List of Germanic and Latinate equivalents in English

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This list contains Germanic elements of the English language which have a close corresponding Latinate form. The correspondence is semantic—in most cases these words are not cognates, but in some cases they are doublets, i.e., ultimately derived from the same root, generally Proto-Indo-European, as in cow and beef, both ultimately from PIE *gʷōus.

The meanings of these words do not always correspond to Germanic cognates, and occasionally the specific meaning in the list is unique to English.

List of Germanic and Latinate equivalents in English[edit]

Germanic source Germanic Latinate Latin source
Frankish *bannjan, *bandjan
PGmc *laibijanan + *af-
PGmc *fur- + *sakanan
PGmc *fur- + *lǣtanan
PGmc *gebanan + *ūp
PGmc *bi-linnanan
abandon
leave, leave off
forsake
forlet
give up
blin
relinquish
abdicate
desert
renounce
relinquere < re- + linquere
abdicāre < ab- + dicātus
dēserere < dē- + serere
renūntiāre < re- + nūntius
PGmc *akiz
Frankish *hūrt
PGmc *smartōn-
PGmc *wai
PGmc *sairaz
PGmc *þrawō
PGmc *warkiz
ache
hurt
smart
woe
sore
throe
wark
pain
agony
poena < Gk poinē
L.L. agōnia < Gk agōniā
PGmc *lataz, *lētiz (Frankish *lat, *lēti)
PGmc *trewwiþō
allegiance
troth
fidelity
loyalty
fidēlitās
lēgālis
Old Norse angr
PGmc *wraiþiþo
anger
wrath
rage
ire
rabiēs
īra
Frankish *raidjan
PGmc *raihwaz
PGmc *hrengaz (Frankish *hring)
PGmc *līnion + *ūp
PGmc *sat-
PGmc *hlutom
PGmc *līston
array
row
range, rank
line, lineup
set
lot
list
series
order
sequence
seriēs < serere
ordō
L.L. sequentia < sequēns < sequī
WGmc *aiskōn
PGmc *frignanan
PGmc *besōkjanan
Old English bedecian
PGmc *sōkjanan
ask
frain
beseech
beg
seek
inquire
request
in + quaerere
re + quaerere
PGmc *ga-waraz
PGmc *ana + *breustam
PGmc *ūp + * + *spōdiz
aware
abreast
up to speed
cognizant cognoscere
WGmc *bauknan
Frankish *baukan
Old Norse *flǫgra, flakka
Frankish *hariwald
Frankish *heriberga
Frankish *witan
beacon
buoy
flag
herald
harbinger
guide
signal
indicator
M.L. signāle
M.L. indicātor
PGmc *beforan
PGmc *beforan + *handuz
PGmc *ana + *haubuþan + *af
PGmc *airiz
before
beforehand
ahead of
ere
prior prior
PGmc * + *hafjanan
PGmc *beranan + *-unga
Frankish *stikkan
Frankish *wīsa
PGmc *wegaz
behaviour
bearing
etiquette
guise
way
action
attitude
manner
conduct
āctiō
L.L. aptitūdō
V.L. *manuāria < L manuārius < manus
M.L. conductus < L condūcere
PGmc * + *haitanan
PGmc *bidjanan + *-unga
behest
bidding
command
order
V.L. commandāre
ordō
PGmc *bī- + *hōfan
PGmc *gagniz
PGmc *fura- + *dailiz
PGmc *bōniz
PGmc *blōdisōjanan + *-unga
PGmc *wela + *farō
behoof
gain
foredeal
boon
blessing
welfare
advantage
benefit
L.L.*abantaticum
benefactum
WGmc *bī- + *ginnan
PGmc *sturtjanan
begin
start
commence com + initiāre
PGmc *ga-laubjan
PGmc *ga-menþijan + *sat-
PGmc *gōdaz + *spellan
PGmc *trewwiþō
PGmc *hlinunga
belief
mindset
gospel
truth
leaning
creed crēdere
PGmc *bilībanan
PGmc *uz- + *bīdanan
PGmc *terganan
PGmc *stadiz
belive, belave
abide
tarry
stay
remain re- + manere
PGmc *balgiz
PGmc *medi- + *hrefiz
PGmc *wambō
belly
midriff
womb
abdomen abdomen
Middle English bigge (< Old Norse?)
