List of Global Boundary Stratotype Sections and Points

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This is a list of Global Boundary Stratotype Sections and Points. Since 1977, Global Boundary Stratotype Sections and Points (abbreviated GSSPs) are internationally agreed upon reference points on stratigraphic sections of rock which define the lower boundaries of stages on the geologic time scale. They are selected by the International Commission on Stratigraphy based on multiple factors, but their accessibility and the degree to which they are representative of the same boundary on sections worldwide are among the most important.

Since GSSPs require well-preserved sections of rock without interruptions in sedimentation, and since most are defined by different stages of animal life, defining them becomes progressively more difficult as one goes further back in time.

Organization of this list[edit]

This list is divided first into the geologic eras of the Phanerozoic (the Cenozoic, the Mesozoic, and the Paleozoic) and then into the geologic periods of each era. Each period is marked below the era bar on top of its subdivided epochs and stages. Each stage is assigned an age in mya, an acronym for million years ago, which is the age at which it began. Most of these ages are derived from astronomical cycles in sediments, magnetic data, biostratigraphic data, and radiometric dating methods. The GSSP assigned to each stage is that stage's lower boundary and oldest point.

Ages are given in "million year ago" (mya). They are obtained with different radiometric dating methods depending on the type of rock and its age. Ages that have a tilde (~) prefix are approximate ages for GSSPs that have not been defined or not been accurately dated.

The Status column has a "golden spike" for every GSSP which has been formally agreed by the ICS. Those without have only candidate sections which have not yet been formally ratified. The clock stands for times that are currently defined only by an age.

The "Defining markers" column lists the evidence in the rock used to define the boundary. (Ideally, these are applicable in rock sections worldwide.) Most of the boundaries rely on the fossil record (biologic), paleomagnetic data (magnetic), and/or climate data determined by carbon and oxygen isotopes.

List[edit]

Cenozoic[edit]

Quaternary[edit]

Epoch Stage Age (mya) Status GSSP location Defining markers Geographic Coordinates References
Holocene 0.0117
GSSP Golden Spike.svg
NGRIP2 ice core,

Greenland

75°06′00″N 42°19′12″W / 75.1000°N 42.3200°W / 75.1000; -42.3200 [1]
Pleistocene
Tarantian 0.126 Amsterdam-Terminal borehole,

Netherlands

52°22′45″N 4°54′52″E / 52.3792°N 4.9144°E / 52.3792; 4.9144 [2]
Ionian 0.781 Candidate sections: - [3]
Calabrian 1.806
GSSP Golden Spike.svg
Vrica Section,

Calabria, Italy

39°02′19″N 17°08′05″E / 39.0385°N 17.1348°E / 39.0385; 17.1348 [4]
Gelasian 2.58
GSSP Golden Spike.svg
Monte San Nicola Section,

Gela, Sicily, Italy

37°08′49″N 14°12′13″E / 37.1469°N 14.2035°E / 37.1469; 14.2035 [5]

Neogene[edit]

Epoch Stage Age (mya) Status GSSP location Defining markers Geographic Coordinates References
Pliocene
Piacenzian 3.600
GSSP Golden Spike.svg
Punta Piccola Section,

Porto Empedocle, Sicily, Italy

37°17′20″N 13°29′36″E / 37.2889°N 13.4933°E / 37.2889; 13.4933 [6]
Zanclean 5.333
GSSP Golden Spike.svg
Heraclea Minoa section

Heraclea Minoa, Cattolica Eraclea, Sicily, Italy

37°23′30″N 13°16′50″E / 37.3917°N 13.2806°E / 37.3917; 13.2806 [7]
Miocene
Messinian 7.246
GSSP Golden Spike.svg
Oued Akrech section,

Rabat, Morocco

33°56′13″N 6°48′45″W / 33.9369°N 6.8125°W / 33.9369; -6.8125 [8]
Tortonian 11.62
GSSP Golden Spike.svg
Monte dei Corvi Beach section,

Ancona, Italy

43°35′12″N 13°34′10″E / 43.5867°N 13.5694°E / 43.5867; 13.5694 [9]
Serravallian 13.82
GSSP Golden Spike.svg
Ras il Pellegrin section,

