List of Giro d'Italia general classification winners

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black and white photograph of a man, he is dressed in white and is smiling
Fausto Coppi, who won the Giro d'Italia five times between 1940 and 1953

The Giro d'Italia is an annual road bicycle race held in May. Established in 1909 by newspaper La Gazzetta dello Sport, the Giro is one of cycling's three "Grand Tours"; along with the Tour de France and the Vuelta a España.[1] The race usually covers approximately 3,500 kilometres (2,200 mi), passing through Italy and neighbouring countries such as France.[2] The race is broken into day-long segments, called stages. Individual finishing times for each stage are totalled to determine the overall winner at the end of the race. The course changes every year, but has traditionally finished in Milan.

The rider with the lowest aggregate time at the end of each day is leader of the general classification, and since 1931 wears a pink jersey. Other classifications have also been added, and sometimes removed; the leaders of some of these classifications were also indicated with jerseys, whose colours have varied over the years. As of 2011, the red jersey is worn by the leader of the points classification; the green jersey is worn by the leader of the mountains classification and the white jersey is worn by the leader of the young rider classification.

Alfredo Binda, Fausto Coppi and Eddy Merckx have the most Giro victories, each of them having won the competition five times. Coppi is the youngest winner of the Giro, he was 20 years, 158 days old when he won the 1940 Giro d'Italia.[3] The oldest winner of the Giro is Fiorenzo Magni, who was 34 years old, 180 days when he won the 1955 Giro d'Italia. The fastest victory in the Giro was in 1983, when Giuseppe Saronni won at an average speed of 38.937 kilometres per hour (24.194 mph).[4] Italian cyclists have won the most Giros; 41 cyclists have won 68 Giros between them. Belgian cyclists are second with seven victories, and French riders are third with six wins.[5] Vincenzo Nibali of the Astana team won the 2013 Giro d'Italia.[6]

History[edit]

In 1909 the newspaper La Gazzetta dello Sport established the Giro d'Italia, inspired by the success of the Tour de France, which started in 1903.[7] The first Giro was won by Luigi Ganna, while Carlo Galetti won the two following Giros. In 1912, there was no individual classification, instead there was only a team classification, which was won by Team Atala. The 1912 Giro is the only time the competition has not had an individual classification.[8] From 1914 onwards the scoring format was changed from a points-based system to a time-based system, in which the cyclist who had the lowest aggregate time at the end of the race would win. The Giro was suspended for four years from 1915 to 1918, due to the First World War. Costante Girardengo was the winner of the first Giro after the war in 1919.[9]

A pink jersey hung on coat-hanger, with bikes in the background
The Pink Jersey (Italian: Maglia rosa) worn by the leader of the general classification

The dominant figure in the 1920s was Alfredo Binda, who won his first Giro in 1925 and followed this up with another victory in 1927, in which he won 12 of the 15 stages. Victory in 1929 came courtesy of eight successive stage wins. At the height of his dominance Binda was called to the head office of La Gazzetta dello Sport in 1930; the newspaper accused him of ruining the race and offered him 22,000 lira to be less dominant, which he refused.[10] Binda won five Giros before he was usurped as the dominant cyclist by Gino Bartali. Nicknamed the "Iron Man of Tuscany" for his endurance, Bartali won two Giros during the 1930s, in 1936 and 1937.[11] Bartali's dominance was challenged in 1940, the last Giro before the Second World War, when he was defeated by his 20-year old team-mate Fausto Coppi.[12]

The rivalry between Bartali and Coppi intensified after the war. Bartali won his last Giro in 1946, with Coppi winning his second the following year. Coppi won a further three Giros and in 1952 he became the first cyclist to win the Tour de France and Giro in the same year. Swiss Hugo Koblet became the first non-Italian to win the race in 1950.[13] No one dominated the tour during the 1950s, Coppi, Charly Gaul and Fiorenzo Magni each won two Giros during the decade. The 1960s were similar, five-time Tour de France winner Jacques Anquetil won in 1960, and 1964,[14] while Franco Balmamion won two successive Giros in 1962 and 1963.[15]