PGmc *grautaz
PGmc *stōraz, stōriz
PGmc *mikilaz
PGmc *haugaz (Frankish *houg)
big
great
stour
mickle
huge
large
grand
larga < largus
grandis
PGmc *gaburþiz + *dagaz
PGmc *jēran + *tīdiz
birthday
yeartide
anniversary M.L. (diēs) anniversāria
PGmc *blījom
PGmc *hīwjan
PGmc *daugō
PGmc *skadwō
PGmc *wlitiz
blee
hue
dye
shade
lit
color color
PGmc *blōmōn
PGmc *blōsmaz
PGmc *buzdōn
PGmc *burjō(n) (Frankish *burjan)
bloom
blossom
bud
burgeon
flower flor- < flos
PGmc *budagan
PGmc *framojanan
WGmc *makojana + *ūp
PGmc *līkan
body, embodiment
frame
makeup
lich
corpus, corpse
carcass
cadaver
corpus
M.L. carcosium, carcasium < ?
cadāver
PGmc *brōþar brotherly fraternal frāternus
Old English budda
Old English bitela
bug
beetle
insect insectum
Old English byldan
PGmc *raizijanan
PGmc *raizijanan
build
rear
raise
construct cōnstruere < com + struere
Old English bysig + nisse
PGmc *under + *tækanan
PGmc *nutō
business
undertaking
note
affair
enterprise
ad + facere
Fr. entre + prendre
PGmc *bugjanan buy purchase pro- + V.L. *captiare
WGmc *kalbam calf veal vitellus, vitulus
PGmc *kallōjanan + *-unga
Middle English jobbe
PGmc *lība- + *werkan
PGmc *lība- + *laidō
PGmc *libēn- + *-unga
calling
job
lifework
livelihood
living
career
profession
vocation
occupation
employment
L.L. carrāria (via) < Celtic
M.L. professiō
vocātiō
occupātiō
implicāre + -mentum
Frankish *gram, *grinjan
PGmc *maganan
PGmc *skamō
chagrin
dismay
shame
displeasure
dissatisfaction
dis- + L placēre
dis- + L satisfactiō
PGmc *skihanan (Middle High German schicken)
PGmc *trandijanan
PGmc *wagōjanan (Old Saxon wogōn)
PGmc *dapraz (via Middle Dutch dapper)
Middle English dasshen (< Danish daske)
PGmc *swankianan
PGmc *ūp + *tūnaz, *tūnan
chic
trendy
in vogue
dapper
dashing
swanky
uptown
elegant
fashionable
stylish
ēlegāns < ēlegere
factiō < facere
stylus, stilus
PGmc *kilþam
PGmc *barnan
Middle English babe + -y
PGmc *kiþjom (via Old Norse kið)
Middle English newborn
child
bairn
baby
kid
newborn
infant īnfāns
PGmc *keusanan
PGmc *pikkanan
PGmc *walan (Old Norse val)
choose
pick
wale
opt
select
optare
sēlēctus < sēligere < sē- + legere
PGmc *karzjanan chore task M.L. tasca
PGmc *kaldaz
PGmc *kaliz + *-igaz
PGmc *freusanþjaz
cold
chilly
freezing
frigid frigidus
PGmc *kweman
PGmc *landjanan
PGmc *raikijanau
PGmc *getanan
WGmc *makojanan
come
land
reach
get to
make (to a place)
arrive ad + ripa
PGmc *kōuz
PGmc *bullon-
PGmc *nautan
PGmc *uhson
PGmc *steuraz
PGmc *wīsundaz (Old High German wisunt)
Old High German ūrohso
cow
bull
neat
ox
steer
bison
aurochs
beef
cattle
bōs/bovis
V.L. capitale
PGmc *dagaz + *likaz daily diurnal diurnalis
PGmc *daudaz + *likaz