Fomm ir-Riħ Bay, Malta

35°54′50″N 14°20′10″E / 35.9139°N 14.3361°E / 35.9139; 14.3361 [10]
Langhian 15.97 Candidate sections: - [3]
Burdigalian 20.44 Candidate sections:
  • Astronomically tuned ODP core (e.g. Ceara Rise, Leg 154)
- [3]
Aquitanian 23.03
GSSP Golden Spike.svg
Lemme-Carrosio Section,

Carrosio, Italy

44°39′32″N 8°50′11″E / 44.6589°N 8.8364°E / 44.6589; 8.8364 [11]


Paleogene[edit]

Epoch Stage Age (mya) Status GSSP location Defining markers Geographic Coordinates References
Oligocene
Chattian 28.1 Candidate section:
  • Potentially extinction of planktonic foraminifer Chiloguembelina (Base of Foram Zone P21b); or an isotopic/climatic event
- -
Rupelian 33.9
GSSP Golden Spike.svg
Massignano quarry section,

Massignano, Ancona, Italy

43°31′58″N 13°36′04″E / 43.5328°N 13.6011°E / 43.5328; 13.6011 [12]
Eocene
Priabonian 38.0 Alano section,

Piave river, Venetian Prealps, Belluno, Italy

- -
Bartonian 41.3 Contessa highway section

Gubbio, Central Apennines, Italy

- -
Lutetian 47.8
GSSP Golden Spike.svg
Gorrondatxe sea-cliff section,

Western Pyrenees, Basque Country, Spain

43°22′47″N 3°00′51″W / 43.3796°N 3.0143°W / 43.3796; -3.0143 [13]
Ypresian 56.0
GSSP Golden Spike.svg
Dababiya section,

Luxor, Egypt

  • Climatic: Base of negative Carbon Isotope Excursion (CIE).
25°30′00″N 32°31′52″E / 25.5000°N 32.5311°E / 25.5000; 32.5311 [14][15]
Paleocene
Thanetian 59.2
GSSP Golden Spike.svg
Zumaia Section,

Basque Country, Spain

  • Magnetic: Base of magnetic polarity chronozone C26n.
43°17′59″N 2°15′39″W / 43.2996°N 2.2609°W / 43.2996; -2.2609 [16]
Selandian 61.6
GSSP Golden Spike.svg
Zumaia Section,

Basque Country, Spain

  • Chemical: Onset of sea-level drop and carbon isotope shift.
  • Magnetic: 30 precession cycles after the top of magnetic polarity Chron 27n
43°17′57″N 2°15′40″W / 43.2992°N 2.2610°W / 43.2992; -2.2610 [16]
Danian 66.0
GSSP Golden Spike.svg
El Kef Section,

El Kef, Tunisia

36°09′13″N 8°38′55″E / 36.1537°N 8.6486°E / 36.1537; 8.6486 [17]

Mesozoic[edit]

Cretaceous[edit]

Epoch Stage Age (mya) Status GSSP location Defining markers Geographic Coordinates References
Upper
Maastrichtian 72.1 ± 0.2
GSSP Golden Spike.svg
Grande Carrière quarry,

Landes, France

43°40′46″N 1°06′48″W / 43.6795°N 1.1133°W / 43.6795; -1.1133 [18]
Campanian 83.6 ± 0.2 Candidate sections: - [3]
Santonian 86.3 ± 0.5 Candidate sections: - [3]
Coniacian 89.8 ± 0.3 Candidate sections: - [3]
Turonian 93.9
GSSP Golden Spike.svg
Rock Canyon,

Colorado, USA

38°16′56″N 104°43′39″W / 38.2822°N 104.7275°W / 38.2822; -104.7275 [19]
Cenomanian 100.5
GSSP Golden Spike.svg
Mont Risoux,

Hautes-Alpes, France

44°23′33″N 5°30′43″E / 44.3925°N 5.5119°E / 44.3925; 5.5119 [20]
Lower
Albian ~113.0 Candidate section:

Candidates:

- -
Aptian ~125.0 Candidate section: - -
Barremian ~129.4 Candidate section: - -
Hauterivian ~132.9 Candidate section: - -
Valanginian ~139.8 Candidates sections: - -
Berriasian ~145.0 -

Candidates:

  • Magnetic—base of Chron M18r


Jurassic[edit]

