational hierarchy, and their use of Greek Letters. Most are organized toward juniors and seniors, or graduate students. Social/academic fraternity or sorority membership is not a requirement for these groups. Individuals who meet the criteria may join or be asked to join, as may non-Greek students. Multiple affiliations may be allowable - see individual societies for details. Activity varies; some of the professional and service groups are residential, while the honors societies may meet only quarterly or annually, if at all. The cut-off line where any campus organization falls within these headings or without is long-established convention; those formed prior to 1990 are listed under the subheadings used by various volumes of the Baird's Manual of American College Fraternities, which for more than a century has been the data source of record for such organizations. Newer groups have been placed in categories similar to Baird's. The latest version of Baird's, 1991, was published before the national development of some of the societies here, and therefore, position and inclusion is, in some cases, assumptive.[41]

The Phi Beta Kappa Key. Minnesota's chapter was formed in 1892.

Honor and Recognition Societies[edit]

Honor societies recognize students who excel academically or as leaders among their peers, usually within a specific academic discipline. Because of the age, size and a leading reputation of the University, Minnesota hosts a very large set of these prestigious organizations. Members commonly include the society on their résumé/CV, which may serve to bolster grad school acceptance, publishing merit, and professional opportunities.

Listed by date of local founding with national conference membership, these are co-ed, non-residential, achievement-based organizations which self-select members based on published criteria.

At graduation, or at times of formal academic processionals, graduates, administrators, PhD holders and post-doctoral fellows wear academic robes in the colors of their degree, school and other distinction, according to a voluntary Intercollegiate Code that governs such regalia. In addition, various colored devices such as stoles, scarfs, cords, tassels, and medallions are used to indicate membership in a student's honor society;. cords and mortarboard tassels are most common. Phi Beta Kappa, the first honor society, locally founded at Minnesota in 1892, has used ‹See Tfm›     Pink and ‹See Tfm›     Sky blue since its national founding in 1776. Hence, students tapped for ΦΒΚ may wear tassels or other society-approved items, in these colors. Like most schools, the University of Minnesota allows such regalia for honor society members. Stoles are less common, but they are used by a few honor societies. In academic circles, colors are well-known, and follow long-standing protocols. The ACHS website lists the colors for their 68 member organizations, and the Honor society WP page lists others.

Multi-colored tassels, cords and stoles are noticeable over black graduation robes.

Many honor societies invite students to become members based on scholastic rank (the top x% of a class) and/or grade point, either overall, or for classes taken within the discipline for which the honor society provides recognition. In cases where academic achievement would not be an appropriate criterion for membership, other standards are required for membership (such as completion of a particular ceremony or training program). These societies recognize past achievement. Pledging is not required, and new candidates may be immediately inducted into membership after meeting predetermined academic criteria and paying a one-time membership fee. Some require graduate enrollment. Because of their purpose of recognition, most honor societies will have much higher academic achievement requirements for membership than professional societies. It is also common for a scholastic honor society to add a criterion relating to the character of the student. Some honor societies are invitation only while others allow unsolicited applications. Finally, membership in an honor society might be considered exclusive, i.e., a member of such an organization cannot join other honor societies representing the same field. Governance requires a faculty sponsor and each society remains faculty-guided, usually with alumni input.
(ACHS) indicates members of the Association of College Honor Societies.

Active Honor and Recognition Societies

Chapters Whose Name Changed

Professional Societies[edit]

Professional societies work to build friendship bonds among members, cultivate strengths whereby members may promote their profession, and provide mutual assistance in their shared areas of professional study.

Listed by date of local founding with national conference membership (if any), these are primarily co-ed organizations, showing an array of professional interests. Some are residential in a co-operative fashion and all offer a moderate amount of social programming. Membership in a professional fraternity may be gained by the result of a pledge process, much like a social fraternity, and members are expected to remain loyal and active in the organization for life. Within their professional field of study, membership is exclusive; for example, if one joins a law society they cannot join another law society. However, these societies do initiate members who belong to social or honors fraternities. Professional Societies are known for networking and post-collegiate involvement, and membership is often included with pride on a résumé/CV. Governance varies from faculty-managed to purely student run.
(PFA) indicates members of the Professional Fraternity Association.

Active Professional Societies

Chapters Whose Name Changed

Service Societies[edit]

Listed with dates of local founding and national conference membership, if any, these are/were non-residential organizations designed to provide campus and community service. These organizations are self-governed.

Active Service Societies

Dormant Service Societies

Cap and Gown, pre-1921-19xx, senior women's service organization, "to promote friendship and class loyalty among senior women," dormant [334]
Tam O'Shanter, pre-1921-19xx, junior women's service organization, "to promote a feeling of friendship between the members of the classes," dormant [335]
Pinafore, pre-1921-19xx, sophomore women's service organization, "for furthering class spirit and promoting Minnesota loyalty," dormant [336]
Bib and Tucker, pre-1921-19xx, freshman women's service organization, "to foster class acquaintanceship," dormant [336]
Tillikum Club, pre-1920-19xx, men's interfraternity service [337]
Triangle Club, pre-1920-19xx, men's interfraternity service [338]
Tau Shonka, pre-1921-19xx, men's interfraternity service [339]
ΑΦΧ - Alpha Phi Chi, 1931(earlier?)-195x, coordinated men's fraternal intramural sports, dormant [340]
ΠΦΧ - Pi Phi Chi, 19xx-1949+ (local), inter-fraternity service for professional fraternities, dormant [341]
ΓΣΣ - Gamma Sigma Sigma, 1957-1972+ women's service organization, dormant [342][343]

Religious Themed Fraternities and Sororities[edit]

Primarily active during the 1940s and 1950s, these groups were formed in response to student interest in Greek life for those who required a closer association with peers of the same faith tradition. Some were local organizations, some national. Some were residential, and all were co-ed unless noted. Note that some religious-themed and residential fraternities and sororities are listed under the Academic and Social groups by their choice. Many other religious-oriented groups on campus are NOT designed to resemble fraternities, and are not listed here. Groups are listed by date of local founding.

Active Religious Service Societies

Dormant Religious Service Societies

Menorah Society, 1903-19xx, Jewish Service, merged with Hillel Society [6]:A-3,4
Newman Club, 1903-1959+, Catholic co-ed service, dormant [346]
ΚΦ - Kappa Phi, 1919-1961+ (local?), Methodist women's service, dormant [347]
Wesley Foundation, 1920-19xx, Methodist co-ed service, dormant [348]
ΚΚΛ - Kappa Kappa Lambda, 1921-1966+ (local), Lutheran (~ELCA) women's service, dormant [349]
ΦΧΔ - Phi Chi Delta, 1930-19xx (local?), Presbyterian and Congregational women's service, dormant [350]
Canterbury Club, 19xx-1959+, (local?), Episcopal co-ed service, dormant [351]
ΓΔ - Gamma Delta, 1934-1969, Lutheran (Missouri Synod) service; today, see University Lutheran Chapel and Luther House [352]
ΔΚΦ - Delta Kappa Phi, 1942-1961+ (local), Lutheran (~ELCA) men's service, residential for a short time, dormant [353]

Other Student Organizations[edit]

The 2013-2014 University of Minnesota Student Group search page included over 1,100 unique organizations. Major groupings include Greek-affiliation societies as listed on this page, which are further subdivided into academic/social, honors, professional societies, service groups, or recognition groups.

References[edit]

For active groups, stable chapter website links have been referenced when available. Alternatively, either a national website or the group's University of Minnesota portal has been noted, which, in turn, may provide contact information and/or a link to a current organization website as reported annually at the time of the group's registration. Student groups are required to register each year, making the University of Minnesota portal page a convenient place to find up-to-date contact information.
Where an address is noted these are from (A) Minnesota Gopher yearbooks dated 1888-1967, (B) chapter websites, (C) national organization websites, or (D) the Zellie Fraternity Row study for the City of Minneapolis Historical Preservation Commission, cited below.

