List of Galician words of Celtic origin

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This is a list of Galician words of Celtic origin, many of them being also shared with Portuguese since both languages share a common origin in the medieval language of Galician-Portuguese. A few of these words existed in Latin as loanwords from a Celtic source, usually Gaulish, while other have been later received from other languages, mainly French, Occitan, and Spanish. Finally, some were directly acquired from Gallaecian, the local pre-Latin Celtic language. Any form with an asterisk (*) is unattested and therefore hypothetical.

A systematic investigation of the Celtic words in Galician is still lacking.[1]

A - C[edit]

  • abanqueiro[2][3] [m] 'waterfall' < *'(beaver) dam', formally a derivative in -arium of *abanco, from Proto-Celtic *abankos 'beaver, water demon'[4][5] cognate of Old Irish abacc 'dwarf', Welsh afanc 'beaver, dwarf', Breton avank 'dwarf, sea monster'.
  • abeneiro [6] [m] 'common alder', a derivative in -arium of *abona 'river', related to Breton avon, Welsh afon, Irish abha/abhainn 'river'.
  • abruño/abruñeiro 'prunus spinosa'[m] 'sloe', dialectal agruño,[7] from Vulgar Latin *aprūneu, from Latin prūnum, maybe under the influence of Celtic *agrīnio;[4][5][8] akin to Irish áirne, Welsh eirin 'plum'; cognate of Occitan agranhon, Provençal agreno, Catalan aranyó, Aragonese arañon.
  • albó, alboio [m] 'shed, barn, enclosure', from proto-Celtic *ɸare-bow-yo-,[9] cognate of Old Irish airbe 'hedge, fence, pen'.
  • Old Galician ambas [f p] 'waters, river', ambas mestas [f] 'confluence',[10][11] from Celtic ambe[12] 'water, river', akin to Gaulish ambe 'river', Old Irish abu.
  • banastra [f] 'basket', from Old French banaste, from Celtic *benna 'cart'.[13]
  • banzo[2] [m] (alternative spelling banço) 'crossbar, beam', from proto-Celtic *wank-yo-,[4] cognate of Spanish banzo; akin to Irish féige 'ridgepole'.
Derivatives: banza 'backrest', banzado, banzao 'palisade, dam'.
  • barga [f] 'hut; wall made of hurdles; hurdle, fence', from Celtic *wraga,[14][15] cognate of Spanish varga 'hut', French barge, akin to Old Irish fraig, Irish fraigh 'braided wall, roof, pen', Br gwrac'hell 'haybale, rick of hay'.
Derivatives: bargo 'stake or flagstone used for making fences or walls'; barganzo, bargado 'hurdle, fence'.
  • barra [f] 'garret, loft, upper platform', from proto-Celtic *barro-,[4][5] cognate of Irish, Breton barr 'summit, peak, top', Welsh bar
  • bascullo [m] 'bundle of straw; broom', from proto-Celtic *baski- 'bundle',[5] cognate of Gascon bascojo 'basket', Asturian bascayu 'broom', Breton bec'h 'bundle, load'.
  • berro [m] 'watercress', from proto-Celtic *beru-ro-,[4][5][16][17] cognate of Spanish berro; akin to Old Irish biror, Welsh berwr, Old Breton beror; similarly French berle 'water parsnip' (< berula ; Ir biolar, Breton beler).
  • bico [m] 'beak, kiss', from proto-Celtic *bekko-,[5][18][19] cognate of Italian becco, French bec.
Derivatives: bicar 'to kiss', bicaño 'hill', bicallo (a fish, Gadus luscus).
  • bidueiro[2] [m] < *betūlariu, biduo [m] < *betūlu, bidulo [m] < *betūllu 'birch',[20] from Celtic *betu- or *betū-,[4][5] cognate of Spanish biezo, Catalan beç, Occitan bèç (< bettiu); Spanish abedul, French bouleau, Italian betulla (< betula); akin to Irish beith, Welsh bedw, Breton bezv.
Derivatives: Bidueiral, Bidual 'place with birch-trees'.