Epoch Stage Age (mya) Status GSSP location Defining markers Geographic Coordinates References
Upper
Tithonian 152.1 ± 0.9 Candidate sections: - -
Kimmeridgian 157.3 ± 1.0 Candidate section: 57°36′00″N 6°12′00″W / 57.6000°N 6.2000°W / 57.6000; -6.2000 -
Oxfordian 163.5 ± 1.0 Candidate sections: - -
Middle
Callovian 166.1 ± 1.2 Candidate sections: - -
Bathonian 168.3 ± 1.3
GSSP Golden Spike.svg
Ravin du Bès, Bas-Auran, Alpes de Haute, France 43°57′38″N 6°18′55″E / 43.9606°N 6.3153°E / 43.9606; 6.3153 [21]
Bajocian 170.3 ± 1.4
GSSP Golden Spike.svg
Cabo Mondego, Portugal 40°11′57″N 8°54′15″W / 40.1992°N 8.9042°W / 40.1992; -8.9042 [22]
Aalenian 174.1 ± 1.0
GSSP Golden Spike.svg
Fuentelsaz, Spain 41°10′15″N 1°50′00″W / 41.1708°N 1.8333°W / 41.1708; -1.8333 [23]
Lower
Toarcian 182.7 ± 0.7 Peniche, Portugal - -
Pliensbachian 190.8 ± 1.0
GSSP Golden Spike.svg
Robin Hood's Bay, Yorkshire, England 54°24′25″N 0°29′51″W / 54.4069°N 0.4975°W / 54.4069; -0.4975 [24]
Sinemurian 199.3 ± 0.3
GSSP Golden Spike.svg
East Quantoxhead, West Somerset, England 51°11′27″N 3°14′11″W / 51.1909°N 3.2364°W / 51.1909; -3.2364 [25]
Hettangian 201.3 ± 0.2
GSSP Golden Spike.svg
Kuhjoch section, Karwendel mountains, Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria 47°29′02″N 11°31′50″E / 47.4839°N 11.5306°E / 47.4839; 11.5306

Triassic[edit]

Epoch Stage Age (mya) Status GSSP location Defining markers Geographic Coordinates References
Upper
Rhaetian ~208.5 Candidate sections: - -
Norian ~228 Candidate sections: - -
Carnian ~235
GSSP Golden Spike.svg
Prati di Stuores, Dolomites, Italy 46°31′37″N 11°55′49″E / 46.5269°N 11.9303°E / 46.5269; 11.9303 [26]
Middle
Ladinian ~242
GSSP Golden Spike.svg
Bagolino, Lombardian pre-Alps, Italy 45°49′09″N 10°28′16″E / 45.8193°N 10.4710°E / 45.8193; 10.4710 [27]
Anisian 247.2 Candidate sections: 45°04′27″N 28°48′08″E / 45.0742°N 28.8022°E / 45.0742; 28.8022
Lower
Olenekian 251.2 Candidate sections: 31°57′55″N 78°01′29″E / 31.9654°N 78.0246°E / 31.9654; 78.0246
Induan 252.2 ± 0.5
GSSP Golden Spike.svg
Meishan, Zhejiang, China 31°04′47″N 119°42′21″E / 31.0798°N 119.7058°E / 31.0798; 119.7058

Paleozoic[edit]

Permian[edit]

Epoch Stage Age (mya) Status GSSP location Defining markers Geographic Coordinates References
Lopingian
Changhsingian 254.2 ± 0.1
GSSP Golden Spike.svg
Zhejiang, China 31°04′55″N 119°42′23″E / 31.0819°N 119.7064°E / 31.0819; 119.7064 [28]
Wuchiapingian 259.9 ± 0.4
GSSP Golden Spike.svg
Penglaitan Section,

Laibin, Guangxi, China

23°41′43″N 109°19′16″E / 23.6953°N 109.3211°E / 23.6953; 109.3211 [29]
Guadalupian
Capitanian 265.1 ± 0.4
GSSP Golden Spike.svg
Nipple Hill, Guadalupe Mountains, Texas, U.S.A. 31°54′33″N 104°47′21″W / 31.9091°N 104.7892°W / 31.9091; -104.7892 [3]
Wordian 268.8 ± 0.5
GSSP Golden Spike.svg
Guadalupe Pass, Guadalupe Mountains, Texas, U.S.A. 31°51′57″N 104°49′58″W / 31.8658°N 104.8328°W / 31.8658; -104.8328 [3]
Roadian 272.3 ± 0.5
GSSP Golden Spike.svg
Stratotype Canyon, Guadalupe Mountains, Texas, U.S.A. 31°52′36″N 104°52′36″W / 31.8767°N 104.8768°W / 31.8767; -104.8768 [3]
Cisuralian
Kungurian 279.3 ± 0.6 Candidate section: - [3]
Artinskian 290.1 ± 0.1 Candidate section: - [3]
Sakmarian 295.5 ± 0.4 Candidate section: - [3]
Asselian 298.9 ± 0.2
GSSP Golden Spike.svg
Aidaralash, Ural Mountains, Kazakhstan 50°14′45″N 57°53′29″E / 50.2458°N 57.8914°E / 50.2458; 57.8914 [30]

