List of Gaudí buildings
||This article may require copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone, or spelling. (April 2013)|
|Works of Antoni Gaudí|
|Name as inscribed on the World Heritage List|
|Criteria||i, ii, iv|
|UNESCO region||Europe and North America|
|Inscription||1984 (8th Session)|
Gaudí, as an architecture student at the Escola Tècnica Superior d'Arquitectura in Barcelona from 1873 to 1877, achieved only mediocre grades but did well in his "trial drawings and projects." After five years of work, he was awarded the title of architect in 1878. As he signed Gaudí's title, Elies Rogent declared, "Qui sap si hem donat el diploma a un boig o a un geni: el temps ens ho dirà" ("Who knows if we have given this diploma to a nut or to a genius. Time will tell.")
The newly named architect immediately began to plan and design and would remain affiliated with the school his entire life.
Antoni Gaudí and Modernisme
Antoni Gaudí was born in 1852 in Reus, a small town south of Barcelona. The intellectual context towards the end of the 19th century in Catalonia was marked by the so-called ‘Modernisme’, a movement that extended from ca 1880 to the First World War, parallel to currents such as Naturalism, Arts and Crafts, and Art Nouveau. It was motivated by return to traditions as an expression of national identity, as well as by the introduction of modern techniques and materials as part of progress. Modernisme in Catalonia differed from the other movements becoming particularly important for popular cultural identity. It found expression in literature and music, as well as in painting, sculpture, decorative arts and architecture. The best known architects include, apart from antoni Gaudí, who is difficult to classify, Lluís Domènech i Montaner, whose principal designs in Barcelona are on the World Heritage List.
Three works by Antoni Gaudí (1852–1926) were inscribed on the WH List in 1984 (criteria i, ii and iv):
The site is extended to include further four properties by the same architect in 2005 (nominated on the basis of criteria i, ii, iii and vi):
- Casa Vicens (1883-85)
- Antoni Gaudí’s work on the Sagrada Familia (1884-1926)
- Casa Batlló (1904-06);
- Crypt at the Colònia Güell (1898-1905);
Apart from these four it is planned to include further eight properties in five localities in 2005
- Barcelona: Pavilion on the Güell estate (1884-87); college of the Teresianas (1889-94); Casa Calvet (1898-1900); Torre Figueres - Bellesguard (1900-05);
- Comillas (Cantabria): El Capricho (1883-85);
Castilla y León: Astorga Bishop’s Palace (1889-93), Astorga; Casa de Botines (1892-93), León;
Works of Antoni Gaudi
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (May 2013)|
The nomination consists of a series of works by Antoni Gaudí, extending from his first creation as an architect, Casa Vicens (in 1883) to his last projects: including the restoration of the Cathedral of Mallorca and especially the construction of Sagrada Familia, on which he worked, throughout his entire working life. The nominated properties represent a great variety of functions: church, palace, residence, office, garden building. His work reflects inspirations from the cultures and traditions in Catalonia and the Mediterranean in general. At the same time, they are all individual creations, one different from the other, emerging from the cultural context, called ‘el Modernisme’ in late 19th-century Catalonia. Antoni Gaudí’s work represents the genius of the architect, expressing particular spatial qualities and plasticity in the undulating lines, and harmonies of colours and materials in architectural surfaces and sculpted features The main undertaking by Antoni Gaudí is certainly the church of Sagrada Familia. The work had been started by architect Francesc de P. del Villar in 1882 in Gothic revival style. Antoni Gaudí was commissioned in 1883. He made fundamental changes to the first project, and continued the work until his death in 1926. The overall plan of the construction is based on Latin cross. The nave is 90m long and 45m wide, and the transept is 60m. The crypt was built in 1884-89, and the Nativity façade finished in 1905. Of the four fantastic bell towers, Saint Barbara’s tower was finished in 1925, the other three in 1927-30. The transept elevation of the Passion was started in 1960, and construction of the church still continues. Antoni Gaudí was conscious of having initiated a work that went beyond his life time. Therefore, he developed a three-dimensional mathematical model as a guideline for his successors, which was represented in numerous models in various scales. When Antoni Gaudí’s studio was burnt during the civil war in 1937, these models were smashed to the ground. However, a careful study has made it possible to collect some 10,000 fragments, and recompose several of the models.
Casa Vicens, a suburban residence, was the first independent design by Antoni Gaudí. It was commissioned in 1878 and built in 1883-88. It was enlarged in similar forms in 1925 by architect Serra Martinez in consultation with Antoni Gaudí. The design combines mastery in brick and a variety of Valencian tiles of different colours. Its wrought ironwork is remarkable. In the interior, there is a fine series of painted wall decorations. The design has clear influence from the Mudéjar tradition and Islamic Orientalism.
The design of the luxury villa of El Capricho (1883), near the small coastal town of Comillas, in the province of Santander, was commissioned by a rich industrialist. It is a rather large complex, built as rural residence for a bachelor. The architecture has similarities with the [[Casa Vicens]], reflecting Catalan influences. For a period it was used as a restaurant. but in around 2010 became a historic property accessible to the public.