  • billa,[2] alternative spelling bilha, [f] 'spigot; stick' to Proto-Celtic *beljo- 'tree, trunk',[21] akin to Old Irish bille 'large tree, tree trunk', Manx billey 'tree', Welsh pill 'stump', Breton pil; cognate of French bille 'log, chunk of wood'.
  • borba[2] [f] 'mud, slime, mucus', from proto-Celtic *borwâ-,[22] cognate of French bourbe 'mud'; akin to Irish borb 'mud, slime', bearbh 'boiling', Welsh berw 'boiling', Breton berv 'broth, bubbling'.
Derivatives: borbento 'mucilaginous'.
  • borne [m] 'edge', from French borne 'milestone, landmark', from Old French bosne, bodne, from Vulgar Latin *bodĭna / *budĭna 'border tree', from proto-Celtic *botina 'troop'.,[23] akin to Old Irish buiden, Welsh byddin 'army' (from *budīnā)
  • braga[2] [f] 'trousers', from proto-Celtic *braco-,[24] cognate of Spanish, Occitan braga, French braie, Italian brache.
Derivatives: bragal, bragada 'spawn', bragueiro 'trus'.
  • braña [f] (alternative spelling branha) 'meadow, bog, quagmire', from proto-Celtic *bragno-,[5][25] cognate of Asturian and Cantabrian braña, Catalan braina, akin to Irish brén Welsh braen Breton brein 'putrid', Ir bréanar W braenar Br breinar 'fallow field'.
Derivatives: brañal, brañeira, brañento 'idem'.
  • breixo[26] [m] 'heather', from *broccius,[27] from Proto-Celtic *vroiki-,[21] akin to Old Irish froich, Welsh gwrug, Cornish grig; cognate of Spanish brezo, Occitan bruga, French bruyère.
  • Old Galician bren [m] 'bran', maybe from Provençal brem, from proto-Celtic *brenno-,[28] cognate of French bran, Lombard bren.
  • bringa[29] [f]'stalk, rod', from *brīnikā, from Celtic *brīnos 'rod'; akin to Welsh brwyn 'rush', Cornish broenn, Breton broen; cognate of French brin 'blade (of grass), stalk'.
  • brío[2] [m] 'might, power', from Italian brio, from Catalan/Old Occitan briu 'wild', from Celtic *brigos,[5] cognate of Occitan briu, Old French brif 'finesse, style'; akin to Old Irish bríg 'power', Welsh bri 'prestige, authority', Breton bri 'respect'.
  • Old Galician busto [m] 'cattle farm, dairy', from a Celtic compound *bow-sto-[30] meaning 'cow-place', akin to Celtiberian boustom 'cow shed, byre', Old Irish bua-thech 'cow house/byre'; cognate of Portuguese bostar, Spanish bustar
Derivatives: bustar 'pastures'.
  • cai [m] 'quay, jetty', maybe from French (itself from Norman) quai, from proto-Celtic *kag-yo-,[5][31][32] akin to Welsh cae, Cornish ke, Breton kae 'hedge'; French chai 'cellar'.
  • cambiar 'to change', from Vulgar Latin cambiare, from proto-Celtic *kambo-,[4][5][33] cognate of French changer, Occitan/Spanish cambiar, Catalan canviar, Italian cambiare; akin to Breton kemm 'exchange', Old Irish cimb 'ransom'.
Derivatives: cambio 'exchange', cambiador 'exchanger'.
  • camba[2] [f] 'wheel rim' from proto-Celtic *kambo-,[4][5][34] cognate of Old Irish camm 'crooked, bent, curved'. Cognate of Occitan cambeta 'part of plough', Limousin Occitan chambija (< *cambica) 'part of plough'
Derivatives: cambito, cambada, camballa, cambeira 'coil; crooked log for hanging fish', cambela 'type of plough', cambota 'beam'.
  • camiño[2] [m] 'pathway', alternative spelling caminho, from Vulgar Latin *cammīnus, from proto-Celtic *kanxsman-,[5][35] cognate of Italian cammino, French chemin, Spanish camino, Catalan camí, Occitan camin ; akin to Old Irish céimm, Breton cam 'step'.