  1. ^ a b There is one exception to this usage rule, where normally, men's and co-ed groups call themselves "fraternities." The music sorority Tau Beta Sigma is co-educational and its male and female members are members of the sorority.
  2. ^ Contrary to persistent but understandable misinformation, President Northrop was NOT an Alpha Delt, but an Alpha Sig. Rather, it was Northrop's son, Cyrus JUNIOR who was a member of Alpha Delta Phi, this time at the Minnesota chapter. See ΑΔΦ's national history, p.392. Accessed 11 June 2014
  3. ^ University of Minnesota, List of student organizations.
  4. ^ The yearbook ended annual full-format publication in 1966. After a long hiatus with a couple of false starts, a revived full-format version is planned for 2015, to be published by Jostens. Link accessed 28 May 2014
  5. ^ See any Minnesota Gopher Yearbook during this decade, which list the names of senior class members and the clubs to which they belonged.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i Carole Zellie (2003). "University of Minnesota Greek Letter Chapter House Designation Study, prepared for the Minneapolis Heritage Preservation Commission". Author's firm: Landscape Research, St. Paul, MN. pp. 3–4 of 180, and cited throughout by Appendix chapter entry. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g The University of Minnesota / Office for Fraternity and Sorority Life annual report, accessed 27 May 2014
  8. ^ a b c d e f g Greek Community Strategic Task Force Report, 16 December 2012, accessed 9 June 2014.
  9. ^ This number includes both Minneapolis and St. Paul collegiate chapter housing, counting residential Academic and Social fraternities and sororities, the Evans Scholars honor society, residential Professional societies and ΚΠΑ religious service society. Several chapters maintain two buildings.
  10. ^ a b c Bruce N. Wright (November–December 1994). Eric Kudalis, ed. "School Days". Architecture Minnesota: 24–27. 
  11. ^ a b FIJI maintains a policy for its members that severely limits display of its Greek letters to a handful of approved usages, such as their official ring, chapter plaques and memorial markers. When originally written, this article omitted FIJI's Greek letters, in respect for that tradition. However, another editor adamantly pressed that Wikipedia is not bound by that rule, and for consistency with other pages has adjusted the entry to use Greek letters.
  12. ^ a b c Greek Village Summary Presentation, by CSHI (Community Student Housing, Inc.), as presented to the Board of Regents at their May 2011 meeting. David Salene, author
  13. ^ Highway 35W itself now follows the exact path of what was 9th Avenue SE through this neighborhood. It had run where the median between the north and southbound sides of the highway run today, from roughly 2nd Street SE to 8th Street SE, having absorbed the higher numbered portion of the 800 blocks of the streets crossing it, and the lower numbered addresses on the 900 blocks of these streets. For example, the previous building that stands where now ΑΧΩ is situated, at 915 University Ave. SE, once had a tennis court extending on its property exactly where the highway frontage road and entrance/exit ramps now run. Researchers can infer the original street grid and view how the highway was situated with a Google maps search.
  14. ^ Lack of parking was an acute problem for students of earlier decades, regularly cited as a leading complaint in student surveys. The University is more residential today, and its remaining commuters increasingly use mass transit, whereas earlier generations of commuters relied on automobiles at a higher percentage. This follows a generational trend according to USPIRG, in an article accessed 8 May 2015.
  15. ^ For example, FIJI's acceptance of U.S. National Register of Historic Places status.
  16. ^ Extensive testimony on this subject was provided pursuant to the creation in October 2003 of the University of Minnesota Greek Letter Chapter House Historic District, in public meetings of the Heritage Preservation Commission and the Minneapolis City Council between May–October 2003.
  17. ^ In 2000 the "Y" moved just down the street to 1801 University, after completion of a new building that replaced a large clapboard home there. This property, too, represented a loss to Greek housing, as the former building had been the Pi Kappa Alpha (ΠΚΑ) annex, and which was sold after a short term cessation of their operations in the late 1990s. 1901 University today houses the departments of Global Programs, the Minnesota International Center, and the School of Kinesiology, according to YMCA history and the University directory, accessed 17 March 2015
  18. ^ Restored in 2014, developer Roman Gadaskin renovated this building and the adjacent Hoy Building into multiunit housing for a total of 23 bedrooms, according to City planning minutes, accessed 15 March 2015.
  19. ^ City of Minneapolis Historic District web link, accessed 26 June 2014
  20. ^ a b Hank Nuwer's list of global hazing incidents does not show Minnesota among its extensive list of 'troubled' schools, accessed 27 May 2014
  21. ^ a b Greek Action Committee Recruitment survey, 1984, IFC archives, accessed 16 June 2014
  22. ^ "Animal House" - Hugely popular, this movie was a National Lampoon parody of writer Chris Miller's experiences at 1960s-era Dartmouth. at the Internet Movie Database
  23. ^ Sigma Alpha Epsilon Bans Pledging Nationwide In Effort To Stop Hazing, as reported by the Huffington Post's Tyler Kingkade on 11 March 2014, accessed 11 June 2014
  24. ^ Studies show that underage and binge drinking are more prevalent nationally among student athletes, Greek system members, and organization members, with the most significant grouping less affected by the problem being commuter students that live at home. See the Center for Science in the Public Interest: fact sheet, accessed 2 July 2014 and the Association of College Unions International, and their 2012 analysis by Elizabeth Atwood, accessed 2 July 2014, for further reference.
  25. ^ NIC Standards statement, accessed 12 June 2014.
  26. ^ State of the Greek Community, 2013 Report, accessed 11 June 2014
  27. ^ a b c Office for Fraternity and Sorority Life risk management statement on "Defying the Stereotypes", accessed 12 June 2014
  28. ^ The University Department of Equal Opportunity requires all members of University communities to adhere to this standard, but has not seen a need for intervention in Minnesota's fully integrated community of Greek chapters. Accessed 11 June 2014
  29. ^ a b Harrold, R., et. al. 'The Greek Experience: A Study of Fraternities and Sororities at the University of Minnesota. Minneapolis, MN: Student Organization Development Center, 1987
  30. ^ Gallup 2013 study, Fraternities and Sororities: Understanding Life's Outcomes, accessed 28 May 2014
  31. ^ ΧΨ's Alpha Nu chapter, accessed 19 May 2014. Address in 1883: 1515 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN, through present day. Three ΧΨ houses - which the Fraternity calls "Lodges" - have been on this same lot, the second built in 1902 and the latest built in 1930.
  32. ^ ΦΔΘ's Minnesota Alpha Chapter website, accessed 22 May 2014. Phi Delt alumni page says they resided at 1018 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN in 1903, which could have continued to no later than 1912, due to ΑΤΩ's tenancy, and then ΦΣΚ's purchase of the property in 1915. Zellie study says chapter resided at 423 E. Beacon Street sometime prior to 1912. Address in 1912: 1027 University Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN. (Note, 1931 Yearbook shows an address shift to 1029 University Ave. SE, which ΦΔΘ built in 1930, but today the building is at 1027 University SE) See also Phi Delt alumni page, accessed 1 July 2014. Address in the early 1940s: 925 6th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Another address in the 1940s(dates?): 422 10th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1950-1991: 1011 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN, which they built, a building now razed. Address in 1991-1994: 400 10th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN, which they renovated. Address in 2013: 319 12th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN, through present day.
  33. ^ a b Since 2002, not a member of the NIC
  34. ^ ΔΤΔ's Beta Eta Chapter University of Minnesota portal, accessed 22 May 2014. Address in 1914: 1009 University Ave. SE, address by 1922: 1717 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN, through present day. (Zellie notes this building was erected in 1921.)
  35. ^ ΦΚΨ's Minnesota Beta Chapter University of Minnesota portal, accessed 22 May 2014. Address in 1900: 303 Washington Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1907: 1609 University Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN, through present day.
  36. ^ ΣΧ's Alpha Sigma Chapter website, accessed 22 May 2014. Address in 1914: 1103 4th St., Minneapolis, MN. Address by 1926 and rebuilding on the same site in 1927: 1623 University Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN, through present day. Added adjacent 1617 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN about 1994.
  37. ^ ΒΘΠ's Beta Pi Chapter, accessed 19 May 2014. Address in 1900: 1625 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN, through present day, razed and rebuilt on site in 1928.
  38. ^ ΔΚΕ's University of Minnesota portal, accessed 21 May 2014. Address in 1906: 1711 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN, through present day, with the current building completed in 1930.
  39. ^ ΔΥ's Minnesota Chapter, accessed 21 May 2014. Address prior to 1913: 400 Washington Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1913: 921 University Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN (presently the south side of ΓΦΒ's building), which it sold in 1967. Address in 1967-1986: 1112 6th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address at recolonization in 1991: 1725 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN (Alpha Delta Phi's house). Addresses in 2003: both 812 7th Street SE and 1019 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 2013: 1027 University Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN, (originally built by ΦΔΘ), through present day.
  40. ^ Fiji's Mu Sigma Chapter website, accessed 22 May 2014. Address by 1892: 619 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1908-1911: 1212 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1911: 1129 University Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN, through present day.