Belgian Eddy Merckx was the dominant figure during the 1970s. His first victory came in 1968; another triumph in 1970 was followed by three successive victories from 1972 to 1974, which is the record for the most successive victories in the Giro.[16] Felice Gimondi was victorious in 1976 winning his third Giro. Belgians Michel Pollentier and Johan De Muynck won the two subsequent Giros in 1977 and 1978. In 1980, Frenchman Bernard Hinault who up to this point had won two Tours de France, became France's first winner since Anquetil in 1964. He would win another two Giros in 1982 and 1985.[17]

Stephen Roche was victorious in 1987, a year in which he also won the Tour and the UCI Road World Championship.[18] American Andy Hampsten became the first non-European winner the following year,[13] and Laurent Fignon was victorious in 1989. Spaniard Miguel Indurain, winner of five Tours, won successive Giros in 1991 and 1992. Three time winner of the Vuelta a España, Tony Rominger was victorious in 1995, defeating the previous winner Evgeni Berzin.[19] Marco Pantani was the winner in 1998, a year in which he completed the Tour and Giro double, Ivan Gotti won the previous Giro in 1997 and the subsequent one in 1999.

Stefano Garzelli won the Giro in 2000.[20] Gilberto Simoni was the winner in 2001 and 2003, with Paolo Savoldelli victorious in 2002. Simoni was denied a third victory in 2004, when he was beaten by team-mate Damiano Cunego. Salvodelli won his second Giro in 2005, beating Simoni by 28 seconds. Ivan Basso was the victor in 2006, Danilo di Luca won in 2007, though the tour was marred by doping allegations.[21] Spaniard Alberto Contador of Astana was the winner in 2008; the following year he raced in the Tour de France instead, and Denis Menchov was the Giro victor.[22] Basso returned after a doping suspension to regain his title in 2010.[23] Contador was the victor at the podium ceremony in Milan,[24] but he was later stripped of the title after he was found guilty of doping in the 2010 Tour de France. Runner-up Michele Scarponi was awarded the victory.[25] Ryder Hesjedal became the first Canadian to win the Giro in 2012, beating Joaquim Rodríguez by 16 seconds.[6] After gaining the lead after the eighth stage, Vincenzo Nibali won two more stages to help consolidate his lead and win the 2013 edition.[26]

Winners[edit]