Carboniferous[edit]

Epoch Stage Age (mya) Status GSSP location Defining markers Geographic Coordinates References
Pennsylvanian
Gzhelian 303.7 ± 0.1 Candidate sections: - [3]
Kasimovian 307.0 ± 0.1 Candidate sections: - [3]
Moscovian 315.2 ± 0.2 Candidate sections: - [3]
Bashkirian 323.2 ± 0.4
GSSP Golden Spike.svg
Arrow Canyon, Nevada, USA 36°44′00″N 114°46′40″W / 36.7333°N 114.7778°W / 36.7333; -114.7778 [31]
Mississippian
Serpukhovian 330.9 ± 0.2 Candidate sections: - [3]
Visean 346.7 ± 0.4
GSSP Golden Spike.svg
Pengchong Section,

Guangxi, China

24°26′00″N 109°27′00″E / 24.4333°N 109.4500°E / 24.4333; 109.4500 [3]
Tournaisian 358.9 ± 0.4
GSSP Golden Spike.svg
La Serre, Montagne Noire, France 43°33′20″N 3°21′26″E / 43.5555°N 3.3573°E / 43.5555; 3.3573 [32]


Devonian[edit]

Epoch Stage Age (mya) Status GSSP location Defining markers Geographic Coordinates References
Upper
Famennian 372.2 ± 1.6
GSSP Golden Spike.svg
Coumiac quarry,

Montagne Noire, France

43°27′41″N 3°02′25″E / 43.4613°N 3.0403°E / 43.4613; 3.0403 [33]
Frasnian 382.7 ± 1.6
GSSP Golden Spike.svg
Col du Puech de la Suque, Montagne Noire, France 43°30′12″N 3°05′12″E / 43.5032°N 3.0868°E / 43.5032; 3.0868 [34]
Middle
Givetian 387.7 ± 0.8
GSSP Golden Spike.svg
Jebel Mech Irdane, Tafilalt, Morocco 31°14′15″N 4°21′15″W / 31.2374°N 4.3541°W / 31.2374; -4.3541 [35]
Eifelian 393.3 ± 1.2
GSSP Golden Spike.svg
Wetteldorf Richtschnitt section,

Wetteldorf, Eifel, Germany

50°08′59″N 6°28′18″E / 50.1496°N 6.4716°E / 50.1496; 6.4716 [36]
Lower
Emsian 407.6 ± 2.6
GSSP Golden Spike.svg
Zinzil'ban Gorge, Uzbekistan 39°12′00″N 67°18′20″E / 39.2000°N 67.3056°E / 39.2000; 67.3056 [37]
Pragian 410.8 ± 2.8
GSSP Golden Spike.svg
Velká Chuchle quarry

Velká Chuchle, Prague, Czech Republic

50°00′53″N 14°22′21″E / 50.0147°N 14.3726°E / 50.0147; 14.3726 [38]
Lochkovian 419.2 ± 3.2
GSSP Golden Spike.svg
Klonk, Prague, Czech Republic 49°51′18″N 13°47′31″E / 49.8550°N 13.7920°E / 49.8550; 13.7920 [3]


Silurian[edit]

Epoch Stage Age (mya) Status GSSP location Defining markers Geographic Coordinates References
Přídolí 423.0 ± 2.3
GSSP Golden Spike.svg
Požáry Section,