  41. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah Anson, Jack L.; Marchenasi, Robert F., eds. (1991) [1879]. Baird's Manual of American Fraternities (20th ed.). Indianapolis, IN: Baird's Manual Foundation, Inc. pp. II–115. ISBN 978-0963715906. 
  42. ^ ΑΔΦ Minnesota Chapter website, accessed 19 May 2014. Address in 1900: 1214 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address by 1910: 1725 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN. May have lived briefly at 1128 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN (need confirmation ?) while current home was constructed in 1924. Razed and then built on the same site at 1725 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN in 1924, through present day.
  43. ^ ΔΧ's Minnesota chapter portal, accessed 20 May 2014. Address in 1914: 1108 4th Street, SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1926: 1601 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN, which it remodeled extensively in 1922, through present day.
  44. ^ ΚΣ's Beta Mu Chapter University of Minnesota portal, accessed 21 May 2014. Address in 1910-1920: 1107 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. 1928 address: 1125 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1930: 1018 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN.(Zellie, p. A-58) Address in 1931: 307 16th Avenue SE, while building on the 1125 5th site. Moved back to 1125 5th Street SE in 1933. Moved to 315 19th Avenue SE in 2002.
  45. ^ ΑΤΩ's national website, listing Gamma Nu Chapter, accessed 19 May 2014. Address in 1914: 1018 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 19xx: 1201 5th Street SE. Address in 1924-1925: 406 11th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN (a former ΠΒΦ house, Zellie notes, p.A-116, that this was during construction of their home at 1821 University Ave.), but this seems early. Address in 1927?: 1821 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN, through present day.
  46. ^ ΣΑΕ's Minnesota Alpha Chapter website, accessed 22 May 2014. Address in 1909-1928: 1121 University Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN (which later housed ΦΜ and then ΣΔΤ). In 1929 they moved to 1805 University Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN for a year, while building 1815 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN, residing there through the present day. (Zellie has them moving in in 1929, check which is correct)
  47. ^ ΣΝ's Gamma Tau Chapter University of Minnesota portal, accessed 22 May 2014. Address in 1912: 915 University Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN. May have stayed 1 year at 922 University while new home was built. Moved to 307 16th Avenue SE in 1931.
  48. ^ ΦΣΚ's Beta Deuteron Chapter University of Minnesota portal, accessed 22 May 2014
  49. ^ Predecessor group, the FLX Club had three successive rental properties in Dinkytown and on the site of the Fieldhouse. Address in 1910: 1800 University Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN (where the Fieldhouse stands). Address in 1911-1915: 820 University Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address from 1916-1928: 1018 University Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN. In 1928, built 317 18th Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN, where they reside today.
  50. ^ Frank Prentice Rand (1923). Phi Sigma Kappa: A History 1873 - 1923 (PDF). Northampton, Massachusetts: The Council of Phi Sigma Kappa, via The Kingsbury Print. 
  51. ^ ΑΦΑ's University of Minnesota website link, accessed 19 May 2014. Non-residential.
  52. ^ ΣΑΜ's Mu Chapter University of Minnesota portal, accessed 19 May 2014. Address in 1925: 410 11th Avenue SE. Address in 1926: 702 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1927: 1529 University Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address from 1928-1965 (sold in 1962, leased back for three years), 915 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN (from Sigma Nu, and eventually sold to ΑΧΩ); later, part of this property was taken for highway egress. Address from 1965-1977: 311 11th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN (former ΑΓΔ house) Address in 1977: 928 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN, through present day.
  53. ^ ΦΚΣ's Alpha Sigma Chapter University of Minnesota portal, accessed 19 May 2014. Predecessor group dates to 1915, while ΦΚΣ makes first Gopher appearance in 1917. Address in 1925: 1214 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1927: 1813 University Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN, built by the fraternity, until closing in 1943. Address in 2013: 1099 Hyacinth Ave. E., St. Paul, MN, through present day.
  54. ^ ΑΣΦ's Rho Chapter University of Minnesota portal, accessed 20 May 2014. Address from 1916-1921: 1103 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address from 1921-1935: 925 6th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN (a home originally built for Earl Browne, then owned by John Martin, purchased by ΑΣΦ in 1921, and now home to ΤΚΕ). The University lists no current address for this colony as of 4 June 2014.
  55. ^ ΣΦΕ's Minnesota Alpha Chapter website, accessed 22 May 2014. Address by 1920: 1009 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1927: 703 4th Street SE. By 1928 they'd moved to: 1617 University Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN (Zellie notes this was built for them in 1926). The chapter lost this house in 1934, moving to 420 Oak Street SE and closing in 1941. Address from 1978-1994: 1115 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN (now the Wales House B&B, it had for a long time been Alpha Xi Delta). Address in 1994: 400 10th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN, through present day.
  56. ^ ΑΓΡ's Lambda Chapter website, accessed 19 May 2014. Address by 1926: 1485 Cleveland Ave No, St. Paul, MN. Address in 19xx: 2060 Carter Ave., St. Paul, MN, through present day.
  57. ^ ΤΚΕ's Theta Chapter University of Minnesota portal, accessed 22 May 2014. Address in 1924: 1115 4th Street SE. Address from 1925-1938?: 1901 University Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN, (now the YMCA). Address in 1939: 1410 7th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1961: 314 10th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in the 1980s: 1103 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN (per Zellie, p.A-77). Address in 2003: 1829 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 2008?: 925 6th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN, through present day. Previously housing several fraternities, this home was originally built for Earle Brown, then owned by John Martin.
  58. ^ ΠΚΑ'a Beta Chi Chapter University of Minnesota portal, accessed 22 May 2014. Address from 1925: 1103 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address from 1927-1936: 1214 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address at 1986 re-colonization, 1813 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN, a building they maintained until the 2006 recolonization through today. They'd also controlled 1801 University until 2000, but sold that building, which has since been razed and rebuilt as a YMCA.
  59. ^ Triangle's Minnesota Chapter University of Minnesota portal, accessed 22 May 2014. Address by 1926: 1227 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. The Fraternity has two addresses, which may date from 1970, or earlier: 521 12th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN (former ΣΚ sorority house) and 1112 6th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN, through the present day. (Zellie has a typo, stating 541 12th. Previous occupants of 1112 6th include ΔΖ, ΖΤΑ, ΦΜ, and ΔΥ, see Zellie p.A-97)
  60. ^ ΘΧ's Alpha Pi Chapter University of Minnesota portal, accessed 22 May 2014. Address in 1926(prior?)-1930: 1029 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1930-2000: 315 16th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 2013, 326 17th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN
  61. ^ FarmHouse's Minnesota Chapter website, accessed 21 May 2014. The 1966 Minnesota Gopher Yearbook mentions a new home built for the fraternity in 1962. Address in 2013: 1505 Cleveland Ave. N., St. Paul, MN
  62. ^ ΑΕΠ's Mu Upsilon Chapter website, accessed 19 May 2014. Address in 1949-1973(?): 1704 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 2013: 1100 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN.
  63. ^ a b c d e Sanua, Marianne R. (2003). Rischen, Moses; Sarna, Jonathan D., eds. Going Greek: Jewish College Fraternities in the United States 1895-1945. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press. p. 335. ISBN 0-8143-2857-1. 
  64. ^ ΣΠ's Iota-Zeta Chapter University of Minnesota portal, accessed 22 May 2014. Address in 2008: 1829 University Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN, through present day.
  65. ^ Noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook 1892, p.85, that "Theta Phi became the Mu chapter of Psi Upsilon on Friday, May 22, 1891", and the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook 1893, p.145, shows former ΘΦ members now as part of ΨΥ.
  66. ^ Noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook 1924, p.487, and on ΘΧ's Alpha Pi Chapter website, accessed 3 June 2014. Address in 1914: 1027 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN
  67. ^ a b Zeta Psi Fraternity of North America, a history, pp.887-888, accessed 11 June 2014
  68. ^ Beta Deuteron Chapter archives item: A Brief History of Beta Deuteron of Phi Sigma Kappa." FLX resided in three successive rented quarters in what became Dinkytown and on the site of the Fieldhouse, culminating at 820 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN, a year after chartering as Phi Sigma Kappa.
  69. ^ Address in 1914: 703 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN
  70. ^ Address in 1914: 1300 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN
  71. ^ ΞΨΘ is noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook of 1924. 1923 address: 1306 7th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. The 1925 Gopher shows several former ΞΨΦ men from the 1924 yearbook continuing as members of ΦΕΠ.
  72. ^ The ΑΣΦ national website notes that the Omar Club briefly changed its name to Alpha Theta Psi, prior to emerging as a chapter of Alpha Sigma Phi. There is no corroborating yearbook notation to show either predecessor group.
  73. ^ Address in 1915: 1214 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. While ΦΚΣ claims founding in 1915, this was the date of the predecessor group. ΦΚΣ makes first appearance, supplanting ΑΚΦ in 1917 Gopher.