Key
dagger Winner won points classification in the same year
* Winner won King of the Mountains classification in the same year
# Winner won young rider classification in the same year
double-dagger Winner won points and King of the Mountains classification in the same year
  • The "Year" column refers to the year the competition was held, and wikilinks to the article about that season.
  • The "Distance" column refers to the distance over which the race was held.
  • The "Margin" column refers to the margin of time or points by which the winner defeated the runner-up.
  • The "Stage wins" column refers to the number of stage wins the winner had during the race.
Giro d'Italia general classification winners
Year Country Cyclist Sponsor/team Distance Time/points Margin Stage wins
1909  Italy Ganna, LuigiLuigi Ganna Atala 2,445 km (1,519 mi) 25 2 3
1910  Italy Galetti, CarloCarlo Galetti Atala 2,984 km (1,854 mi) 28 18 2
1911  Italy Galetti, CarloCarlo Galetti Bianchi 3,526 km (2,191 mi) 50 8 3
1912  Italy &
Team Atala 2,443 km (1,518 mi) 33 10 1
1913  Italy Oriani, CarloCarlo Oriani Maino 2,932 km (1,822 mi) 37 6 0
1914  Italy Calzolari, AlfonsoAlfonso Calzolari Stucchi 3,162 km (1,965 mi) 135h 17' 56" + 1h 57' 26" 1
1915 &
~Not contested &
&
&
&
&
1916 &
~Not contested &
&
&
&
&
1917 &
~Not contested &
&
&
&
&
1918 &
~Not contested &
&
&
&
&
1919  Italy Girardengo, CostanteCostante Girardengo Stucchi 2,984 km (1,854 mi) 112h 51' 29" + 51' 56" 7
1920  Italy Belloni, GaetanoGaetano Belloni Bianchi 2,632 km (1,635 mi) 102h 44' 33" + 32' 24" 3
1921  Italy Brunero, GiovanniGiovanni Brunero Legnano 3,107 km (1,931 mi) 120h 24' 39" + 41" 1
1922  Italy Brunero, GiovanniGiovanni Brunero Legnano 3,095 km (1,923 mi) 119h 43' 00" + 12' 29" 2
1923  Italy Girardengo, CostanteCostante Girardengo Maino 3,202 km (1,990 mi) 122h 28' 17" + 37" 8
1924  Italy Enrici, GiuseppeGiuseppe Enrici &
3,613 km (2,245 mi) 143h 43' 37" + 58' 21" 2
1925  Italy Binda, AlfredoAlfredo Binda Legnano 3,520 km (2,190 mi) 137h 31' 13" + 4' 58" 1
1926  Italy Brunero, GiovanniGiovanni Brunero Legnano 3,613 km (2,245 mi) 137h 55' 59" + 15' 28" 1
1927  Italy Binda, AlfredoAlfredo Binda Legnano 3,758 km (2,335 mi) 144h 15' 35" + 27' 24" 12
1928  Italy Binda, AlfredoAlfredo Binda Wolsit 3,044 km (1,891 mi) 114h 15' 19" + 18' 13" 6
1929  Italy Binda, AlfredoAlfredo Binda Legnano 2,920 km (1,810 mi) 107h 18' 24" + 3' 44" 8
1930  Italy Marchisio, LuigiLuigi Marchisio Legnano 3,095 km (1,923 mi) 115h 11' 55" + 52" 2
1931  Italy Camusso, FrancescoFrancesco Camusso Gloria 3,012 km (1,872 mi) 102h 40' 46" + 2' 47" 2
1932  Italy Pesenti, AntonioAntonio Pesenti Wolsit 3,235 km (2,010 mi) 105h 42' 41" + 11' 09" 1
1933  Italy Binda, AlfredoAlfredo Binda* Legnano 3,343 km (2,077 mi) 111h 01' 52" + 12' 34" 6
1934  Italy Guerra, LearcoLearco Guerra Maino 3,706 km (2,303 mi) 121h 17' 17" + 51" 10
1935  Italy Bergamaschi, VascoVasco Bergamaschi Maino 3,577 km (2,223 mi) 113h 22' 46" + 3' 07" 2
1936  Italy Bartali, GinoGino Bartali* Legnano 3,766 km (2,340 mi) 120h 12' 30" + 2' 36" 3
1937  Italy Bartali, GinoGino Bartali* Legnano 3,840 km (2,390 mi) 122h 25' 40" + 8' 18" 4
1938  Italy Valetti, GiovanniGiovanni Valetti* Frejus 3,645 km (2,265 mi) 112h 49' 28" + 8' 52" 3
1939  Italy Valetti, GiovanniGiovanni Valetti Frejus 3,011 km (1,871 mi) 88h 02' 00" + 2' 59" 3
1940  Italy Coppi, FaustoFausto Coppi Legnano 3,574 km (2,221 mi) 107h 31' 10" + 2' 40" 1
1941 &
~Not contested &
&
&
&