Derivatives: camiñar 'to walk'.
  • camisa[2] [f] 'shirt' from Latin, from Gaulish camisia.[36] cognate of Spanish/Occitan camisa, Italian camicia, French chainse
  • canga[2] [f] 'collar, yoke', from Celtic *kambika.[37]
  • canto [m] 'rim, corner', from proto-Celtic *kanto-,[4] akin to Old Irish cét 'round stone pillar, Welsh cant 'tire rim', Breton kant 'disk'; cognate of Old French chant, Occitan cant, Spanish canto.
Derivatives: recanto 'corner', cantón 'edge of a field', acantoar 'to hide, to isolate', cantil 'cliff'
A Galician traditional carro. The wheels are built with cambas or curved pieces; the laterals of the cart are called chedas.
  • carro [m] 'cart, wagon', from Vulgar Latin carrum, from proto-Celtic *karro-,[4][5][38] cognate of Rumanian car, Italian carro, French char, Provençal car, Spanish carro; akin to Irish carr, Welsh car, Breton karr.
Derivatives: carreira 'road', carregar 'to load'.
  • caxigo [m] 'oak; Portuguese oak', from *cassīcos, from Celtic *cassos 'curly, twisted',[39] akin to Irish cas 'twist, turn, spin', Old Welsh cascord 'to twist'; cognate of Asturian caxigu, Aragonese caixico, Gascon casse, French chêne 'oak' (< *cassanos).
  • centolo [m] 'European spider crab', akin to Gaulish personal name CINTULLOS 'the first one',[40] from PCl *kintu- 'first'.
  • cervexa[2] [f] 'beer', alternative spelling cerveja, from Vulgar Latin *cerevisia, from Gaulish[41] Cognates: Old French cervoise, Provençal, Spanish cerveza; akin to Old Irish coirm, Welsh cwrw, Breton korev.
  • cheda[2] [f] 'lateral external board of a cart, where the crossbars are affixed', from Medieval Latin cleta, from proto-Celtic *klētā,[4][5][42] cognate of Irish cloí (cloidhe) 'fence', clíath 'palisade, hurdle', Welsh clwyd 'barrier, wattle, scaffolding, gate', Breton kloued; cognate of French claie 'rack, wattle fencing', Occitan cleda, Catalan cleda 'livestock pen', Basque gereta.
  • choco [m] 'cowbell; squid', from proto-Celtic *klokko-,[4][5][43] akin to Old Irish clocc, Welsh cloch, Breton kloc'h; cognate of Asturian llueca and llócara 'cowbell', French cloche 'bell', German Glock.
Derivatives: chocar 'to bang, to shock', chocallo 'cowbell'.
  • colmea[2] [m] 'beehive', from a Celtic form *kolmēnā 'made of straw'[44] (cf. Spanish colmena 'beehive'), from *kolmos 'straw', which gave Leonese cuelmo; cf. Welsh calaf "reed, stalk", Cornish kalav "straw", Breton kolo "stalk").
  • cómaro, comareiro [m] 'limits of a patch or field, usually left intentionally unploughed', from proto-Celtic *kom-ɸare-(yo)-,[5] cognate of Old Irish comair 'in front of', Welsh cyfair 'direction, place, spot, acre'. Or either to *kom-boros 'brought together'.[45]
Derivatives: acomarar 'to mark out a field (literally to dote with cómaros)'.
  • comba [f] 'valley, inflexion', from proto-Celtic *kumbā,[4][5][46] cognate of North Italian comba, French combe, Occitan comba; akin to Irish com, Welsh cwm 'hollow (land form)', Cornish komm 'small valley, dingle', Breton komm 'small valley, deep water'.
  • combarro [m], combarrizo [m] 'shed, shelter',[47] from proto-Celtic *kom-ber-o- 'bring together'.[5] Cognate of Middle French combres 'palisade in a river, for fishing'.