  74. ^ ΧΔΞ's predecessor group was Svithiod, also listed here. That group adopted the new name in 1921. 1925 address: 1110 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN
  75. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1925, p.469, shows Sphinx at 1116 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN
  76. ^ This was the Minnesota Alpha Chapter of ΘΚΝ, address from about 1929-1933 was 1100 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Soon after this chapter closed, its national merged with ΛΧΑ (Lambda Chi Alpha), which was itself a new neighboring fraternity on campus.
  77. ^ All chapters of ΦΕΠ, including Minnesota's Alpha Delta Chapter were absorbed into ΖΒΤ in 1970, though the Minnesota chapter did not survive. Address in 1927: 311 Union Street, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1928: 309 17th Avenue SE, (later a church behind ΒΘΠ, and then razed for a housing development). Address in 1930: 1018 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN, which it leased or bought from ΦΣΚ. Address in 1940: 1901 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN (former TKE house - See Zellie, pA-39).
  78. ^ University Real Estate office report, shows purchase of at least one ΦΕΠ property, ID 25-029-024-11, in 1971, accessed 26 May 2014
  79. ^ a b ΠΛΦ's Rho Chapter is listed as dormant on the national website. For its entire life, this chapter had been the Alpha Alpha Chapter of ΦΒΔ, which merged into ΠΛΦ in 1941, a decade after Alpha Alpha's demise.
  80. ^ Address in 1927: 1321 6th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1928: 1308 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1931: 1309 7th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN
  81. ^ Address in 1959: 525 10th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN. The Minnesota Gopher Yearbook 1959, p.280, notes a pending merger with Theta Kappa Phi, to form Phi Kappa Theta. The resulting chapter was the Minnesota Alpha Epsilon Chapter of ΦΚΘ. Lived in several rental properties.
  82. ^ ΨΥ's national website, listing Minnesota's Mu Chapter, accessed 22 May 2014. Address in 1908-1941: 1721 University Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN, now the Student Co-op, which it had built. Bought 1617 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN from ΧΦ in 1941 (who'd themselves acquired it from ΣΦΕ after 1934), until ΨΥ closed in 1993.
  83. ^ ΘΔΧ's Tau Deuteron Chapter 1911 address: 1521 University Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN (now Hillel house lot). Moved to 400 10th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN in 1949, residing there until 1984.
  84. ^ According to the Theta Nu Epsilon website, accessed 6 December 2014, the Minnesota chapter of this fraternity was the Alpha Epsilon Chapter which died in 1900. However, the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook 1895, p.163, notes rather the name Tau Chapter of ΘΝΕ as having chartered at Minnesota in 1893. This incorrect name was a deliberate error. According to the ΘΝΕ website, the Tau designation was "fancied by the chapter," and Chi was also considered, before Alpha Epsilon was allowed. ΘΝΕ's Wikipedia page notes (without clear citation) possible activity at Minnesota as late as 1934, which the lack of a Gopher record shows is unlikely.
  85. ^ Baird's and other sources note ΘΝΕ was an ill-favored national due to its recruitment of sophomores who were already members of other fraternities, and a policy of secrecy about the active members - those same sophomores tapped each year. It was NOT an honorary, nor a service society. (Freshmen were discluded, juniors and seniors were advisoral only.) Hence, ΘΝΕ became a bit of a pariah, and members were pressured to quit lest they be expelled from their primary fraternities at Minnesota (see ΦΣΚ Rand History); in 1913 the NIC advocated vigorously against its collegians joining ΘΝΕ. Struggling for a workable path to legitimacy, several varying models developed on ΘΝΕ's campuses, where some chapters became standard fraternities, and others public inter-fraternity groups. At Alabama it even became a political machine, while other chapters took yet other forms. Later, with adoption of changes, ΘΝΕ briefly joined the NIC in the 1930s, but ceased operations after WWII. Several chapters reformed the society as a smaller entity, some becoming co-ed in the 1970s. The fraternity reports a few chapters which remain active today. --All information compiled from Baird's 19th, from the cited ΘΝΕ website, and a note about Theta Nu Epsilon in ΦΣΚ's Rand History, in a reference cited under that fraternity, p190.
  86. ^ ΖΨ's Alpha Beta Chapter noted as closed in 2007, accessed 22 May 2014. Address in 19xx: 1029 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1914-1925?: 315 10th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN (later ΧΩ's building). In 1927-28 built: 1829 University Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN, which it owns (but leases to Sigma Pi) today.
  87. ^ Acacia national website, noting Minnesota Chapter (Hebrew: 'Kaph'), is dormant, accessed 22 May 2014. Address until 1915: 100 Beacon Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. 1915 address was the Richardsonian Romanesque Frey mansion at 1206 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN, residing there through 1955 (or as late as 1970?) (Zellie study says only 40 years). The chapter lived elsewhere thru the 1980s. Historical sketch of 1206 5th Street SE, and architectural renderings, accessed 7 June 2014
  88. ^ The building at 1206 5th Street SE, known as the Frey Mansion, was occupied and then owned by the Heart of the Earth survival school, associated with the American Indian Movement, from 1980 until 2013. In 2013 it was purchased by a private developer, Roman Gadaskin, who renovated it along with the adjacent Hoy Building into multiunit housing for a total of 23 bedrooms, according to City planning minutes. Accessed 15 March 2015.
  89. ^ The Greek Community Strategic Task Force Report, 16 December 2012, notes Acacia as closing in 1971, but this is an error, and doesn't match Baird's. Perhaps they shut down and recolonized at that time, but they remained viable as a chapter until closing in 1993. Accessed 9 June 2014
  90. ^ The Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1926, p.463 shows the Psi Chapter of ΘΞ at: 519 10th Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN. Also pictured in the 1965 yearbook.
  91. ^ Address in 1927: 322 18th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1928: 1320 7th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN
  92. ^ Address in 1926: 1312 7th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1928: 960 15th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN
  93. ^ Retained Sphinx' house after 1925 chartering, at: 1116 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address at re-colonization in 1947 involved a 3-way trade, leading to the Co-op at 1721 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN
  94. ^ Former address in 19xx: 1710 4th Street SE, (across from 17th Street Dorm). Address in 1929: 320 7th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1931, p.362, shows ΤΔΦ's Phi Chapter at 701 Washington Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN
  95. ^ ΧΦ's national magazine, Winter 2005, pp 47-48, shows dates of activity for Minnesota's Gamma Delta Chapter, accessed 22 May 2014. Address in 1929: 1110 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1936: 1617 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1941: 1313 6th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1949: 315 19th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN (the former ΑΡΧ architecture fraternity) until closing in 1990 or '94.
  96. ^ The Greek Community Strategic Task Force Report, 16 December 2012, notes ΧΦ as closing in 1994, but this doesn't match other sources, which cite 1990.
  97. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook 1959, p.280, notes pending merger of Phi Kappa and Theta Kappa Phi, to form Phi Kappa Theta. The resulting chapter was the Minnesota Alpha Epsilon Chapter of ΦΚΘ. Lived in several rental properties. Pre-merger, their address in 1959: 525 10th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN.
  98. ^ ΖΒΤ rented several properties prior to national merger with ΦΕΠ.
  99. ^ Pending recolonization in 2012?
  100. ^ Address from 1965-1976: 1103 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN.
  101. ^ ΔΣΦ at Minnesota rented several properties, didn't survive long. During the 1980s effort they rented 312 16th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN
  102. ^ The Greek Community Strategic Task Force Report, 16 December 2012, notes ΔΣΦ as closing in 1971, but this is inaccurate. They had a short term revival in the mid-1980s. Colony only? Address in mid-1908s: 312 16th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN.
  103. ^ ΩΝΑ's University of Minnesota web portal, accessed 22 May 2014. Address in 2000, 1813 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN, moving in 2006 to 1019 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN. Chapter was formed by former ΘΧ members at the time of Theta Chi's 2000 closure.
  104. ^ ΚΚΓ's Chi Chapter website, accessed 21 May 2014. Address in 1908: 1413 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1909: 1023 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1910: 1728 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1914: 1728 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1915: 329 10th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN, which they built, through the present day. ΚΚΓ's annex, at 914 4th Street SE, was owned by ΑΟΠ from ~1915 to 1930, until that sorority completed their new home.
  105. ^ ΔΓ's Lambda Chapter University of Minnesota portal, accessed 20 May 2014. Obtaining the first women's residential 'sorority' house on campus, rented and not built for them, ΔΓ's address in 1903 was 314 10th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN. Other addresses: 1221 SE. 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN and by 1914: 1320 7th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address by 1917 which they built: 1026 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN, through the present day.
  106. ^ ΚΑΘ's national website, showing Upsilon Chapter, accessed 21 May 2014. Address from 1914-1951: 314 10th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1951: 1012 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN, through the present day.
  107. ^ ΑΦ's Epsilon Chapter University of Minnesota portal, accessed 19 May 2014. The first 'sorority' to build a chapterhouse, in 1912 ΑΦ built the property at 323 10th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN, where they reside through the present day. It has been remodeled and expanded several times, notably in 1923, 1938, 1948 (façade) and 1969 (front room).