Řeporyje District, Prague, Czech Republic

50°01′40″N 14°19′30″E / 50.0277°N 14.3249°E / 50.0277; 14.3249 [39]
Ludlow
Ludfordian 425.6 ± 0.9
GSSP Golden Spike.svg
Sunnyhill, Ludlow, England 52°21′33″N 2°46′38″W / 52.3592°N 2.7772°W / 52.3592; -2.7772 [40]
Gorstian 427.4 ± 0.5
GSSP Golden Spike.svg
Pitch Coppice, Ludlow, U.K. 52°21′33″N 2°46′38″W / 52.3592°N 2.7772°W / 52.3592; -2.7772 [40]
Wenlock
Homerian 430.5 ± 0.7
GSSP Golden Spike.svg
Whitwell Coppice, Homer, England 52°36′56″N 2°33′53″W / 52.6156°N 2.5647°W / 52.6156; -2.5647 [40]
Sheinwoodian 433.4 ± 0.8
GSSP Golden Spike.svg
Hughley Brook, Apedale, U.K.
  • Imprecise GSSP. Will be reexamined.
  • Biologic: Currently between acritarch biozone 5 and last appearance of Pterospathodus amorphognathoides. Candidate boundaries are a conodont boundary (Ireviken datum 2) which is close to the murchisoni graptolite biozone.
52°34′52″N 2°38′20″W / 52.5811°N 2.6389°W / 52.5811; -2.6389 [3][40]
Llandovery
Telychian 438.5 ± 1.1
GSSP Golden Spike.svg
Cefn-cerig Road,

Llandovery, England

51°58′12″N 3°47′24″W / 51.9700°N 3.7900°W / 51.9700; -3.7900 [39]
Aeronian 440.8 ± 1.2
GSSP Golden Spike.svg
Trefawr Track, Llandovery, U.K. 52°01′48″N 3°42′00″W / 52.0300°N 3.7000°W / 52.0300; -3.7000 [39]
Rhuddanian 443.4 ± 1.5
GSSP Golden Spike.svg
Dob's Linn, Moffat, U.K. 55°26′24″N 3°16′12″W / 55.4400°N 3.2700°W / 55.4400; -3.2700 [39]

Ordovician[edit]

Epoch Stage Age (mya) Status GSSP location Defining markers Geographic Coordinates References
Upper
Hirnantian 445.2 ± 1.4
GSSP Golden Spike.svg
Wangjiawan section

Wangjiawan, Yichang, China

  • Biologic: First appearance of Normalograptus extraordinarius (Graptolite).
  • Climatic: Base of major positive carbon isotope excursion.
  • Climatic: Beginning of sea-level fall associated with onset of a major glaciation.
30°59′03″N 111°25′11″E / 30.9841°N 111.4197°E / 30.9841; 111.4197 [41]
Katian 453.0 ± 0.7
GSSP Golden Spike.svg
Black Knob Ridge section,

Oklahoma, USA

34°25′50″N 96°04′29″W / 34.4305°N 96.0746°W / 34.4305; -96.0746 [42]
Sandbian 458.4 ± 0.9
GSSP Golden Spike.svg
Fågelsång section

Sularp Brook, Skåne, Sweden

55°42′49″N 13°19′32″E / 55.7137°N 13.3255°E / 55.7137; 13.3255 [43]
Middle
Darriwilian 467.3 ± 1.1
GSSP Golden Spike.svg
Huangnitang Section

Huangnitang, Zhejiang, China

28°51′14″N 118°29′23″E / 28.8539°N 118.4897°E / 28.8539; 118.4897 [44]
Dapingian 470.0 ± 1.4
GSSP Golden Spike.svg
Huanghuachang section

Huanghuachang, Yichang, China

30°51′38″N 111°22′26″E / 30.8605°N 111.3740°E / 30.8605; 111.3740 [45][46]
Lower
Floian 477.7 ± 1.4
GSSP Golden Spike.svg
Diabasbrottet quarry,

Västergötland, Sweden

58°21′32″N 12°30′09″E / 58.3589°N 12.5024°E / 58.3589; 12.5024 [47]
Tremadocian 485.4 ± 1.9
GSSP Golden Spike.svg
Greenpoint section

Green Point, Newfoundland, Canada

49°40′58″N 57°57′55″W / 49.6829°N 57.9653°W / 49.6829; -57.9653 [48]

Cambrian[edit]

Epoch Stage Age (mya) Status GSSP location Defining markers Geographic Coordinates References
Furongian
Stage 10 ~489.5 Candidate sections:

Candidates:

- [49]
Jiangshanian ~494
GSSP Golden Spike.svg
Duibian B Section

Duibian, Zhejiang, China

28°48′57″N 118°36′54″E / 28.815967°N 118.614933°E / 28.815967; 118.614933 [50]
Paibian ~497
GSSP Golden Spike.svg
Paibi section

Paibi, Hunan, China

28°23′22″N 109°31′33″E / 28.3895°N 109.5257°E / 28.3895; 109.5257 [51]
Series 3
Guzhangian ~500.5
GSSP Golden Spike.svg
Luoyixi section

Luoyixi, Guzhang, Hunan, China

28°43′12″N 109°57′53″E / 28.7200°N 109.9647°E / 28.7200; 109.9647 [52]
Drumian ~504.5
GSSP Golden Spike.svg
Drumian section

Wheeler Shale, Utah, U.S.A.