PGmc *banon + *fullaz
deadly
baneful
mortal
fatal
mortālis
fatum
PGmc *dōmjanan
Frankish *wardōn
PGmc *haldanan
PGmc *fōlijanan
PGmc * + *þankjanan
deem
regard
hold
feel
bethink
judge
consider
esteem
iūdicāre
consīderāre
aestimāre
PGmc *deuzam
PGmc *hirutaz
PGmc *dajjō(n) (Old English )
PGmc *hindō
PGmc *stag-
PGmc *raihōn
deer
hart
doe
hind
stag
roe
venison venātiō/nis
PGmc *gamainijaz
PGmc *bī- + *lūtilaz
PGmc *putōjanan, pūtjanan + *dūn
PGmc *lǣgaz
demean, bemean
belittle
put down
lower
debase, abase
degrade
humiliate
L.L. bassus < Oscan or Celtic
L.L. dēgradāre < dē- + gradus
L.L. humiliātus < humiliāre < humilis
PGmc *dōnan
PGmc *frumjanan, *framjanan
PGmc *under + *tækanan
do
perform
undertake
execute
dispatch
M.L. execūtāre < ex(s)equī
O.Fr. despeechier < des- + L.L. -pedicāre
Old English docga
PGmc *hundas
dog
hound
canid, canine canis
PGmc *drengkan
PGmc *sweljanan
Old High German garo + ūz
Old Norse ves + heill
PGmc *sūpanan
drink
swill
carouse
wassail
sup, sip
imbibe imbibere < in + bibere
PGmc *dubon dove pigeon
culver
V.L. pibionem
columbula
PGmc *ernust-
PGmc *grimmaz
PGmc *sternijaz
earnest
grim
stern
serious
grave
sober
L.L. sēriōsus
gravis
sōbrius
PGmc *dritō
PGmc *erþō
PGmc *landom
PGmc *grundus
PGmc *landam + *skapiz
dirt
earth
land
ground
landscape
soil
terrain
partly from Latin solium; partly from Old English sol
terrenum < terra
PGmc *austra
PGmc *austra + *līkaz
PGmc *austra + *warþaz
eastern
easterly
eastward
oriental orīri
PGmc *etanan
PGmc *suppanan
PGmc *brekanan + *brauþan
PGmc *bankiz
PGmc *fōdjanan
Middle Dutch snacken
PGmc *swelganan
PGmc *hnaskwajanan
PGmc *tækanan + *in
PGmc *bītanan
PGmc *skirfanan (Old English sceorfan)
eat
sup
break bread
banquet
feed
snack
swallow
nosh
take in
bite
scarf
dine
consume
devour
ingest
V.L. diseieunare < dis + ieiunare
consūmere
dēvorāre
ingestus < ingerere
PGmc *aldiz, *aldō
PGmc *līban + *tīmēn
PGmc *līban + *spannō
eld
lifetime
lifespan
age aevitās ( < aevum) + -age
PGmc *anðiōn
PGmc *fullfuljanan
PGmc *haldanan
PGmc *wrappanan
PGmc *stuppojanan
PGmc *bi-linnanan
end
fulfill
halt
wrap up
stop
blin
finish
complete
discontinue
fīnīre
complēre
dis- + continuāre
PGmc *ebnaz
PGmc *flataz
PGmc *smāþjaz, smōþjaz
PGmc *in + *līnion
PGmc *līnion + *ūp
PGmc *stadō + *-igaz
even
flat
smooth
in line
lined up
steady
level
planar
equal
V.L. *lībellum < lībella
L.L. plānāris < plānum
aequālis < aequus
PGmc *faranan
Middle Dutch trecken
PGmc *gēnan + *ana + *braiþaz
PGmc *tækanan + *trap-
Old Norse rāfa
Frankish *wala
fare
trek
go abroad
take a trip
rove
gallivant
travel
journey
voyage
V.L. *trepaliāre
V.L. *diurnāta
viāticum
PGmc *fastuz