&
1942 &
~Not contested &
&
&
&
&
1943 &
~Not contested &
&
&
&
&
1944 &
~Not contested &
&
&
&
&
1945 &
~Not contested &
&
&
&
&
1946  Italy Bartali, GinoGino Bartali* Legnano 3,039 km (1,888 mi) 65h 32' 20" + 47" 0
1947  Italy Coppi, FaustoFausto Coppi Bianchi 3,843 km (2,388 mi) 115h 55' 07" + 1' 43" 3
1948  Italy Magni, FiorenzoFiorenzo Magni Willier Triestina 4,164 km (2,587 mi) 125h 51' 52" + 11" 3
1949  Italy Coppi, FaustoFausto Coppi* Bianchi 4,088 km (2,540 mi) 125h 25' 50" + 23' 47" 3
1950   Switzerland Koblet, HugoHugo Koblet* Guerra–Svizzera 3,981 km (2,474 mi) 117h 28' 03" + 5' 12" 2
1951  Italy Magni, FiorenzoFiorenzo Magni Ganna 4,153 km (2,581 mi) 121h 11' 37" + 1' 46" 0
1952  Italy Coppi, FaustoFausto Coppi Bianchi 3,964 km (2,463 mi) 114h 36' 43" + 9' 18" 3
1953  Italy Coppi, FaustoFausto Coppi Bianchi 4,035 km (2,507 mi) 118h 37' 26" + 1' 29" 3
1954   Switzerland Clerici, CarloCarlo Clerici Guerra–Svizzera 4,337 km (2,695 mi) 129h 13' 07" + 24' 16" 1
1955  Italy Magni, FiorenzoFiorenzo Magni Nivea–Fuchs 3,861 km (2,399 mi) 108h 56' 13" + 13" 1
1956  Luxembourg Gaul, CharlyCharly Gaul* Guerra 3,523 km (2,189 mi) 101h 39' 49" + 3' 27" 3
1957  Italy Nencini, GastoneGastone Nencini Chlorodont 3,926 km (2,440 mi) 104h 45' 06" + 19" 2
1958  Italy Baldini, ErcoleErcole Baldini Legnano 3,341 km (2,076 mi) 92h 09' 30" + 4' 17" 4
1959  Luxembourg Gaul, CharlyCharly Gaul* Emi–Guerra 3,657 km (2,272 mi) 101h 50' 54" + 6' 12" 3
1960  France Anquetil, JacquesJacques Anquetil Fynsec 3,481 km (2,163 mi) 94h 03' 54" + 28" 2
1961  Italy Pambianco, ArnaldoArnaldo Pambianco Fides 4,004 km (2,488 mi) 111h 25' 28" + 3' 45" 0
1962  Italy Balmamion, FrancoFranco Balmamion Carpano 4,180 km (2,600 mi) 123h 07' 03" + 3' 57" 0
1963  Italy Balmamion, FrancoFranco Balmamion Carpano 4,063 km (2,525 mi) 116h 50' 16" + 2' 24" 0
1964  France Anquetil, JacquesJacques Anquetil St. Raphael 4,069 km (2,528 mi) 115h 10' 27" + 1' 22" 1
1965  Italy Adorni, VittorioVittorio Adorni Salvarani 4,051 km (2,517 mi) 121h 08' 18" + 11' 26" 3
1966  Italy Motta, GianniGianni Mottadagger Molteni 3,976 km (2,471 mi) 111h 10' 48" + 3' 57" 2
1967  Italy Gimondi, FeliceFelice Gimondi Salvarani 3,572 km (2,220 mi) 101h 05' 34" + 3' 36" 1
1968  Belgium Merckx, EddyEddy Merckxdouble-dagger Faema 3,917 km (2,434 mi) 101h 05' 34" + 5' 01" 3
1969  Italy Gimondi, FeliceFelice Gimondi Salvarani 3,851 km (2,393 mi) 128h 04' 27" + 3' 35" 0
1970  Belgium Merckx, EddyEddy Merckx Faemino 3,292 km (2,046 mi) 90h 08' 47" + 3' 14" 3
1971  Sweden Pettersson, GöstaGösta Pettersson Ferretti 3,621 km (2,250 mi) 97h 24' 04" + 2' 32" 0
1972  Belgium Merckx, EddyEddy Merckx Molteni 3,725 km (2,315 mi) 103h 04' 04" + 5' 30" 3
1973  Belgium Merckx, EddyEddy Merckxdagger Molteni 3,801 km (2,362 mi) 113h 08' 13" + 7' 42" 6
1974  Belgium Merckx, EddyEddy Merckx Molteni 4,001 km (2,486 mi) 113h 08' 13" + 12" 2
1975  Italy Bertoglio, FaustoFausto Bertoglio Jollyceramica 3,933 km (2,444 mi) 111h 31' 24" + 41" 1
1976  Italy Gimondi, FeliceFelice Gimondi Bianchi–Campagnolo 4,161 km (2,586 mi) 119h 58' 16" + 19" 1
1977  Belgium Pollentier, MichelMichel Pollentier Flandria 3,884 km (2,413 mi) 107h 27' 16" + 2' 32" 1
1978  Belgium De Muynck, JohanJohan De Muynck Bianchi–Faema 3,610 km (2,240 mi) 101h 31' 22" + 59" 1
1979  Italy Saronni, GiuseppeGiuseppe Saronnidagger Scic–Bottecchia 3,301 km (2,051 mi) 89h 29' 18" + 2' 09" 3
1980  France Hinault, BernardBernard Hinault Renault–Gitane 4,025 km (2,501 mi) 112h 08' 20" + 5' 43" 1