In 1884, Antoni Gaudí designed the pavilions of the Güell estate, in the suburban areas of Barcelona. The project included the porter’s lodge and the stables. This work continued the evolution of Antoni Gaudí’s creative work and was closely associated with the ideas of Modernisme. Here he started introducing elaborate roof lines, and polychrome ceramics for the first time. Most spectacular is the imaginative dragon gate. Today, the buildings are owned by the University and used by the Polytechnic of Barcelona.
The bishop’s palace next to the 16th-18th-century cathedral of Astorga was destroyed in fire in 1886. In the following year, Antoni Gaudí was invited to plan a new palace. This lightgrey granite building with its vaulted interiors reflects the medieval character of the nearby Gothic cathedral. The building has been claimed as one of the best gothic-revival buildings in spain. The work started in 1889, but in 1893 he resigned from the project, later completed by architect Ricardo García Moreno. During the civil war, the building was used as military barracks, and there were various changes. Today, the building is a museum.
Work on the college of the Teresianas had already been started, when Antoni Gaudí was invited, in 1888-89, to take on the project. The building is severe in its appearance and consists of a single elongated rectangular block. In line with the character of the religious congregation he opened the building inwards, using an elaborate system to introduce daylight into the rooms. In 1936-1939, during the civil war, it was used as hospital and military barracks. Afterwards, it has been rehabilitated by the religious community. Today, it is used as a religious school.
Casa de Botines (1892) was commissioned by textile merchants, and consisted of offices and apartments. This multi-storey building reflects the rational neo-medievalist approach as with Viollet-le-Duc. It has a modern steel structure and the façade is in light grey granite. The building was subject to some changes in its interior after it was transformed into a bank in 1929, but was restored in the 1990s. It is today used as offices for a large bank. The design of Casa Calvet, in 1898, represents Antoni Gaudí’s mature work. The building has shops in the ground floor, the owner’s residence on the first floor and rented apartments on the upper floors. The sculptural character of the building in its stone façades, and especially its interiors became particularly marked. Antoni Gaudí introduced here the use of a plaster model to assist in spatial design, common in his later work.
In 1898, Antoni Gaudí was commissioned to design a church for the Colònia Güell, a community working in textile industry outside Barcelona. Antoni Gaudí used a decade to reflect on the project. The work started in 1908, but was interrupted in 1914 with only the Crypt built. This unique structure was used by Antoni Gaudí to experiment building in brick and stone, stretching the possibilities of traditional Catalan structures to their utter limits. The columns and vaults reflect the structural force lines, and combined with mosaics and stained glass create an exceptional spatial effect.
The residential villa of Figueras, or Casa Bellesguard, was designed in 1900. It is a free-standing building on a hill overlooking the city of Barcelona. It has a square floor plan. It has a tall tower, an elaborate stone and slate façade, and white undulating interiors. The character of the building is referred to Catalan traditions. The ancient medieval ruins on the site are integrated using a viaduct with a series of inclined pillars and vaults, anticipating Park Güell.
Casa Batlló (1904-07) is an urban residence in Barcelona owned by Josep Batlló i Casanovas. Commissioned to remodel an existing building, Antoni Gaudí made this one of his most characteristic and best-known works using freely moulded lines, mosaics and elaborated roof lines. He added an extra floor and formed the roof into a huge dragon with imaginative mosaic chimneys. The interior is particularly precious with its intricate spatial developments and skilled use of wooden panels and linings. In 1902-04, Bishop Campins commissioned Antoni Gaudí to study the renovation and restoration of the Gothic cathedral of Palma de Mallorca, ‘la Seu’, dating from ca. 1300 to 1600. The west front was rebuilt in 1855 in Gothic revival style after an earthquake. Antoni Gaudí’s project resulted in spatial and structural changes and the new design of various details especially around the main altar. He removed the large traditional choir structures, placing the elements on the sides, and opening up the central nave, thus augmenting the seating from 200 to ca. 2000.
|Cooperativa Obrera Mataronense||Mataró||1878–1882|
|Episcopal Palace of Astorga||Astorga (León)||1883–1913|
|El Capricho||Comillas (Cantabria)||1883-1885|
|Franciscan Missions in Tangier||Tangier||1892 (unbuilt)|
|Artigas Gardens||La Pobla de Lillet||1905–1906|
|Church of Colònia Güell||yes||Santa Coloma de Cervelló
|Hotel Attraction||New York||1908 (unbuilt)|
- "Biography at Gaudí and Barcelona Club, page 2". Retrieved 2005-11-05.
- Nikolaus Pevsner, An Outline of European Architecture, Penguin Books, (1963), pp. 394–5 ISBN ?
- (Massó 1974, p. 51)
- Bergós i Massó, Joan (1999). Gaudí, l'home i l'obra. Barcelona: Ed. Lunwerg. p. 40. ISBN 84-7782-617-X.
- (Bassegoda 2002, p. 107)
- (Crippa 2003, p. 15)
- (Bassegoda 2002, pp. 125–126)
- (Bassegoda 1989, p. 281)
- (Bassegoda 1989, p. 290)
- (Bassegoda 1989, p. 313)
- "The 18th and 19th Centuries: Neoclassicism and Romanticism: Gothic Revival". All-art.org. Archived from the original on 16 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
- (Massó 1974, p. 56)
- (Zerbst 2002, p. 94)
- (Bassegoda 2002, p. 155)
- (Crippa 2003, p. 49)
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