PGmc *hraþa
PGmc *snellaz
PGmc *kwikwaz
PGmc *swīpanan
PGmc *spōdigaz, *spēdigaz
fast
rathe, rather
snell
quick
swift
speedy
rapid rapidus
PGmc *fadar + *likaz fatherly
fatherlike
paternal paternus
WGmc *fōljan
PGmc *gawaraz
PGmc *tukkanan, *tækanan
feeling
awareness
touch
sentiment
sensation
sensus, sentiō
PGmc *fullijan + *up
PGmc *stukk-
PGmc *niwjanan
fill up
stock
renew
replenish re + plēnus
PGmc *furistaz
PGmc *furma
PGmc *magan-
first
foremost
main
primary prīmus
PGmc *floþuz
PGmc *hwelbanan
PGmc *ubersatjanan
flood
overwhelm
overset
inundate inundāre < in + unda
PGmc *fulgian
Old Norse traþk
follow
track
ensue in- + sequi
PGmc *formo-
PGmc *airis- + *hwīlo
PGmc *fure- + *gēnþjaz
Old English hwīlum
former
erstwhile
foregoing, aforegoing
whilom
previous
preceding
praevius < prae- + via
praecēdere < prae- + cēdere
PGmc *fur-*biudan
PGmc *bannan-
PGmc *fura- + *stallaz
forbid
ban
forestall
prohibit
prevent
prohibēre < pro + habēre
inter + dicere, dictus
praevenīre
PGmc *fura- + Old Norse kasta
PGmc *ūt + *lōkōjanan
forecast
outlook
projection prōjectiō < prō + iacere
PGmc *fura + *taljanan
PGmc *sanþaz + *sagjanan
PGmc *fura- +*buþanan
PGmc *fura- +*skadwōjanan
foretell
soothsay
forebode
foreshadow
predict praedīcere
PGmc *frijaz freedom liberty lībertās < līber
PGmc *frijond + *likaz
PGmc *gakundan + *līkaz
PGmc *warmaz
friendly
kindly
warm
amicable amīcus
Frankish *gardo, gardin-
PGmc *garda
WGmc *parruk
Old English pund-
Old English pearroc
garden
yard
park
pound
paddock
court
enclosure
co- + hortus
in- + claudere
PGmc *gadurojan
PGmc *far- + *gadurojan
PGmc *gadurojan + *ūp
PGmc *kruppaz
Old English clyster
PGmc *lisanan
gather
forgather
gather up
group
cluster
lease
assemble ad + simul
PGmc *giftiz
PGmc *sali-
gift
handsel
present prae- + essere
PGmc *geban
PGmc *gafurþojan
WGmc*frumjana
give
afford
furnish
provide pro + vidēre
PGmc *glaþaz
PGmc *bliþiz
PGmc *fagaraz
PGmc *murgijaz
PGmc *wunjo-samaz
PGmc *hapan
PGmc *gliujan
PGmc *þurilam (via Old English þyrel)
PGmc *kwēmiaz
gladness
bliss
fairness
merriment, mirth
winsomeness
happiness
glee
thrill
queem
joy
pleasure
delight
gaudium
placēre
dēlēctāre
PGmc *guþan
PGmc *guþan + *haiduz
god, goddess
godhead
deity
immortal
deus
immortālis
PGmc *gōdaz
PGmc *welō(n)
PGmc *hilpō + *fullaz
PGmc *gagniz + *fullaz
PGmc *hailaz + *samaz
PGmc *werþan + *hwīlō
good
well
helpful
gainful
wholesome
worthwhile
beneficial beneficium
WGmc *gēnan + PGmc *an
PGmc *wandjanan
go on
wend
proceed pro- + cedere
WGmc *grōnja-
PGmc *laskaz
green
lush
verdant viridis
PGmc *getiskanan
PGmc *faþmaz
PGmc *swumto-
Frankish *galgo
guess
fathom
sound
gauge
estimate aestimare
