List of Germanic languages

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

The Germanic languages include some 58 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects that originated in Europe; this language family is a part of the Indo-European language family. Each subfamily in this list contains subgroups and individual languages.

The standard division of Germanic is into three branches,

The all descend from Proto-Germanic, and ultimately from Proto-Indo-European.


denotes extinct languages.

West Germanic[edit]

Continental West Germanic[edit]

North-Sea Germanic[edit]

North Germanic[edit]

Alternate classification of contemporary North Germanic languages

East Germanic†[edit]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ From early Northern Middle English (Aitken, A. J. and McArthur, T. Eds. (1979) Languages of Scotland. Edinburgh,Chambers. p. 87). McClure (1991) gives Northumbrian Old English in The Cambridge History of the English Language Vol. 5. p. 23. In the Oxford Companion to the English Language (p. 894) the 'sources' of Scots are described as "the Old English of the Kingdom of Bernicia" and "the Scandinavian-influenced English of immigrants from Northern and Midland England in the 12-13c [...]." The historical stages 'Older—Middle—Modern Scots' are used, for example, in the "Concise Scots Dictionary" (Robinson M. (ed.) (1985) the "Concise Scots Dictionary, Chambers, Edinburgh. p. xiii) and "A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue" (Dareau M., Pike l. and Watson, H (eds) (2002) "A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue" Vol. XII, Oxford University Press. p. xxxiv).