1981  Italy Battaglin, GiovanniGiovanni Battaglin Inoxpran 3,895 km (2,420 mi) 104h 50' 36" + 38" 1
1982  France Hinault, BernardBernard Hinault Renault-Elf-Gitane 4,010 km (2,490 mi) 110h 07' 55" + 2' 35" 4
1983  Italy Saronni, GiuseppeGiuseppe Saronnidagger Del Tongo–Colnago 3,916 km (2,433 mi) 100h 45' 30" + 1' 07" 3
1984  Italy Moser, FrancescoFrancesco Moser Gis–Tuc Lu 3,808 km (2,366 mi) 98h 32' 20" + 1' 03" 4
1985  France Hinault, BernardBernard Hinault La Vie Claire–Look 3,998 km (2,484 mi) 105h 46' 51" + 1' 08" 1
1986  Italy Visentini, RobertoRoberto Visentini Carrera-Inoxpran 3,858 km (2,397 mi) 102h 33' 55" + 1' 02" 1
1987  Ireland Roche, StephenStephen Roche Carrera Jeans-Vagabond 3,915 km (2,433 mi) 105h 39' 42" + 3' 40" 2
1988  United States Hampsten, AndyAndy Hampsten* 7–Eleven Hoonved 3,759 km (2,336 mi) 97h 18' 56" + 1' 43" 2
1989  France Fignon, LaurentLaurent Fignon Système U 3,623 km (2,251 mi) 93h 30' 16" + 1' 15" 1
1990  Italy Bugno, GianniGianni Bugnodagger Château d'Ax 3,450 km (2,140 mi) 91h 51' 04" + 6' 33" 3
1991  Italy Chioccioli, FrancoFranco Chioccioli Del Tongo M.G. 3,715 km (2,308 mi) 99h 35' 43" + 3' 48" 3
1992  Spain Indurain, MiguelMiguel Indurain Banesto 3,835 km (2,383 mi) 103h 36' 08" + 1' 15" 2
1993  Spain Indurain, MiguelMiguel Indurain Banesto 3,703 km (2,301 mi) 99h 09' 44" + 58" 2
1994  Russia Berzin, EvgeniEvgeni Berzin# Gewiss-Ballan 3,738 km (2,323 mi) 100h 41' 21" + 2' 51" 3
1995   Switzerland Rominger, TonyTony Romingerdagger Mapei–Gb 3,736 km (2,321 mi) 97h 37' 50" + 4' 13" 4
1996  Russia Tonkov, PavelPavel Tonkov Panaria–Vinavil 3,990 km (2,480 mi) 105h 20' 23" + 2' 43" 1
1997  Italy Gotti, IvanIvan Gotti Saeco 3,912 km (2,431 mi) 102h 53' 58" + 1' 27" 1
1998  Italy Pantani, MarcoMarco Pantani* Mercatone Uno-Bianchi 3,868 km (2,403 mi) 98h 48' 32" + 1' 43" 2
1999  Italy Gotti, IvanIvan Gotti Team Polti 3,757 km (2,334 mi) 99h 55' 56" + 3' 35" 0
2000  Italy Garzelli, StefanoStefano Garzelli Mercatone Uno-Albacom 3,707 km (2,303 mi) 98h 30' 14" + 1' 27" 1
2001  Italy Simoni, GilbertoGilberto Simoni Lampre-Daikin 3,572 km (2,220 mi) 89h 02' 58" + 7' 31" 1
2002  Italy Savoldelli, PaoloPaolo Savoldelli Index–Alexia 3,334 km (2,072 mi) 89h 22' 42" + 1' 41" 0
2003  Italy Simoni, GilbertoGilberto Simonidagger Saeco Macchine per Caffè 3,544 km (2,202 mi) 89h 32' 09" + 7' 06" 3
2004  Italy Cunego, DamianoDamiano Cunego Saeco Macchine per Caffè 3,435 km (2,134 mi) 88h 40' 43" + 2' 02" 4
2005  Italy Savoldelli, PaoloPaolo Savoldelli Discovery Channel 3,440 km (2,140 mi) 91h 25' 51" + 28" 1
2006  Italy Basso, IvanIvan Basso Team CSC 3,526 km (2,191 mi) 91h 33' 36" + 9' 18" 3
2007  Italy Di Luca, DaniloDanilo Di Lucadagger Liquigas 3,463 km (2,152 mi) 92h 59' 39" + 1' 55" 2
2008  Spain Contador, AlbertoAlberto Contador Astana 3,420 km (2,130 mi) 89h 56' 49" + 1' 57" 0
2009  Russia Menchov, DenisDenis Menchov Rabobank 3,456 km (2,147 mi) 89h 03' 11" + 41" 2
2010  Italy Basso, IvanIvan Basso Liquigas-Doimo 3,485 km (2,165 mi) 87h 44' 01" + 1' 51" 1
2011  Italy Scarponi, MicheleMichele Scarponidagger[A] Lampre-ISD 3,524 km (2,190 mi) 84h 11' 24" + 46" 0
2012  Canada Hesjedal, RyderRyder Hesjedal Garmin-Barracuda 3,503 km (2,177 mi) 91h 39' 02" + 16" 0
2013  Italy Nibali, VincenzoVincenzo Nibali Astana 3,405 km (2,116 mi) 84h 53' 28" + 4' 43" 2
2014  Colombia Quintana, NairoNairo Quintana# Movistar Team 3,445.5 km (2,140.9 mi) 88h 14' 32" + 2' 58" 2