PGmc *harjaz + *berg
PGmc *hafnaz
harbour
haven
port portus
PGmc *harþuz + *skapiz
PGmc *uzdailjam
hardship
ordeal
difficulty difficultās
PGmc *hatojanan
PGmc *laiþojanan
PGmc *skarn- (Frankish *skern)
hate
loathe
scorn
detest de- + testari
PGmc *hauhiþa
PGmc *luftuz
height
loftiness
altitude altitūdō (< altus)
PGmc *helpan
PGmc *ūz- + *baitjanan (Frankish *bētan)
PGmc *gebanan + *handuz
PGmc * + *standanan
PGmc * + *stadiz
help
abet
give a hand
bestand
bestead
assist assistere < ad + sistere
WGmc *hannja hen pullet pullus
PGmc *harjaz
PGmc *fardíz
here
ferd
army
militia
ML. armāta
mīlitia
PGmc *hulnis
PGmc *bergaz
PGmc *mundō
PGmc *dūnō, dūnaz
hill
barrow
mound
down, dune
mount mōns, montis
PGmc *hailagaz + *dagaz
WGmc *lauba
PGmc *brekan
WGmc *fur- + *lauba
holiday
leave
break
furlough
vacation vacātiō
PGmc *hailagaz
PGmc *gahailagōiðaz
holy
hallowed
sacred sacrāre
PGmc *aujo + *landom
PGmc *aujo
PGmc *hulmaz
island
ait, eyot
holm
isle insula
WGmc *jukkjan
PGmc *wurkijanan (via Old Norse yrkja)
WGmc *taisijanan
WGmc *fur-etanan
PGmc *grellanan
itch
irk
tease
fret
grill
irritate irritāre
PGmc gakundiz
Old English ilca
PGmc *brandaz
PGmc *brōd-
PGmc *sat-
PGmc *streun-
Frankish *tīr
PGmc *līkaz
kind
ilk
brand
breed
set
strain
tier
like
type
class
sort
genre
typus < Gk typos
classis
sors
genera
PGmc *knoean
PGmc *witanan
PGmc *spehōjanan (Frankish *spehōn)
PGmc *sputtōn
PGmc *taljanan
know
wit/wot
espy
spot
tell
recognize re + cognoscere
PGmc *lataz
PGmc *latjanan
late
delayed
tardy tardus
PGmc *lagan (Old Norse lag) + *-fullaz
PGmc *gastrahtaz
PGmc *fagraz
PGmc *rehtaz
PGmc *gasundas
PGmc *gamaitijaz
PGmc *warjanan (Frankish *warand)
PGmc *fittjanan
lawful
straight
fair
right, rightful
sound
meet
warranted
fitting
legal
legitimate, legit
just
proper
lēgālis
M.L. lēgitimātus < lēgitimāre
jūstus < jūs
proprius
PGmc *laiþjan
PGmc *kuningaz
PGmc *haubuþan
PGmc *biron
PGmc *erloz
leader
king
head
baron
earl
duke
president
dux
praesidēns
PGmc *langiþo length longitude longitūdō (< longus)
PGmc *legjan
PGmc *rastjō, rastō
PGmc *hlinojanan
lie (lie down)
rest
lean (back)
repose
recline
re- + pausa
re- + clinare
PGmc *lubo
Middle English fond, fonned
loving
fond
amorous amōrōsus
PGmc *managaz
PGmc *manigaz + *falþaz
PGmc *rīfiz
PGmc *taumijanþjaz
many
manifold
rife
teeming
multiple
numerous
abundant
copious
multi + plūs
numerosus
abundantem
copiosus
PGmc *ga-makon
PGmc *fittjanan
PGmc *andswarōjanan + *
match
fit
answer to
correspond con + respondēre
WGmc *mainijan
PGmc *be- + *taiknjanan
PGmc *standanan + *fura
PGmc *ahtalōnan
mean
betoken
stand for
ettle
intend
signify
intendere
significare