  108. ^ ΠΒΦ's Minnesota Alpha Chapter website, accessed 22 May 2014. Address by 1914: 406 11th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN (Zellie). Address in 1915: 1212 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address from 1916-1928: 1019 University Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN, which ΠΒΦ built as the fifth sorority house on campus (Zellie, p. A-48). Address in 1928: 1109 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN, which it also built, through the present day. Zellie notes (p.A-78-79) that there was a previous wood frame unnamed sorority house on this lot, dated from 1895. Pi Phi maintains an annex at 510 11th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN.
  109. ^ ΓΦΒ's Kappa Chapter website, accessed 21 May 2014. Address until 1914: 1018 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1915: 406 11th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address after 1915: 311 10th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN, through the present day, making it the second chapter to construct a chapterhouse. In 1967, ΓΦΒ bought and connected the neighboring building, formerly 921 University Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN, from Delta Upsilon fraternity, later expanding the connection between the buildings from a passway to a three story expansion.
  110. ^ ΑΓΔ's Delta Chapter website, accessed 19 May 2014. Address in 1910: 611 13th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1914: 309 17th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1915: 1023 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1916-1964: 311 11th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN, which they built (later, this was home to ΣΑΜ in the late 1960s and 1970s). Address by 1965: 401 11th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN, which they built, through the present day.
  111. ^ ΑΟΠ's Tau Chapter website, accessed 19 May 2014. Address in 1915: 1213 15th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address from potentially as early as 1916 to 1930: 914 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN (now Kappa's annex). Address in 1930: 1121 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN, which they built, through the present day.
  112. ^ ΑΧΩ's Alpha Lambda Chapter website, accessed 19 May 2014. Address by 1924: 1018 4th Street SE. Address by 1930: 514 11th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1965 (had bought site in 1962 from ΣΑΜ, then leased back to ΣΑΜ for three years), finally building and occupying their new house in 1966: 915 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN, through the present day.
  113. ^ ΧΩ's Pi Beta Chapter University of Minnesota portal, accessed 20 May 2014. Address in 1926: 1707 University Ave. SE. Address from 1928-1989: 315 10th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN (now the Maranatha Church, and originally owned by ΖΨ). Address in 2013: 326 17th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN, through the present day. Note, Zellie study says ΧΩ built 1001 5th Street SE in 1967. This is an obvious error in that study. Cause?
  114. ^ ΦΜ's Zeta Eta Chapter at Minnesota has been announced as a planned colony for Fall 2015 on their national website, accessed 22 May 2014. Address by 1926: 416 8th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address by 1928 and thru at least 1932: 1121 University Ave. SE. Address in 1933?: 1112 6th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN (former ΔΖ house, now one of the Triangle houses). Note that another Minnesota sorority, ΑΔΘ, merged into ΦΜ nationally in 1939. In the early 1930s ΑΔΘ had been at nearby 406 11th Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN, (a former ΠΒΦ house). However, both small chapters closed prior to the merger. Alumnae clubs may have merged their membership. Address in Fall 2015 TBD.
  115. ^ Clovia's website, accessed 20 May 2014. Address in 2013: 2067 Carter Ave., St. Paul, MN
  116. ^ ΑΕΦ's Alpha Iota Chapter website, accessed 19 May 2014. Address in 1938: 928 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Later address: 311 11th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN, selling to ΣΑΜ. Address circa 1940: 525 10th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN (this is a conflicting date reference in Zellie, p.A-112). Address in 1978: 925 6th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN, then the chapter closed. Address at 2009 recolonization: 126 Coffman Memorial Union, 300 Washington Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN
  117. ^ ΛΔΦ's Gamma Chapter website, accessed 20 May 2014, address in 2013: 1381 N. Cleveland Ave., St. Paul, MN
  118. ^ ΑΣΚ's Alpha Chapter website, accessed 20 May 2014. Address in 1994: 1011 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 2012: 126 Coffman Memorial Union, 300 Washington Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN
  119. ^ ΦΒΧ's Psi Chapter University of Minnesota portal, accessed 22 May 2014. Address in 2013: 126 Coffman Memorial Union, 300 Washington Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN
  120. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1925, lists the Scroll and Key as having been founded in 1916. The 1937 Gopher notes ΣΔΤ's birth as Scroll and Key.
  121. ^ a b c Achoth sorority at Minnesota became Kappa Chapter of ΦΩΠ (Phi Omega Pi) in 1922, in a national consolidation with 4 small sororities. Phi Omega Pi national in turn was absorbed by Delta Zeta in 1946, but this occurred about four years after the local ΦΩΠ chapter had died. Note that the Zellie reference says ΔΖ built 1100 4th Street SE in 1927. This conflicts slightly with Gopher photos and addresses, probably due to trailing publication timing. Recheck.
  122. ^ Address in 1920: 410 11th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN. Zellie reference p.A-63 says Achoth resided at 1107 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN until 1930, but other records (Baird's) show that sorority had merged with ΦΩΠ long before then.
  123. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook 1924, p.533
  124. ^ ΣΚ's Alpha Eta Chapter at Minnesota is listed as inactive on their national website, accessed 22 May 2014. Address by 1926 (earlier?): 901 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN (later razed for 35W), Built 521 12th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN in 1936, occupying it thru 1961 and then in 1962 as a new local chapter (now one of the Triangle Houses). The 1963 Yearbook notes ΒΤΛ moved to another location at the end of 1962.
  125. ^ Address by 1926: 800 University Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN
  126. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1926, lists the Alpha Chapter of ΖΑ on p.517. Address in 1926: 312 17th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN
  127. ^ This was the Kappa Chapter of ΒΦΑ, which went dormant about the time of the national merger with ΔΖ in 1941, possibly merging undergrads; ΒΦΑ was very small by then. Address in 1928: 1707 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN (formerly the site of the Newman Center, which was razed for the Greek Suites of the 17th Avenue dorm). Address in 1931-1933: 1103 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN.
  128. ^ Address in 1928-1930+: 406 11th Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN (which had previously held ΠΒΦ and then ΑΤΩ.)
  129. ^ Four years after local ΦΔΣ became ΑΔΘ's Tau Chapter at Minnesota, the group died. Then five years later its national was absorbed into ΦΜ. ΑΔΘ address from 1931-1934: 406 11th Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN
  130. ^ This academic and social sorority, ΑΔΘ, should not to be confused with the national professional sorority of the same name, existing on the Minnesota campus some years later.
  131. ^ Listed in the 1938 Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, ΓΣΦ showed they had just moved into 416 11th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN, a home previously occupied by ΣΔΤ. ΓΣΦ's address by 1938 and chartering as ΑΕΦ was 928 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN.
  132. ^ Listed in the 1960 Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, ΝΣΠ on the St. Paul campus was noted as a preliminary step before becoming a chapter of the then-undetermined national sorority.
  133. ^ ΔΔΔ's Theta Chapter at Minnesota is listed as inactive on the national website, accessed 22 May 2014. Address by 1914: 1703 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address by 1917: 316 10th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN, buying 314 10th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN (sometime after 1961), then remodeled and expanded twice, until closing in 2004
  134. ^ ΑΞΔ's Mu Chapter at Minnesota is listed as inactive on the national website, accessed 22 May 2014. Address in 1910: 1405 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1914: 1800 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address by 1920: 410 11th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address by 1924: 1115 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN (Wales House B&B), which the sorority converted from a private home, until 1960.
  135. ^ GCSTF12 notes ΑΞΔ as closing in 1960, but other records note a re-colonization from 1983-1987. Then, Zellie notes, almost certainly incorrectly, that ΑΞΔ was in this last building until the late 1960s. Which is correct?
  136. ^ ΚΔ's Sigma Beta Chapter at Minnesota is listed as inactive on their national website, accessed 22 May 2014. Address prior to 1925: 406 11th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address by 1926: 1025 6th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN, through 1972 when they closed.
  137. ^ ΑΔΠ's Alpha Rho Chapter at Minnesota is listed as inactive on their national website, accessed 22 May 2014. Address by 1926: 629 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1928: 1009 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address from 1952-1987: 1000 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN (now the "Moonies" house.)
  138. ^ ΔΖ's Gamma Chapter at Minnesota is listed as inactive on their national website, accessed 22 May 2014. Address in 1924: 1111 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1926: 1112 6th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1927: 1212 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1928, which ΔΖ built: 1100 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN (to clarify, this is the same house as 330 11th Avenue SE, now occupied by ΚΗΚ professional fraternity.) (Zellie p.A-60). Address in 1949: 519 10th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN.