  • combo [m] (adj.) 'curved, bent', from Celtic *kumbo-,[4][5][48] cognate of Provençal comb, Spanish combo.
Derivatives: combar 'to bend'.
  • comboa [f] 'corral used for capturing fish trapped in low tide', from Old Galician combona, from Celtic *combā 'valley' or *cambos 'bent'.[48]
  • crica [f] 'vulva; nose; ribbon', from Celtic *cricā, from proto-Celtic *krīkʷā,[5] cognate of Middle Irish críoch 'furrow, boundary', Welsh crib 'comb, crest, ridge', Breton krib 'comb, crest'.
  • croio[2] [m] 'rolling stone', croia [f] 'pip', from proto-Celtic *krowdi-,[4][5][49] akin to Old Irish crúaid 'hard, harsh', Welsh cru, Breton kriz; cognate of Occitan croi 'cruel', North Italian crojo.
Derivatives: croio (adj.) 'ugly, rude'; croído, croieira 'stony place/beach'.
  • crouca [f] 'head; withers (ox)', from Celtic croucā,[4][5][50] cognate of Provençal crauc 'heap', Occitan cruca 'cape (land form)'; akin to Irish cruach 'pile, haystack', Welsh crug 'hillock, barrow, heap', Breton krug 'mound, barrow'.
Derivatives: crocar 'swell, bulge, bruise', croque 'bump'.
  • curro [m] 'corral, pen; corner', from Celtic *korro-,[5] akin to Middle Irish cor 'circle, turn', corrán 'sickle', Welsh cor 'enclosure', Cornish kor 'turn, veering'; cognate of Spanish corro, corral.
Derivatives: curruncho, currucho, currullo 'corner, end', currusco 'protruding part (in bread)', curral 'corral, pen'.

D - Z[edit]

  • dorna [f] 'a type of boat; trough, measurement (volume)',[51] from proto-Celtic *durno- 'fist'.,[52] Irish dorn fish, Breton dorn 'hand'; Akin to Old French, Occitan dorn, 'a handful'.[53] Nevertheless the Asturian duerna 'bowl' demand a form **dorno-.
  • embaixada [f] 'embassy', from Provençal ambaissada, from ambaissa 'service, duty', from proto-Celtic *ambactos 'servant',[54] akin to Welsh amaeth 'farm', Cornish ammeth 'farming', Old Breton ambaith
  • engo, irgo [m] 'danewort', from *édgo, from a Low Latin EDUCUS, from Gaulish odocos,[55] idem.[56] Cognate of Spanish yezgo, Asturian yeldu, Provençal olègue, idem.
  • gabela [f] 'handful, faggot', alternative spelling gavela, from proto-Celtic *gabaglā-,[57][58][59] cognate of French javelle, Provençal gavela, Spanish gavilla; akin to Old Cornish gavael 'catch, capture', Irish gabháil 'get, take, grab, capture', gabhal 'fork'.
  • galga [f] 'plain stone', from *gallikā, to Proto-Celtic *gallos 'stone',[4] akin to Irish gall, French galet 'gravel' gallete 'plain cake', Spanish galga.
Derivatives: galgar 'carving a stone to make it plain and regular'.
  • gorar[2] 'to hatch, to brood (an egg, or a sickness)', from proto-Celtic *gʷhor-,[60][61] akin to Irish gor 'sit on eggs, brood (eggs)' Welsh/Cornish gori 'to brood, sit (on eggs)', Breton goriñ.
Derivatives: goro 'warmed infertile egg'.
  • gubia [f] 'gouge', from Celtic *gulbia, from *gulb- 'beak',[62][63] cognate of Portuguese goiva, Spanish gubia, French gouge, Italian gubba; akin to Old Irish gulba 'sting', Irish gealbhán 'sparrow', Welsh gylyf 'sickle', gylf 'beak'.
  • lándoa [f] 'uncultivated plot', from *landula, Romance derivative of proto-Celtic *landā,[4][5][64] cognate of Old Irish lann 'land, plot', Welsh lann 'church-yard', French lande 'sandy moor, heath', Provençal, Catalan landa.