PGmc *motijan
PGmc *hitjanan (Old Norse hitta)
meet
hit
encounter incontrāre < in + contrā
PGmc *medjaz + *dagaz midday noon nona
Old Norse mistaka
PGmc *blundaz (Old Norse blundra)
PGmc *wrangiþō
mistake
blunder
wrength
error error (< errāre)
PGmc *mōdar + *likaz motherly maternal māternus
PGmc *nēhwaz
PGmc *nēhwizáz
nigh
near
close clausus
PGmc *neujaz
PGmc *friskaz
PGmc *
new
fresh
now
novel
modern
novus
modernus
PGmc *naht + *likaz nightly nocturnal nocturnus
WGmc *alda
PGmc *stal-, *sta-
PGmc *aldizo + *līkaz
PGmc *jǣron
old
stale
elderly
of yore
ancient
antediluvian
V.L. *anteanus < ante
ante + diluvium
PGmc *anþaraz
PGmc *aljaz
other
else
different
alternative
differre
alterare
PGmc *ufnaz
PGmc *herþaz
PGmc *stubō
PGmc *aistō
PGmc *smiþjon
oven
hearth
stove
oast
smithy, smithery
kiln
furnace
culina
fornax
PGmc *raidō
PGmc *wegaz
PGmc *bulaz + *werkam
PGmc *drībanan
PGmc *paþaz
road
way
boulevard
drive
path
street
route
itinerary
V.L. strata
rupta
itinerantem
PGmc *rutjan
PGmc *be- + *fūljanan
PGmc *be- + *fūlaz
rot
defile
befoul
putrefy putrefacere
PGmc *sehwan
PGmc *kanjanan
see
ken
perceive per- + capere
Old Norse *sœma
PGmc *lōkōjanan
seem
look
appear apparere
PGmc *seuþanan
Middle English bublelen (Middle Low German bubeln)
seethe
bubble
boil bullīre
PGmc *selbaz + *haiduz
PGmc *galīkaz + *-nassus
PGmc *selbaz + *dōmaz
selfhood
likeness
selfdom
identity L.L. identitās < idem et idem + -itās
PGmc *selbaz + *samaz selfsame identical M.L. identicus + -al
PGmc *saljanan
Old Saxon *trada
PGmc *dailjanan + *in
Frankish *borganjan
sell
trade
deal in
bargain
vend vendere < venum + dare
PGmc *skapjanan
PGmc *buþlam (Old English bold)
PGmc *ūt + *līniōn
shape
build
outline
form forma
WGmc *skæpa
PGmc *lambaz
sheep
lamb
mutton M.L. multō (< Celtic)
PGmc *skoppan shop store instaurare
WGmc *skuttjan shut close clausus
PGmc *skeuh(w)az shy timid timidus
PGmc *sehwiþō
PGmc *sehwanan
PGmc *kannijanan
sight
seeing
ken
vision vidēre/vīsum
PGmc *skaljo
PGmc *krab-, kraf-
PGmc *kunnanan
PGmc *listiz
skill
craft
cunning
list
art
science
ars
scientia
PGmc *skaljo + *fullaz
PGmc *krab-, kraf- + *-igaz
PGmc *gadaftjaz
skillful
crafty
deft
adept adeptus < adipiscī
PGmc *slǣpanþiaz
PGmc *slūmerianþiaz
PGmc *īdalaz
PGmc *falgō
sleeping
slumbering
idle
fallow
dormant
hibernate
torpid
dormīre
PGmc *smæl
PGmc *lūtilaz
PGmc *tindaz
Old English wēg, wǣge
small
little
tiny
wee
minute
petite
diminutive
minūtus < minuere
pitinnus
diminutivus
PGmc *snakon
PGmc *wurmiz
snake
worm
serpent serpens
PGmc *surgo
PGmc *karō
PGmc *wai
sorrow
care
woe
grief OFr grever < L gravare < gravis
PGmc *sprekanan
PGmc *taljanan
WGmc *prātana