39°30′42″N 112°59′29″W / 39.5117°N 112.9915°W / 39.5117; -112.9915 [53]
Stage 5 ~509 Candidate sections: - [54]
Series 2
Stage 4 ~514 None - [55]
Stage 3 ~521 None - [56][57]
Terreneuvian
Stage 2 ~529 None - -
Fortunian 541.0 ± 1.0
GSSP Golden Spike.svg
Fortune head section,

Newfoundland, Canada

47°04′34″N 55°49′52″W / 47.0762°N 55.8310°W / 47.0762; -55.8310 [58]


Precambrian[edit]

Proterozoic[edit]

Epoch Stage Age (mya) Status GSSP location Defining markers Geographic Coordinates References
Neoproterozoic
Ediacaran ~635
GSSP Golden Spike.svg
Enorama Creek section

Flinders Ranges, South Australia

  • Geologic: Worldwide distinct cap carbonates.
  • Isotopic: Beginning of a distinctive pattern of secular changes in carbon isotopes.
31°19′53″S 138°38′00″E / 31.3314°S 138.6334°E / -31.3314; 138.6334 [59]
Cryogenian 850
GSSP Golden Clock.svg
Defined chronometrically now. GSSP is in progress. - - [60]
Tonian 1000
GSSP Golden Clock.svg
Defined chronometrically - - [60]
Mesoproterozoic
Stenian 1200
GSSP Golden Clock.svg
Defined chronometrically - - [60]
Ectasian 1400
GSSP Golden Clock.svg
Defined chronometrically - - [60]
Calymmian 1600
GSSP Golden Clock.svg
Defined chronometrically - - [60]
Paleoproterozoic
Statherian 1800
GSSP Golden Clock.svg
Defined chronometrically - - [60]
Orosirian 2050
GSSP Golden Clock.svg
Defined chronometrically - - [60]
Rhyacian 2300
GSSP Golden Clock.svg
Defined chronometrically - - [60]
Siderian 2500
GSSP Golden Clock.svg
Defined chronometrically - - [60]


Archean[edit]

Epoch Stage Age (mya) Status GSSP location Defining markers Geographic Coordinates References
Neoarchean 2800
GSSP Golden Clock.svg
Mesoarchean 3200
GSSP Golden Clock.svg
Paleoarchean 3600
GSSP Golden Clock.svg
Eoarchean 4000
GSSP Golden Clock.svg
Hadean 4567

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Walker, Mike; Johnsen, Sigfus; Rasmussen, Sune Olander; Popp, Trevor; Steffensen, Jørgen-Peder; Gibbard, Phil; Hoek, Wim; Lowe, John; Andrews, John; Björck, Svante; Cwynar, Les C.; Hughen, Konrad; Kershaw, Peter; Kromer, Bernd; Litt, Thomas; Lowe, David J.; Nakagawa, Takeshi; Newnham, Rewi; Schwander, Jakob (1 January 2009). "Formal definition and dating of the GSSP (Global Stratotype Section and Point) for the base of the Holocene using the Greenland NGRIP ice core, and selected auxiliary records". Journal of Quaternary Science 24 (1): 3–17. doi:10.1002/jqs.1227. 
  2. ^ Litt, Thomas; Philip Gibbard (2008). "Definition of a Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the base of the Upper (Late) Pleistocene Subseries (Quaternary System/Period)". Episodes 31 (2). Retrieved 14 September 2012. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s "Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point". International Commission of Stratigraphy. Retrieved 14 September 2012. 
  4. ^ Aguirre, E; G. Pasini (1985). "The Pliocene - Pleistocene Boundary". Episodes 8 (2): 116–120. Retrieved 14 September 2012. 
  5. ^ Rio, Domenico; R. Sprovieri; D. Castradori; E. Di Stefano (1998). "The Gelasian Stage (Upper Pliocene): A new unit of the global standard chronostratigraphic scale". Episodes 21 (2): 82–87. Retrieved 14 September 2012. 
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