  • lavego [m], lavega [f] 'plough', from *ɸlāw-aiko-,[65] to proto-Celtic *ɸlāwo-, cognate of Langobard plovum, German Pflug, English plough.
  • laxe[2][65] [f] 'stone slab', alternative spelling lage, from the medieval form lagena, from proto-Celtic *ɸlāgenā,[66] cognate of Old Irish lágan, láigean, Welsh llain 'broad spearhead, blade'; akin to Irish láighe 'mattock, spade'.
  • legua or légua[67] [f] 'league', to Proto-Celtic *leukā, cognate of French lieue, Spanish legua; akin to Old Irish líe (genitive líag) 'stone', Irish lia
Walled leiras, in Muxía, Galicia.
  • leira [f] 'plot, delimited and levelled field', from the medieval form laria, from proto-Celtic *ɸlār-yo-,[5][68] akin to Old Irish làr 'ground, floor', Breton leur 'ground', Welsh llawr 'floor'.
Derivatives: leiro 'small, ou unleveled, plot', leirar 'land working', leiroto, leiruca 'small plot'.
  • Old Galician ler [m] 'sea, seashore', from proto-Celtic *liros,[4][5] cognate of Old Irish ler, Irish lear, Welsh llyr 'sea'.
  • lercha[69] [f] 'rod, stick (used for hanging fish)', from proto-Celtic *wliskā[70] 'stick', cognate of Old Irish flesc.
  • lousa[2] [f] 'flagstone', from Proto-Celtic *laws-,[71] cognate of Provençal lausa, Spanish losa, French losenge 'diamond'.
Derivatives: enlousar 'to cover with flagstones', lousado 'roof'.
  • marulo [m] 'big, fat kid', from *mārullu,[72] diminutive of Proto-Celtic *māros 'large, great, big', akin to Irish mór, Welsh mawr, Breton meur.
  • meniño [m] 'kid, child, baby', alternative spelling meninho, from medieval mennino, from proto-Celtic *menno-,[5] akin to Old Irish menn 'kid (goat)', Irish meannán, Welsh myn, Breton menn.
Derivatives: meniñez 'childhood'.
A miñoca.
  • miñoca [f] 'earthworm', alternative spelling minhoca, dialectal mioca, miroca, from medieval *milocca, from proto-Celtic *mîlo-,[4][5] akin to Asturian milu, merucu 'earthworm', Irish míol 'worm, maggot', Welsh, Breton mil 'animal'.
  • mostea [f] 'bundle of straw', from proto-Celtic *bostā- 'hand, palm, fist'.,[73] Irish bos, bas 'palm of hand'.
  • olga [f] 'patch, plot', from proto-Celtic *ɸolkā,[74][75][76] cognate of French ouche, Provençal olca. Nevertheless *ɸolkā should become **ouca.
  • peza [f] 'piece', alternative spelling peça, from Vulgar Latin *pettia, from Gaulish petsi, from proto-Celtic *kʷezdi,[5][77][78] cognate of Italian pezza, French pièce, Spanish pieza; akin to Old Irish cuit (Irish cuid) 'piece, share, part', Welsh peth 'thing', Breton pez.
Derivatives: empezar 'to begin'.
  • rego [m], rega [f] 'furrow, ditch', from proto-Celtic *ɸrikā,[79][80][81] akin to Welsh rhych, Breton reg, Scottish/Irish riach 'trace left from something'; cognate of French raie, Occitan, Catalan rega, Basque erreka, Italian riga 'wrinkle'.
Derivatives: derregar 'to mark out a field', regato 'stream, gully, glen'.
  • reo [m] 'Salmo trutta trutta', from a Celtic form rhedo (Ausonius).[82]
  • rodaballo[2] [m] 'turbot', alternative spelling rodavalho, from a Celtic composite form *roto-ball-jo-,[83] meaning 'round-extremity', akin to Irish roth 'wheel', Welsh rhod, Breton rod, and Irish ball 'limb, organ'.