speak
talk
prate, prattle
converse
discourse
con- + vertere
dis- + currere
PGmc *stund-
PGmc *tīmēn, tīma-
PGmc *tīþiz
PGmc *hwīlō
Old English þrāg
Old English spelian
PGmc *stuntjanan
stound
time
tide
while
throw
spell
stint
hour
moment
interval
hōra < Gk hṓra
mōmentum
intervallum
PGmc *sundrigaz
PGmc *miskjanan
sundry
mixed
various
miscellaneous
varius
miscellus
PGmc *swīnam
PGmc *farhaz
PGmc *sugō
WGmc *bairaz
Old English picg-
Old English hogg
swine
farrow
sow
boar
pig
hog
pork porcus
PGmc *taikijanan
WGmc *skauwojanan
PGmc *laizjanan
teach
show
lear, lere
educate ēdūcāre < ēdūcere
PGmc *taljanan
PGmc *kunþjanan
PGmc *makojanan *(ga)knēwanaz
tell
kithe
make known
relate
narrate
relatus < re- + ferre
narrare
PGmc *þankjan
PGmc *(ga)þāht- + *-fullaz
PGmc *(ga)mentþijan + *-fullaz
thinking
thoughtful
mindful
pensive pēnsāre
PGmc *(ga)þāhtan
Early Modern English hinch
PGmc *inkēn
PGmc *kliwjo-
thought
hunch
inkling
clue
idea idea < Gk idea
PGmc *þreutanan
PGmc *pleg-
PGmc *fēraz
threat
plight
fear
danger
peril
menace
V.L. *dominarium < dominus
periculum'
minaciae < minari
PGmc *taiknan
PGmc *markō
PGmc *hallō + *markō
PGmc *huntōjanan
PGmc *stampōjanan
token
mark
hallmark
hint
stamp
sign
symbol
trace
indication
signum
symbolum < Gk sýmbolon
V.L. *tractiāre
indicātiō
PGmc *tungon
PGmc *sprǣkijō
PGmc *talō
tongue
speech
talk
language V.L. *linguaticum < L. lingua
PGmc *twinjaz
PGmc *twai + PGmc *-falþaz
PGmc *twī-
twin
twofold
twi-
double
duplicate
duplus
duplicātus < duplicāre < duplex
PGmc *under + *standan
PGmc *getanan
PGmc *graipisōn
understand
get
grasp
comprehend comprehendere
PGmc *ūp- + *haldanan
PGmc *bolhstraz
PGmc *beranan + *up-
PGmc *under + *gurþjanan
PGmc *ūp + beranan
WGmc skor- + up
PGmc *stagaz (Frankish *staka)
uphold
bolster
bear up
undergird
upbear
shore up
stay
support supportāre
PGmc *up- + *luftijan
PGmc *raizjan
uplifting
raising, rearing
elevating ē- + levāre
PGmc *ūtizon
PGmc *sagjanan
utter
say
pronounce pro- + nuntsecuiare
PGmc *ūtizon
WGmc *alnaz + *tō-gaduraz
PGmc *fullīkō
PGmc *hailaz +*līkō
utterly
altogether
fully
wholly
totally tōtālis
PGmc *wadjojan
PGmc *mizdō, meidō
PGmc *hūrja
wage
meed
hire
salary salārium
PGmc *wakan
PGmc *bīdanan
Old English tergan
PGmc *woenijanan
wait, await
bide
tarry
ween
expect ex + spectāre
WGmc *warnōjanan + *-unga
PGmc *tupp- + *af-
warning
tip off
notice
alert
recommendation
admonition
nōtitia
It all'erta < L ērigere
M.L. recommendātiō
admonitiō
PGmc *watskanan
PGmc *klainisōn
PGmc *hrainisōn
PGmc *labōjanan
PGmc *baðojanan
PGmc *skrubbanan
wash
cleanse
rinse
lave
bathe
scrub
launder M.L. lavandāria < lavare
PGmc *wakan
PGmc *kōpjanan