Multiple winners[edit]

As of 2013, 20 cyclists have won the Giro d'Italia more than once.[27]

Multiple winners of the Giro d'Italia general classification
Cyclist Total Years
 Binda, AlfredoAlfredo Binda (ITA) 5 1925, 1927, 1928, 1929, 1933
 Coppi, FaustoFausto Coppi (ITA) 5 1940, 1947, 1949, 1952, 1953
 Merckx, EddyEddy Merckx (BEL) 5 1968, 1970, 1972, 1973, 1974
 Brunero, GiovanniGiovanni Brunero (ITA) 3 1921, 1922, 1926
 Bartali, GinoGino Bartali (ITA) 3 1936, 1937, 1946
 Magni, FiorenzoFiorenzo Magni (ITA) 3 1948, 1951, 1955
 Gimondi, FeliceFelice Gimondi (ITA) 3 1967, 1969, 1976
 Hinault, BernardBernard Hinault (FRA) 3 1980, 1982, 1985
 Galetti, CarloCarlo Galetti (ITA) 2 1910, 1911
 Girardengo, CostanteCostante Girardengo (ITA) 2 1919, 1923
 Valetti, GiovanniGiovanni Valetti (ITA) 2 1938, 1939
 Gaul, CharlyCharly Gaul (LUX) 2 1956, 1959
 Anquetil, JacquesJacques Anquetil (FRA) 2 1960, 1964
 Balmamion, FrancoFranco Balmamion (ITA) 2 1962, 1963
 Saronni, GiuseppeGiuseppe Saronni (ITA) 2 1979, 1983
 Indurain, MiguelMiguel Indurain (ESP) 2 1992, 1993
 Gotti, IvanIvan Gotti (ITA) 2 1997, 1999
 Simoni, GilbertoGilberto Simoni (ITA) 2 2001, 2003
 Savoldelli, PaoloPaolo Savoldelli (ITA) 2 2002, 2005
 Basso, IvanIvan Basso (ITA) 2 2006, 2010

By nationality[edit]

Riders from twelve different countries have won the Giro d'Italia.[27]