  • saboga, samborca [f] 'allis shad', akin to Gaulish samauca, idem, from Celtic *samākā 'summery'.[84]
  • saio [85] [m] 'coat' and saia [f] 'skirt', from the medieval form sagia, from an ancient Celtic form from which also Latin sagum 'robe'.[86]
  • seara, senra [f] 'sown field recently broken up, but which is left fallow', from a medieval form senara, a Celtic compound of *seni- 'apart, separated' (cf. Old Irish sain 'alone', Welsh han 'other') and *aro- 'ploughed field'.[87] (cf. Welsh âr, Irish ár 'ploughed field').
  • tasca [f] and tascón [m], 'swingle', related to Galatian taskós 'peg, stake'.[88]
  • tol and tola[89] [m / f] 'irrigation channel', to Proto-Celtic *tullo- 'pierced, perforated',[21] akin to Irish toll 'hollow, cave, hole', Welsh twll 'hole', Breton toull 'hole'; cognate of Spanish tollo 'hole', Catalan toll 'pool in a river', Old French tolon 'hill, upland'.
  • tona [f] 'skin, bark, scum of milk', from proto-Celtic *tondā,[5][90][91] cognate of Old Irish tonn, Welsh tonn.
Derivatives: toneira 'pot for obtaining butter from the milk'.
Toxos and breixos, near O Grove
  • toxo [m], alternative spelling tojo, 'gorse, furze (Ulex europaeus)', from Celtic *togi-,[92] akin to Spanish/Gascon toja, French dialectal tuie.
Derivatives: fura-toxos 'marten'; toxa 'ulex gallii'; toxedo, toxa, toxeira 'place with toxos'.
  • trosma[93] [m] 'awkward, dimwitted', from proto-Celtic *trudsmo- or *truksmo- 'heavy',[94] akin to Old Irish tromm, Welsh trwm.
  • trado, trade [m] 'auger', from proto-Celtic *taratro-,[4][5][95] cognate of Irish tarathar, Welsh taradr, Breton tarar, Occitan taraire, Catalan taradre, Spanish taladro, French tarière, Romansch tarader.
Derivatives: tradar 'to drill'.
  • tranca [f], tranco [m] 'beam, pole', from proto-Celtic *tarankā,[96][97] cognate of Spanish tranca 'club, cudgel', French taranche 'screw bar, ratchet (wine press)', Provençal tarenco; akin to OIr tairinge 'iron nail, tine', Ir tairne 'metal nail, Sc tairnge 'nail'.
Derivatives: taranzón 'pillar inside the potter's oven' < *tarankyon-, tarangallo 'Wood nail, pin', trancar 'to bar a door'.
Galician traditional trobos or colmeas (beehives). The closer one is similar to reconstructed Iron Age huts.
  • trebo, trobo [m] 'beehive', from the medieval form trebano, proto-Celtic *trebno-,[5] akin to Old Irish treb 'farm', Cornish tre 'home; town', Welsh tref 'town'; akin to Asturian truébanu 'beehive', Provençal trevar 'to dwell, live (at)'.
  • trogo [m] 'sadness, anxiety, pity', from proto-Celtic *trougos,[4][5] akin to Old Irish tróg, Irish trogha, Welsh tru 'wretched', Breton tru 'miserable'; cognate of Portuguese truhão, Spanish truhan 'baffoon, jester', French truand 'beggar'.
  • vasalo [m] 'vassal', alternative spelling vassalo, from Vulgar Latin vassalus, from proto-Celtic *wasto-,[5][98] cognate of French vassal, Spanish vasallo, Middle Irish foss 'servant', Welsh gwas 'servant; lad', Breton gwaz.
  • verea [f] 'main road', from the medieval form vereda, from Celtic *uɸo-rēdo-,[99][100] cognate of Spanish vereda 'pathway'; akin to Welsh gorwydd 'steed', Vulgar Latin veredus 'horse', French palefroi 'steed' (< *para-veredus).


  1. ^ cf. Koch, John T. (ed.) (2006). Celtic culture: a historical encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 790. ISBN 1-85109-440-7. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Mariño Paz, Ramón (1998). Historia da lingua galega (2. ed. ed.). Santiago de Compostela: Sotelo Blanco. p. 30. ISBN 84-7824-333-X. 