PGmc *behaldanan
watch
keep
behold
observe ob + servāre
PGmc *wakanan
PGmc *wakanþjaz
PGmc *warō + *-igaz
watchful
waking
wary
vigilant vigilāre
PGmc *wadjōjanan wed marry marītāre
PGmc *wadjō + *laikaz wedlock marriage V.L. *maritaticum
PGmc *wurdiz
PGmc *framiþjaz
PGmc *uzdaz
PGmc *þwerhwaz
PGmc *unkunþaz
Old English ūtlendisc
PGmc *alja- + *rīkjan
PGmc *argaz
PGmc *faigjáz
weird
fremd
odd
queer
uncouth
outlandish
eldritch
eerie
fey
strange extrāneus
PGmc *weralþeilīkaz worldly secular saeculāris
PGmc *wopijanan
PGmc *grētanan
Old Norse baula
Old Norse vǣla
PGmc *hwīnanan
PGmc *krītanan
PGmc *murnanan
PGmc *siubanan, *seubōnan, *subōjanan
weep
greet (cry), regret
bawl
wail
whine
cry
mourn
sob
lament
deplore
lāmentārī < lāmentum
dēplōrāre < dē- + plōrāre
PGmc *gawehtiz + *-igaz
WGmc *mainijanan + *-unga + *fullaz
PGmc *ki- (Old English cǣġe)
weighty
meaningful
key
important M.L. importantus
PGmc *westra western occidental occidere
PGmc *(ga)hailaz whole entire integer
PGmc *wīdas
PGmc *braiþiþō
PGmc *spannō
width
breadth
span
latitude latitūdō (< latus)
PGmc *wilþjiaz
PGmc *faliz
PGmc *grimmaz
wild
fell
grim
savage
feral
silvaticus < silva
fera
PGmc *wīsaz
PGmc *klufraz
PGmc *in + *gasihþ + *fullaz
PGmc *in + *leuhtam
PGmc *kōniz
PGmc *knoeanan + *laikam
PGmc *skreuwon
wise
clever
insightful
enlightened
keen
knowledgeable
shrewd
prudent prudēns < providēns
PGmc *wunskjan
PGmc *weljanan
PGmc *gernjanan
PGmc *langojanan
PGmc *lustuz
PGmc *wana-, wanēn (Old Norse vanta)
wish
will
yearning
longing
lust
want
desire desiderāre
Old English wīfman + PGmc *likaz womanly feminine femininus
PGmc *widuz
PGmc *hulto-
PGmc *walþuz
WGmc *busk
PGmc *graibō
PGmc *bruskaz
PGmc *þekwatjan (Old English þiccet)
PGmc *furhiþō (Old English fyrhþ)
PGmc *skagjan
wood (a wood)
holt
weald/wold
bush, boscage
grove
brush
thicket
frith
shaw
forest M.L. *foresta, partially < L.L. forestis; partially < Frankish *forhist
PGmc *wurdan + PGmc *bōkiz wordbook dictionary dictiōnārium
PGmc *werkan
PGmc *dreuganan
PGmc *swinkanan
work
drudge, drudgery
swink
labor labor
PGmc *wrītanan + *-unga
PGmc *gawritan
writing
writ
script scrīptum < scrībere
PGmc **wurdiz wyrd fate fatum
PGmc *jǣram + *likaz yearly annual annalis
WGmc *gelwa yellow ochre ochra < Gk ōchra
WGmc *jugunþiz + *fullaz
PGmc *jungas
youthful
young
juvenile iuvenis
PGmc *juwunþiz
PGmc *tehuniz + *haiduz
youth
teenhood
adolescence adolescere < ad + alescere

* reconstructed form

Noun/adjective doublets[edit]

In particular, the use of Latinate words in the sciences gives us pairs with a native Germanic noun and a Latinate adjective:

Sources[edit]

See also[edit]