  139. ^ ΖΤΑ's Alpha Tau Chapter at Minnesota is listed as inactive on their national website, accessed 22 May 2014. Address in 1926: 1320 7th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address by 1928: 916 6th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address by 1930: 1112 6th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN (former ΔΖ house, now one of the Triangle houses). Address by 1950: 1027 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN (former Phi Delt house).
  140. ^ University of Minnesota lists the ΓΟΒ Foundation as a continuing source for scholarship money, accessed 28 June 2014. Originally a Home Economics club, ΓΟΒ was recognized as a Home Economics Sorority in 1932. Address by 1940: 1420 Chelmsford Avenue, St. Paul, MN. Address in 1943: 1315 Raymond Avenue, St. Paul, MN. Address in 1944: 2060 Carter Ave., St. Paul, MN. Address in 1946: 2067 Carter Ave., St. Paul, MN. Beta of Clovia purchased ΓΟΒ's house in 1989, and retains it today.
  141. ^ ΔΦΕ's Tau Chapter at Minnesota is listed as inactive on their national website, accessed 22 May 2014
  142. ^ ΣΔΤ's Nu Chapter at Minnesota is listed as inactive on their national website, accessed 22 May 2014. Address by 1932: 416 11th Avenue SE. Address by 1938: 925 6th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address by 1939: 1121 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN, through their closure in 1994.
  143. ^ According to the 1961 Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, ΒΤΛ was formed by members of ΣΚ's Alpha Eta Chapter who chose to turn in their charter over dissatisfaction with how the national sorority had handled two eastern chapters who'd pledged black students, chapters that had been suspended. Thus it would appear that the Minnesota group had been supportive of a more inclusive national policy. Address in 1961: 521 12th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN, which they abandoned after 1962.
  144. ^ ΑΦΑ's Mu Chapter University of Minnesota portal, accessed 24 May 2014
  145. ^ ΩΨΦ's Xi Chapter University of Minnesota portal, accessed 22 May 2014, photographed in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1926, p.465. Address in 1965: 906 Gaultier Street, St. Paul, MN.
  146. ^ ΚΑΨ's national website, accessed 21 May 2014
  147. ^ ΚΑΨ's Psi Chapter University of Minnesota portal, accessed 22 May 2014
  148. ^ ΦΒΣ's Pi Eta Chapter University of Minnesota portal, accessed 22 May 2014
  149. ^ ΔΛΦ's Delta Chapter website. Accessed 21 May 2014. For several years beginning in 1990, ΔΛΦ resided at 315 19th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN, (after ΧΦ closed and before ΚΣ purchased the building). ΔΛΦ is currently non-residential.
  150. ^ ΣΛΒ's Alpha Beta Chapter University of Minnesota portal, accessed 22 May 2014
  151. ^ ΒΘΧ's national website, chapter list showing Lambda Chapter at Minnesota, accessed 20 May 2014
  152. ^ ΠΔΨ's unnamed Minnesota Colony University of Minnesota portal, accessed 22 May 2014
  153. ^ ΣΒΡ's unnamed Chapter or Colony website, accessed 22 May 2014. Note, ΣΒΡ's national website lists the Minnesota group as a colony. Accessed 19 March 2015
  154. ^ ΔΣΘ's Nu Epsilon Chapter University of Minnesota portal, accessed 21 May 2014
  155. ^ ΑΚΑ's Mu Rho Chapter University of Minnesota portal, accessed 22 May 2014
  156. ^ ΖΦΒ's unnamed and undated University of Minnesota Chapter University of Minnesota portal, accessed 22 May 2014
  157. ^ For ΣΓΡ's Delta Nu Chapter, refer to the national website, accessed 22 May 2014
  158. ^ ΣΛΓ's Sigma Alpha Chapter University of Minnesota portal, accessed 22 May 2014
  159. ^ ΔΦΩ's Twin Cities Colony University of Minnesota portal, accessed 22 May 2014
  160. ^ AΦΓ's Twin Cities Colony University of Minnesota portal, accessed 27 April 2015
  161. ^ ΣΨΖ's Alpha Kappa Charter Facebook page, accessed 5 May 2015
  162. ^ Note, until 2012, ΦΔΦ had nationally been a professional fraternity. Chapters are called "Inns"; the Minnesota chapter is called the Dillon Inn, as shown in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1925, p.501. Formerly residential?, address shown in 1914: 321 14th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN
  163. ^ This is ΦΒΚ's Minnesota Alpha Chapter
  164. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Association of College Honor Societies website: search for current status of this society at the University of Minnesota, accessed 18 May 2014
  165. ^ Note, there was a women's senior honorary at Minnesota dating from 1903 also called Mortar Board. Merged? National affiliation came in 1919, but the Minnesota group is not listed among the national founders. See Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1925, p.508
  166. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1925, p.507. Decades later, the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook of 1959 mentions the "twilight tapping ceremony on the steps of Northrop," and the role of the Iron Wedge in ushering at the President's Reception each year, p.347
  167. ^ Now part of the American Forensics Assn, ΔΣΡ's Alpha Chapter was at Minnesota. Accessed 16 May 2014.
  168. ^ a b Baird's 19th ed. on p.VIII-42 notes ΦΔΓ's 1935 absorption into Tau Kappa Alpha honor society.
  169. ^ ΦΥΟ's Alpha Chapter University of Minnesota portal, accessed 25 May 2014. Formerly residential, address in 1914: 1455 Cleveland Avenue, St. Paul, MN. Address in 1915: 1315 Raymond Avenue, St. Paul, MN.
  170. ^ ΤΒΦ's Minnesota Alpha Chapter University of Minnesota portal, accessed 22 May 2014
  171. ^ This is ΦΛΥ's Minnesota Zeta Chapter
  172. ^ The Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1926, p.410, lists the Minnesota Chapter of ΓΣΔ
  173. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1931, p.312 notes the Beta Chapter of ΤΣΔ
  174. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1925, p.524 lists the Minnesota Epsilon Chapter of ΠΛΘ
  175. ^ This is/was the Gamma Chapter of ΔΦΔ. Still existent in 1949. Dormant?
  176. ^ ΗΚΝ's Omicron Chapter University of Minnesota portal, accessed 22 May 2014
  177. ^ ΞΣΠ Delta Chapter University of Minnesota portal, accessed 20 May 2014. Scattered clippings indicate this group may be called XSP on some campuses.
  178. ^ Minnesota's is the Beta Chapter of ΒΓΣ, as noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1925, p.511. The national organization was formed at Wisconsin, in 1913.
  179. ^ ΠΤΣ's chapter website, accessed 15 May 2014, shows the Minnesota Gamma Chapter
  180. ^ Block and Bridle Chapter University of Minnesota portal, accessed 25 May 2014
  181. ^ ΧΕ's Minnesota Alpha Chapter University of Minnesota portal, accessed 20 May 2014
  182. ^ Minnesota's is the Mercury Chapter of ΙΣΠ, as noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1925, p.517. The national organization was formed at California, in 1912.
  183. ^ ΙΣΠ's national body administers scholarships available at Minnesota. Accessed 26 May 2014
  184. ^ a b Note, ΚΟΝ was formed from a consolidation of ΟΝ and ΚΟΦ in 1990. Minnesota's ΟΝ Rho Chapter was founded in 1923. ΚΟΝ website lists chapter as dormant. Needs faculty sponsor to reactivate.
  185. ^ Minnesota's chapter of ΠΤΠΣ was noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1925, p.477
  186. ^ Minnesota's chapter of Phalanx was noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1925, p.476
  187. ^ Plumb Bob website, accessed 28 May 2014
  188. ^ National ΡΧ chapter listing, accessed 20 May 2014
  189. ^ ΡΧ's Mu Chapter University of Minnesota portal, accessed 22 May 2014
  190. ^ This was the Epsilon Chapter of ΣΕΣ; national appears to have disbanded.
  191. ^ ΒΑΨ / SAFA website, accessed 8 June 2014
  192. ^ ΣΘΤ's Zeta Chapter website, accessed 8 June 2014
  193. ^ ΩΧΕ's national website, showing the Minnesota Gamma Chapter, accessed 19 May 2014.
  194. ^ ΨΧ's Minnesota Chapter University of Minnesota portal, accessed 8 June 2014
  195. ^ ΦΑΘ's national website shows the Phi Chapter at Minnesota, and provides contact information. There is no local portal website.
  196. ^ ΚΤΑ's national website shows the Minnesota Chapter of the society, and directs inquiries to the School of Journalism and Mass Communications. Accessed 8 June 2014
  197. ^ ΠΔΦ's national website shows the Alpha Xi Chapter at Minnesota as active. Accessed 8 June 2014
  198. ^ ΤΒΣ's Alpha Iota Chapter University of Minnesota portal, accessed 22 May 2014. Predecessor group was ΘΝ local sorority. Historical sketch of ΤΒΣ and ΚΚΨ, accessed 5 June 2014
  199. ^ ΦΖ may not have a national website. Many chapters (Purdue's, for example, here), show the Minnesota Kappa Chapter of the society. Accessed 8 June 2014. May require a faculty sponsor.
  200. ^ ΣΓΤ's national website notes that the most recent update from local Minnesota Chapter sponsors came in in 1996. May need faculty sponsorship to revitalize. Accessed 8 June 2014
  201. ^ Angels Flight is noted in the 1961 Minnesota Gopher yearbook with founding dates.
  202. ^ ΑΚΔ's national website lists the Minnesota Chapter as dormant as of 2004. This means the sponsor retired, and it needs a new academic sponsor.
  203. ^ ΠΚΛ's national website notes Minnesota's Alpha Sigma Chapter went inactive in 2001; this likely means the faculty sponsor retired, and is easily remedied with a new sponsor.
  204. ^ ΣΦΑ website, listing Minnesota's Eta Chapter, accessed 20 May 2014
  205. ^ Evans Scholars Eta Chapter website portal, accessed 5 June 2014. Address by 1961: 1115 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. (purchased from ΑΞΔ). They sold this building in 1978 to ΣΦΕ. Today the chapter is located at 929 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN
  206. ^ ΡΛ's Mu Chapter is listed on the national organization's website, accessed 27 May 2014
  207. ^ Phi Kappa Phi website, accessed 20 May 2014.
  208. ^ The Order of Omega's chapter directory, accessed 22 May 2014
  209. ^ Golden Key's University of Minnesota Chapter University of Minnesota portal, accessed 22 May 2014
  210. ^ Local ΑΕΔ website, accessed 27 May 2014
  211. ^ ΚΚΨ's Kappa Alpha Chapter website, accessed 21 May 2014. Historical sketch of ΤΒΣ and ΚΚΨ, accessed 5 June 2014
  212. ^ Collegiate Scholars University of Minnesota portal, accessed 22 May 2014
  213. ^ ΣΑΛ's Minnesota Chapter University of Minnesota portal, accessed 22 May 2014
  214. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook 1949, p.343. Historical sketch of ΤΒΣ, accessed 5 June 2014