  3. ^ Prósper (2002) p. 90.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Ward A. (1996), s.v.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai Matasovic R. (2009), s.v.
  6. ^ Bascuas, Edelmiro (2002). Estudios de hidronimia paleoeuropea gallega. Santiago de Compostela: Universidade, Servicio de Publicacións e Intercambio Científico. pp. 257–262. ISBN 84-9750-026-1. 
  7. ^ Cf. Dicionario de Dicionarios da lingua galega, s.v. agruño, and Tesouro do léxico patrimonial galego-portugués s.v. abruño.
  8. ^ cf. Meyer-Lübke 294.
  9. ^ Ward A. (1996), s.v. AREBOWION.
  10. ^ Bascuas, Edelmiro (2002). Estudios de hidronimia paleoeuropea gallega. Santiago de Compostela: Universidade, Servicio de Publicacións e Intercambio Científico. p. 212. ISBN 84-9750-026-1. 
  11. ^ Moralejo (2007) p. 50.
  12. ^ Matasovic R. (2009), s.v. *abon-
  13. ^ Remacle, Louis (1997). Etymologie et phonétique wallonnes : Questions diverses. Liège: Faculté de Philosophie et Lettres de l'Université de Liège. pp. 15–21. ISBN 978-2-87019-267-2. 
  14. ^ Coromines (1997) s.v. varga
  15. ^ TLFi s.v. barge3
  16. ^ Meyer-Lübke 1054
  17. ^ Donkin (1864), s.v. berro
  18. ^ Ward A. (1996), s.v. BECLOS
  19. ^ Meyer-Lübke 1013
  20. ^ Meyer-Lübke s. v. *betulus, *betullus
  21. ^ a b c Matasovic (2009) s.v.
  22. ^ Ward A. (1996), s.v. BORWOS
  23. ^ Meyer-Lübke 1235
  24. ^ Meyer-Lübke 1252
  25. ^ Ward A. (1996), s.v. MRAKNOS
  26. ^ Báscuas (2006) p. 134.
  27. ^ Cf. Coromines (1973) s.v. brezo.
  28. ^ Meyer-Lübke 1284
  29. ^ Coromines (1973) s.v. brizna.
  30. ^ Matasovic R. (2009), s.v. *bow-
  31. ^ Ward A. (1996), s.v. KAGOS
  32. ^ Meyer-Lübke 1480
  33. ^ Meyer-Lübke 1540
  34. ^ Meyer-Lübke 1542
  35. ^ Meyer-Lübke 1552
  36. ^ Meyer-Lübke 1550.
  37. ^ Meyer-Lübke 1541.
  38. ^ Meyer-Lübke 1721
  39. ^ Coromines (1997) s.v. quejigo; Matasovic (2009) s.v. *casso-
  40. ^ DCECH s.v. centollo
  41. ^ Meyer-Lübke 1830.
  42. ^ Meyer-Lübke 1988
  43. ^ Donkin (1864), s.v.
  44. ^ cf. Varela Sieiro, Xaime. Léxico Cotián na Alta Idade Media de Galicia: A arquitectura civil. Santiago, 2008. ISBN 978-84-9750-781-3. pp. 205-206.
  45. ^ Prósper (2002) p. 242.
  46. ^ Meyer-Lübke 2386
  47. ^ Varela Sieiro, Xaime (2008). Léxico cotián na alta Idade Media de Galicia : a arquitectura civil. Santiago de Compostela: Universidade de Santiago de Compostela. p. 207. ISBN 9788497507813. 
  48. ^ a b Meyer-Lübke 2387
  49. ^ Meyer-Lübke 2338
  50. ^ Meyer-Lübke 2340
  51. ^ Varela Sieiro, Xaime (2003). Léxico cotián na Alta Idade Media de Galicia : o enxoval. A Coruña: Do Castro. pp. 293–294. ISBN 84-8485-120-6. 