Giro d'Italia general classification winners by nationality
Country No. of winning cyclists No. of wins
 Italy 41 68
 Belgium 3 7
 France 3 6
 Spain 2 3
  Switzerland 3 3
 Russia 3 3
 Luxembourg 1 2
 Sweden 1 1
 Ireland 1 1
 United States 1 1
 Canada 1 1
 Colombia 1 1

Footnotes[edit]

A. ^ Alberto Contador was the winner at the podium ceremony in Milan on the last day of the 2011 Giro d'Italia, but was subsequently found to have tested positive for performing-enhancing drugs on a rest day in the 2010 Tour de France. He was originally suspended on 25 January 2011 for a year, but appealed the decision. The Court of Arbitration for Sport found him guilty of using clenbuterol during the race; thus his results since the 2010 Tour de France were taken away from him and he was stripped him of the win on 6 February 2012.[28]

References[edit]

General

Bibliography

  • Foot, John (2011). Pedalare! Pedalare! A History of Italian Cycling. Bloomsbury. ISBN 978-1-4088-2219-7. 
  • Fotheringham, William (2010). Fallen Angel: The Passion of Fausto Coppi. Yellow Press. ISBN 978-0-224-07450-6. 
  • Sykes, Herbie (2008). The Eagle of the Canavese: Franco Balmamion and the Giro d'Italia. Mousehold Press. ISBN 978-1-874739-49-4. 
  • van Walleghem, Rik (1993). Eddy Merckx: The Greatest Cyclist of the 20th century. Penguin Productions. ISBN 978-1-884737-72-5. 

Specific

  1. ^ "FAQ". Union Cycliste Internationale. Retrieved 17 August 2009. 
  2. ^ Tim Maloney (11 May 2007). "Stage 12 – Thursday, May 24: Scalenghe - Briançon (Francia), 163 km". Cycling News (Future Publishing Limited). Retrieved 4 April 2011. 
  3. ^ "Top five:Giro d'Italia finishes". Eurosport. 24 May 2010. Retrieved 4 September 2010. 
  4. ^ "87th Giro d'Italia: a bit of History". Daily Peloton. 11 September 2003. Retrieved 4 September 2010. 
  5. ^ "Giro's Number". La Gazzetta dello Sport. Retrieved 4 September 2010. 
  6. ^ a b "Giro d'Italia 2012: Ryder Hesjadel is first Canadian to win the race". BBC Sport. 27 May 2012. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  7. ^ Foot 2011, pp. 13–14
  8. ^ Castelnovi, Giuseppe (9 June 2001). "qual e' stato il giro d' italia piu' lungo, e quale il piu' breve ?". La Gazzetta dello Sport (in Italian). Retrieved 6 September 2010. 
  9. ^ "Giro d'Italia: In numbers". Eurosport. 6 May 2011. Retrieved 17 July 2011. 
  10. ^ Gallagher, Brendan (7 May 2009). "Giro d'Italia celebrates centenary year". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 4 September 2010. 
  11. ^ Stanley, Alessandra (6 May 2000). "Gino Bartali, 85, a Hero in Italy For His Cycling Championships". The New York Times (New York City). Retrieved 5 September 2010. 
  12. ^ Fotheringham 2010, p. 37
  13. ^ a b Henderson, Greg (15 May 2009). "50 Giro facts you need to know". Cycling News (Future Publishing Limited). Retrieved 5 September 2010. 
  14. ^ "Jacques Anquetil". The Daily Telegraph (London). 12 May 2010. Retrieved 17 July 2011. 
  15. ^ Sykes 2008, p. 35
  16. ^ van Walleghem 1993, p. 73
  17. ^ "Grand Tour Doubles – Bernard Hinault". Cycle Sport (IPC Media). Retrieved 17 July 2011. 
  18. ^ Doyle, Paul (5 July 2007). "Roche remembers his annus mirabilis". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 5 September 2010. 
  19. ^ Benson, Andrew (19 March 2004). "End of a troubled ride". BBC Sport. Retrieved 5 September 2010. 
  20. ^ Ekström, Gabriella (3 June 2000). "Stage 20 – June 3: Briancon to Sestrieres, (ITT) 34 km". Cycling News (Future Publishing Limited). Retrieved 5 September 2010. 
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