  215. ^ a b History of Sigma Gamma Tau notes the Epsilon Chapter of ΤΩ, at the merger with ΓΑΡ (Gamma Alpha Rho) to form Sigma Gamma Tau, accessed 1 June 2014
  216. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1893, p.158
  217. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1931, p.326 shows "B" Company, 1st Regiment (~chapter)
  218. ^ Noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook 1924, p.441
  219. ^ Noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook 1915, p.468
  220. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook 1925, p.506. Minnesota Gopher Yearbook 1959 mentions 4AM awakening for those tapped, for breakfast, p.346
  221. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1925, p.440, shows Nu Chapter
  222. ^ The Association for Women in Communications is the successor organization to this honors sorority, accessed 25 May 2014. See also Sigma Delta Chi.
  223. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1931, p321 shows ΚΡ. Many references in U of Minnesota archives note award of a "Kappa Rho Cup".
  224. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1925, p.554, shows Skin and Bones. During some years, junior-class members would be photographed with their backs to the camera.
  225. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1925, p.527, shows White Dragon
  226. ^ Silver Spur's Minnesota Chapter became dormant prior to dormancy of national organization.
  227. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1928, p.359, shows ΔΦΛ.
  228. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook 1925, p.516, shows Incus
  229. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1928, p.361, shows ΓΕΠ's Eta Chapter
  230. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1928, p.383, shows ΤΥΚ
  231. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1928, p.377, shows Mortar and Ball's Alpha Chapter, Battery "A", 1st Regiment.
  232. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1925, p.518, shows ΩΗΜ
  233. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1925, p.522, shows ΠΑ
  234. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook 1925, p.533, shows ΦΣΦ. This organization slowly morphed into the Band Social Organization (BSO) through the 1960s and 1970s. Renewed organizational and Greek letter interest resulted in the twin chapters of ΤΒΣ (1952-1975, revived in 1990) and ΚΚΨ (1994), link accessed 5 June 2014
  235. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1925, p.510, shows ΑΠΑ
  236. ^ Noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook 1924, p.435
  237. ^ Sigma Gamma Epsilon website notes ΣΓΕ's Rho Chapter as inactive, however reactivation simply requires University sponsorship. Accessed 19 May 2014.
  238. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1925, p.516, shows ΠΔΕ. The fraternity merged with Alpha Phi Gamma in 1975, to form the Society for Collegiate Journalists, which may need a faculty sponsor to revive.
  239. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1925, p.537, shows Torch and Distaff
  240. ^ ΚΒΦ's Minnesota Chapter was lost in the Great Depression; only a Wall Street chapter remains.
  241. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1928, p.356, shows the Dean E. E. Nicholson Chapter of ΑΔΣ
  242. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1928, p.357. 1949 Gopher notes its paired relationship with similar sorority for women, Eta Sigma Upsilon (ΗΣΥ).
  243. ^ The Minnesota chapter was the Beta Chapter
  244. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1949, p.204 notes its paired relationship with similar sorority for men, Alpha Sigma Pi (ΑΣΠ). Founding date from 1961 yearbook.
  245. ^ ΣΓΤ national website states that reactivation of Sigma Gamma Tau requires a faculty sponsor. Accessed 1 June 2014
  246. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook 1959, p.333 notes late-night tapping ceremony by awaking inductees with chimes. Like Iron Wedge, nonorees ushered at President's reception. The national organization has disbanded.
  247. ^ Mentioned in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1949, p.290
  248. ^ ΟΔΚ of Minnesota's unnamed Chapter #155 lost its charter due to inactivity, per ΟΔΚ national, and is welcome to reapply, accessed 22 May 2014
  249. ^ ΝΣΝ Epsilon Chapter website, accessed 26 May 2014. Address by 1914: 505 Washington Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address by 1917: 429 Union Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. In 1953, built 631 Oak Street SE, Minneapolis, MN, where they reside today.
  250. ^ ΔΣΔ's Theta Chapter website, accessed 21 May 2014. Address in 1914: 629 Washington Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1926-1950+: 525 10th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address by 1973: 814 Essex Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55415, through present day.
  251. ^ ΨΩ Zeta Kappa Chapter website, accessed 19 May 2014. The Minnesota campus had previously hosted the Lambda Chapter of this fraternity, which was renamed at the time of recolonization. Address at least by 1926: 915 6th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1949: 901 East River Road, Minneapolis, MN, where they reside today, razing and rebuilding on the same site in 1960.
  252. ^ ΦΡΣ's Theta Tau Chapter at Minnesota, accessed 22 May 2014. Address in 1914: 1813 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1926: 629 Washington Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1927: 317 Union Street SE, Minneapolis, MN, built by ΦΡΣ, and razed in the 1960s (Zellie). Address in 1973: 632 Erie Street SE, Minneapolis, MN, built by ΦΡΣ. (also Zellie)
  253. ^ ΑΧΣ Beta Chapter website, accessed 19 May 2014. Address in 1914: 410 Harvard Street, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1926: 613 Oak Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 2014: 632 Ontario St. SE, Minneapolis, MN
  254. ^ ΦΔΧ's Theta Chapter University of Minnesota portal, accessed 20 May 2014. Address in 1910: 1720 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1914: 1115 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1920: 704 15th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1926: 701 15th Avenue SE (at this time they considered a plan to build a house, but apparently abandoned the effort, per Zellie p.A-59). Address by 1928: 323 11th Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN. Finally building a house, their address in 1959: 1024 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN, through the present day.
  255. ^ ΘΤ Alpha Chapter website, accessed 19 May 2014. Address by 1914: 321 14th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address by 1926: 406 11th Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 19xx: 628 Washington Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN (mid-century or an early house?). In 1957 ΘΤ built 515 10th Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN, where they reside through the present day.
  256. ^ ΔΘΦ's University of Minnesota Law School Chapter ('Senate'), via the national website, accessed 20 May 2014. Address in 1926: 1011 6th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN
  257. ^ Forestry Club website, accessed 26 May 2014
  258. ^ ΦΔΚ's Eta Chapter at Minnesota was absorbed into the statewide 1612 Chapter in 2009, according to the local website, accessed 3 June 2014. Address in 1914: 505 15th Avenue SE.
  259. ^ ΑΡΧ's Mnesicles Chapter University of Minnesota portal, accessed 22 May 2014. Address thru 1925: 1529 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1926: 315 19th Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN, which they had built at the entrance to a proposed "Fraternity Court", to be situated where Williams Arena now stands (Zellie). In 1952 ΑΡΧ built their International Modernist-style house at 605 Ontario St. SE, Minneapolis, MN, which eventually (circa 2008?) was razed and re-developed by another party. ΑΡΧ is non-residential today.
  260. ^ ΑΡΧ Recolonization in the news, accessed 16 June 2014
  261. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1927, p.453, shows Minnesota Chapter.
  262. ^ ΚΕ's Alpha Chapter University of Minnesota portal, accessed 21 May 2014
  263. ^ ΦΧ's Kappa Chi Chapter website, accessed 23 May 2014. Address in 1926: 603 SE Delaware, Minneapolis, MN. In 1931, built 325 Harvard Street SE, Minneapolis, MN, through present day.
  264. ^ ΑΚΨ's Alpha Eta Chapter website, accessed 20 May 2014. The chapter had been known for organizing the Campus Carni festival each year. Address by 1914: 1214 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address prior to 1930: 406 14th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1930: 916 6th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1952: 1116 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN, through present day.
  265. ^ ΚΨ's Epsilon Chapter University of Minnesota portal, accessed 20 May 2014
  266. ^ ΦΑΔ's Mitchell Chapter at the University of Minnesota (named after the jurist, not the law school in nearby St. Paul) as listed on the national website, accessed 23 May 2014
  267. ^ ΚΗΚ's Beta Chapter website, accessed 20 May 2014. Address in 1926: 1807 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1928: 531 Walnut Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1949?: 1100 4th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN, through the present day.
  268. ^ ΦΔΕ's Alpha Xi Chapter at the University of Minnesota, as listed on the national website, accessed 20 May 2014
  269. ^ ΦΔΕ's building was sold, and the proceeds continue to fund scholarships for medical students, accessed 23 May 2014
  270. ^ ΔΣΠ's Alpha Epsilon Chapter website, accessed 21 May 2014
  271. ^ 1928 address: 1405 6th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN
  272. ^ ΓΕΓ's Minnesota Chapter (possibly only remaining chapter) University of Minnesota portal, accessed 20 May 2014
  273. ^ ΓΕΓ's Minnesota Chapter website, accessed 23 May 2014. Address in 1926: 1221 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address in 1928: 410 11th Ave SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address by 1942: 925 6th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN, a home originally built for Earle Brown, then owned by John Martin. Address by the 1970s: 1126 5th Street SE, Minneapolis MN, through the present day. (This last is the former Xi Psi Phi house, per Zellie p.A-87)
  274. ^ ΣΑΙ's Sigma Sigma Chapter University of Minnesota portal, accessed 22 May 2014
  275. ^ Company E-2, 2nd Regiment is noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook 1959, p.368
  276. ^ ΣΔΕ's (or GWIS's) Xi Chapter at the University of Minnesota, accessed 23 May 2014
  277. ^ NBEA-DPiE website, accessed 20 May 2014