  52. ^ Matasovic R. (2009), s.v. *durno-
  53. ^ Meyer-Lübke 2754
  54. ^ Meyer-Lübke 448.
  55. ^ Marcellinus De Medicamentis, 7.13
  56. ^ Cf. Coromines (1997) s.v. yezgo
  57. ^ Ward A. (1996), s.v. GABIT
  58. ^ Matasovic R. (2009), s.v. *gab-yo-
  59. ^ Meyer-Lübke 3627
  60. ^ Ward A. (1996), s.v. GORIT
  61. ^ Matasovic R. (2009), s.v. *gwer-o-
  62. ^ Matasovic R. (2009), s.v. *gulb-
  63. ^ Meyer-Lübke 3911
  64. ^ Meyer-Lübke 4884
  65. ^ a b Búa, Carlos (2007). Dieter Kremer, ed. Onomástica galega: con especial consideración da situación prerromana : actas do primeiro Coloquio de Trier 19 e 20 de maio de 2006. Santiago de Compostela: Universidade de Santiago de Compostela. p. 34. ISBN 978-84-9750-794-3. 
  66. ^ Ward A. (1996), s.v. LĀGENĀ
  67. ^ Coromines (1973) s.v. legua.
  68. ^ cf. Meyer-Lübke 4911.
  69. ^ DCECH s.v. lercha
  70. ^ Matasovic R. (2009), s.v. *wliskā
  71. ^ Cf. Matasovic (2009), s.v. Lîwank-.
  72. ^ Moralejo Laso, Abelardo (1981). Anuario Brigantino (PDF): 36  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  73. ^ Caraballeira Anllo, Xosé Ma. et al. (2005). Diccionario Xerais da lingua (3 ed.). Vigo: Edicións Xerais de Galicia. ISBN 978-84-9782-265-7. 
  74. ^ Ward A. (1996), s.v. OLCĀ
  75. ^ Matasovic R. (2009), s.v. *folkā
  76. ^ Meyer-Lübke 6050
  77. ^ Ward A. (1996), s.v. QEZDI
  78. ^ Meyer-Lübke 6450
  79. ^ Matasovic R. (2009), s.v. frikā-.
  80. ^ Ward A. (1996), s.v. RIKS.
  81. ^ Meyer-Lübke 7299.
  82. ^ Piel, Joseph M. (1976). "AUSÓNIO, FR. MARTÍN SARMIENTO E O PEIXE "REO"". Grial: 514–518.   – via JSTOR (subscription required)
  83. ^ Ward A. (1996), s.v. ROTIS
  84. ^ DCECH s.v. sábalo
  85. ^ Varela Sieiro, Xaime (2003). Léxico cotián na Alta Idade Media de Galicia : o enxoval. A Coruña: Do Castro. pp. 103–105. ISBN 84-8485-120-6. 
  86. ^ de Vaan, Michiel (2008). Etymological dictionary of Latin and the other Italic languages. Leiden: Brill. p. 534. ISBN 9789004167971. 
  87. ^ Coromines (1997) s.v. serna; Matasovic s.v. *aro-
  88. ^ Coromines (1997) s.v. tascar
  89. ^ Bascuas (2006) p. 151
  90. ^ Ward A. (1996), s.v. TONDOS
  91. ^ Meyer-Lübke 8987
  92. ^ Ward A. (1996), s.v. TOGIT.
  93. ^ Martins Estêvez, Higinio (2008). As tribos calaicas: proto-história da Galiza à luz dos dados linguísticos. San Cugat del Vallès, Barcelona: Edições da Galiza. pp. 535–537. ISBN 978-84-936218-0-3. 
  94. ^ Cf. Matasovich R. (2009) s.v. *trummo-.
  95. ^ Meyer-Lübke 8570
  96. ^ Matasovic R. (2009), s.v. *tarankyo-
  97. ^ Meyer-Lübke 8585
  98. ^ Meyer-Lübke 9166
  99. ^ Ward A. (1996), s.v. WORÊDOS
  100. ^ Matasovic R. (2009), s.v. *ufo-rēdos