  278. ^ ΑΨ's Nu Chapter website, accessed 20 May 2014. Address in 2013: 2077 Commonwealth Ave., St. Paul, MN.
  279. ^ (one of) KAM's remaining group(s) at Mizzou, accessed 20 May 2014
  280. ^ ΔΘΣ's Delta Chapter website, accessed 21 May 2014
  281. ^ ΠΣΕ's Psi Chapter University of Minnesota portal, accessed 20 May 2014
  282. ^ ΑΤΑ website, accessed 20 May 2014
  283. ^ ΦΣΠ's Zeta Kappa Chapter website, accessed 22 May 2014
  284. ^ The Beta Chapter of ΠΚΤ was short lived, at only 1 year old, when, following the founding chapter at Iowa the two groups merged into ΦΑΓ.
  285. ^ The Delta Chapter of ΦΑΓ closed with the closure of Minnesota's School Of Homeopathy. Eleven years later, in 1920, ΦΧ started a chapter at Minnesota independent of ΦΑΓ's earlier activity. The two nationals finally merged in 1948. The Minnesota Gopher Yearbook 1899 shows Delta Chapter of ΦΑΓ on p.268
  286. ^ Cannon, Daniel H. (1989). The History of Phi Chi Medical Fraternity Inc. Centennial Edition 1889-1989. Phi Chi Quarterly Office. 
  287. ^ AWA surviving chapter's website, accessed 20 May 2014. Minnesota was the Beta Chapter of ΑΑΓ.
  288. ^ Historical note, ΑΑΓ's Beta Chapter was preceded by another local society, Delta Phi, accessed 31 May 2014
  289. ^ a b c Note, ΩΥΦ merged nationally into ΦΒΠ in 1934. This likely included Minnesota's ΩΥΦ Sigma Chapter, dating from 1923. Also, ΦΒΠ's and the smaller national of ΘΚΨ merged in 1961. None of these survived at the University of Minnesota. ΦΒΠ's address in 1915 thru at least 1926: 329 Union Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Notes showed address in 1964 as: 624 Ontario St. SE, Minneapolis, MN, however Zellie shows this chapter building 632 Ontario in 1964, a building that survived as of 2003 (now home to ΑΧΣ). Check which is correct. May they have had two buildings?
  290. ^ Address in 1926: 603 East River Road, Minneapolis, MN
  291. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1931, p.304 shows the Minnesota Alpha Chapter of ΦΔΓ
  292. ^ The Minnesota Gopher Yearbook 1895 notes that ΠΣ was founded locally in 1894. p.166.
  293. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1925, p.479 shows the Psi Chapter of ΑΚΚ. Evolved from a local chapter named the "Alpha Rho Society," which had petitioned for a ΑΚΚ charter in 1897, per ΑΚΚ history, accessed 29 June 2014. Address in 1926: 509 East River Road, Minneapolis, MN, likely the same property purchased by the University in 1932: ID#25-029-024-14 - check?.
  294. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1925, p.442 shows the Epsilon Chapter of ΥΑ.
  295. ^ An extensive archive is on file, noting the creation of the AEI Foundation as one of two successors to ΑΕΙ from the sale of its buildings. Accessed 25 May 2014
  296. ^ This was the Xi Chapter of ΦΒΠ
  297. ^ ΑΖ's LaGrange Chapter at the University of Minnesota may be reactivated, if interested, per the national website, accessed 23 May 2014. Address in 1914: 2089 Carter Ave., St. Paul, MN
  298. ^ ΞΨΦ's Phi Chapter was at Minnesota. National leadership is interested in restarting the group, which had existed for 94 years. Accessed 21 May 2014. Address in 1914: 1313 6th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Address during the 1920s: 1126 5th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN, later occupied by Smith's Tea Room in the 1950s, and then by Gamma Eta Gamma law fraternity by the 1970s.
  299. ^ This was the Kappa Phi Chapter of ΘΚΨ.
  300. ^ Address in 1914: 1405 6th Street SE, Minneapolis, MN. Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1925, p.490 shows the Beta Chapter of ΣΡ, located at 412 Walnut St. SE, Minneapolis, MN. The Alpha Chapter at Michigan Tech is still active as of 2014.
  301. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1925, p.496 shows the Beta Chapter of Cabletow.
  302. ^ ΓΑ's Michigan chapter notes that it is one of three or four surviving units, and the Minnesota Chapter isn't one of them, accessed 20 May 2014
  303. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1925, p.441 shows the Beta Chapter of ΥΑ.
  304. ^ Noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1922, p.474
  305. ^ Noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1922, p.454
  306. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1925, p.502 shows the Alpha Chapter of ΣΑΣ. University archives list papers available for the period 1920-1987.
  307. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1925, p.529, shows ΒΔΦ's Alpha Chapter
  308. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1928, p.482 shows the Beta Chapter of ΠΔΝ.
  309. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1925, p.437. Check if this is the same as ΑΚΓ (yearbook typo?).
  310. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1928, p.480. Check if this is the same as ΑΓΓ (yearbook typo?). The 1961 yearbook says ΑΚΓ was founded in 1941. An error?
  311. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1925, p.495 shows the Rho Chapter of ΑΩ.
  312. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1925, p.438
  313. ^ ΦΜΑ Alpha Mu Chapter #137 listed as inactive on the national website, accessed 23 May 2014
  314. ^ A cursory Google search records list mid-1900 financial dealings, but no local activity for ΦΒΓ at Minnesota, accessed 20 May 2014
  315. ^ The Alpha Chapter was noted in the 1928 Minnesota Gopher yearbook, p.478
  316. ^ A cursory Google search shows several local obits and national C.V. references to Scarab Honor society, but no current organizational activity, accessed 23 May 2014
  317. ^ ΤΦΔ's only remaining chapter at Penn State, their Alpha, mentions the Minnesota Beta Chapter on their website. Now an outdoors-interest general local fraternity.
  318. ^ 1928 address: 2257 Langford Ave, St. Paul, MN
  319. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook 1928, p.484
  320. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook 1928, p.485
  321. ^ Minnesota's Trowel Chapter is listed in the 1928 Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, p.454
  322. ^ ΑΤΔ's national website shows the unnamed Chapter at the University of Minnesota as inactive, accessed 23 May 2014
  323. ^ ΜΦΕ's national website reports a continuing alumni chapter in Minneapolis, which provides music scholarship support to the public schools and to local ΜΦΑ chapters. The fraternity encourages re-establishment. Website accessed 23 May 2014
  324. ^ ΦΒ's unnamed Minnesota Chapter is noted as inactive on the national website, and requires faculty sponsorship to be restored. Accessed 20 May 2014
  325. ^ ΦΕΚ's national website doesn't note this chapter, indicating it has been dormant for some time, accessed 20 May 2014
  326. ^ ΖΦΗ's Pi Chapter at the University of Minnesota is available to be re-chartered, according to the national website, accessed 20 May 2014
  327. ^ ΦΔ's unnamed Chapter at Minnesota was noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook 1959, p.358
  328. ^ Anchor & Chain was noted in the 1961 Minnesota Gopher yearbook, p.342
  329. ^ ΑΔΘ's Alpha Iota Chapter at the University of the Sciences in Philadelphia appears to be the surviving chapter of this small sorority originally established at Minnesota and Marquette in 1944, accessed 20 May 2014. Not to be confused with the national social and academic sorority that was absorbed into Phi Mu.
  330. ^ ΚΒΠ's Alpha Beta Chapter at Minnesota was noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook 1949, p.461
  331. ^ ΑΜΣ's assumed Alpha Chapter was noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook 1965, p.134. A LinkedIn profile of a member, James Hamilton, showed him graduating in 1970, accessed 30 November 2014.
  332. ^ ΣΑΗ's Alpha Omega Chapter was noted in the Minnesota Gopher yearbook for 1961.
  333. ^ ΑΦΩ's Gamma Psi Chapter University of Minnesota portal, accessed 22 May 2014. Also, Baird's Manual (20th ed.) has an apparent error, where it lists a "Minnesota Alpha" chapter for ΑΦΩ as dating from 1902. Investigating, we see the Minnesota Alpha Chapter of ΑΤΩ was formed that year, and since no other versions of Baird's corroborate this item, it appears safe to assume this was a transposition error of the Phi for a Tau in that list. [pVII-2]
  334. ^ Noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1928, p.500
  335. ^ Noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1928, p.501
  336. ^ a b Noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1928, p.502
  337. ^ Noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1922, p.524. Specific class seemed to rotate, with the named society continuing with that class until graduation, freshmen to senior.
  338. ^ Noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1920, p.402. Specific class seemed to rotate, with the named society continuing with that class until graduation, freshmen to senior. Not to be confused with the social fraternity of the same name.
  339. ^ Noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1922, p.523. Specific class seemed to rotate, with the named society continuing with that class until graduation, freshmen to senior.
  340. ^ ΑΦΧ is noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1949, p.281
  341. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook 1949, p.434
  342. ^ ΓΣΣ website notes that Minnesota's Omicron Chapter is inactive. The local alumni chapter continues to be active. Accessed 20 May 2014
  343. ^ Student Staff Directory 1972-1973
  344. ^ Hillel's website at Minnesota, accessed 27 June 2014
  345. ^ ΚΠΑ's University of Minnesota portal, accessed 21 May 2014. Address in 2013: 310 18th Avenue SE (this is the mailing address; living quarters at 315 16th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN, above Bordertown Coffee, the former Theta Chi building)
  346. ^ The Newman Club is noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1949, p.323
  347. ^ ΚΦ's Delta Chapter is noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1959, p.349
  348. ^ Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1926, p.548 notes the Wesley Foundation.
  349. ^ ΚΚΛ's Alpha Chapter is noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1949, p.320. As of 2014, alumnae still meet and provide scholarships.
  350. ^ ΦΧΔ's Gamma Chapter is noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1949, p.321
  351. ^ The Canterbury Club is noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1949, p.322
  352. ^ ΓΔ is noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1949, p.324. Luther House is at 316 10th Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN (the former ΔΔΔ house)
  353. ^ ΔΚΦ is noted in the Minnesota Gopher Yearbook, 1959, p.352, and dates are from the 1961 yearbook.

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