List of Governors of Arizona

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Governor of Arizona
Arizona-StateSeal.svg
= Current Arizona Governor Jan Brewer
Incumbent
Jan Brewer

since January 21, 2009
Style The Honorable
Residence No official residence
Term length Four years, can succeed self once; eligible again after 4-year respite
Inaugural holder George W. P. Hunt
Formation February 14, 1912
Deputy None
Salary $95,000 (2009)[1]
Website www.azgovernor.gov

The Governor of Arizona is the head of the executive branch of Arizona's government and the commander-in-chief of the state's military forces. The governor has a duty to enforce state laws, and the power to either approve or veto bills passed by the Arizona Legislature, to convene the legislature, and to grant pardons, except in cases of treason and impeachment.[2]

Twenty-two people have served as governor over 26 distinct terms. All of the repeat governors were in the state's earliest years, when George W. P. Hunt and Thomas Edward Campbell alternated as governor for 17 years and, after a two-year gap, Hunt served another term. One governor was successfully impeached, Evan Mecham, and one resigned upon being convicted of a felony, Fife Symington III. The longest-serving governor was Hunt, who was elected seven times and served just under fourteen years. The longest single stint was Bruce Babbitt's, who was elected to two 4-year terms after succeeding to the office following the death of his predecessor, serving nearly nine years total. Wesley Bolin had the shortest term, dying less than five months after succeeding into office. Four governors were actually born in Arizona: Thomas Edward Campbell, Sidney Preston Osborn, Rose Mofford, and Bruce Babbitt. Arizona has had four female governors, the most in the United States, and is also the only state in which female governors have served in a consecutive order.[3] Because of a string of deaths in office, resignations, and an impeachment, Arizona has not had a governor whose term began and ended because of "normal" election circumstances since Jack Williams left office in 1975. The current governor is Jan Brewer, who took office on January 21, 2009, upon the resignation of Janet Napolitano, and was elected to a full term in 2010. Her term will expire on January 5, 2015.

Governors[edit]

Confederate Arizona[edit]

Lewis Owings, Governor of the provisional Arizona Territory and first Governor of Confederate Arizona
John Noble Goodwin, first Governor of Arizona Territory
Richard C. McCormick, second Governor of Arizona Territory

In Tucson between April 2 and April 5, 1860, a convention of settlers from the southern half of New Mexico Territory drafted a constitution for a provisional Arizona Territory, three years before the United States would create such a territory. This proposed territory consisted of the part of New Mexico Territory south of 33° 40' N. On April 2,[4] they elected a governor, Lewis Owings. The provisional territory was to exist until such time as an official territory was created, but that proposal was rejected by the U.S. Congress at the time.[5]

On March 16, 1861, soon before the American Civil War broke out, a convention in Mesilla voted that the provisional territory secede from the Union and join the Confederate States of America.[6] Lewis Owings remained as territorial governor.

The Confederacy took ownership of the territory on August 1, 1861, when forces led by Lieutenant Colonel John Baylor won decisive control of the territory, and Baylor proclaimed himself governor.[7] The territory was organized on February 14, 1862.[8] On March 20, 1862, Baylor issued an order to kill all the adult Apache and take their children into slavery.[7] When Confederate President Jefferson Davis learned of this order, he strongly disapproved and demanded an explanation. Baylor wrote a letter December 29, 1862, to justify his decision, and after this was received, Davis relieved Baylor of his post and commission, calling his letter an "avowal of an infamous crime."[9] By that time, the government of Confederate Arizona was in exile in San Antonio, Texas, as the territory had been effectively lost to Union forces in July 1862;[10] no new governor was appointed.

Governors of the Territory of Arizona[edit]

For the period before Arizona Territory was formed, see the list of Governors of New Mexico Territory.

Arizona Territory was formed on February 24, 1863 from New Mexico Territory, remaining a territory for 49 years.[11] On January 18, 1867, the northwestern corner of the territory was transferred to the state of Nevada.[12]

John A. Gurley was appointed by President of the United States Abraham Lincoln to be the first governor of the territory, but he died on August 19, 1863, before he could arrive in the territory.[13] John Noble Goodwin was appointed in his place.

Governor Took office[a] Left office[b] Appointed by Notes
Goodwin, John NobleJohn Noble Goodwin December 29, 1863[13][14] March 4, 1865 Lincoln, AbrahamAbraham Lincoln [c][d]
McCormick, Richard C.Richard C. McCormick July 9, 1866[15] March 4, 1869 Johnson, AndrewAndrew Johnson [d]
Safford, Anson P.K.Anson P.K. Safford July 9, 1869[16] April 5, 1877 Grant, Ulysses S.Ulysses S. Grant
Hoyt, John PhiloJohn Philo Hoyt May 30, 1877[17] June 12, 1878 Hayes, Rutherford B.Rutherford B. Hayes
Frémont, John C.John C. Frémont October 6, 1878[18] October 11, 1881[19] Hayes, Rutherford B.Rutherford B. Hayes [e][f]
Tritle, Frederick AugustusFrederick Augustus Tritle March 8, 1882[19][20] October 7, 1885[21] Arthur, Chester A.Chester A. Arthur [g]
Zulick, C. MeyerC. Meyer Zulick November 2, 1885[22] March 28, 1889 Cleveland, GroverGrover Cleveland
Wolfley, LewisLewis Wolfley April 8, 1889[23] August 20, 1890[24] Harrison, BenjaminBenjamin Harrison [h]
Irwin, John N.John N. Irwin January 21, 1891[26] April 20, 1892[27] Harrison, BenjaminBenjamin Harrison [i]
Murphy, OakesOakes Murphy May 11, 1892[29][30] April 5, 1893 Harrison, BenjaminBenjamin Harrison
Hughes, L. C.L. C. Hughes April 12, 1893[31] April 1, 1896[32] Cleveland, GroverGrover Cleveland [j]
Franklin, Benjamin JosephBenjamin Joseph Franklin April 18, 1896[34] July 29, 1897[35] Cleveland, GroverGrover Cleveland
McCord, Myron H.Myron H. McCord July 29, 1897[36][37] August 1, 1898[38] McKinley, WilliamWilliam McKinley [k]
Murphy, OakesOakes Murphy August 1, 1898[40][41] June 30, 1902[42] McKinley, WilliamWilliam McKinley [l]
Brodie, Alexander OswaldAlexander Oswald Brodie July 1, 1902[44][45] February 14, 1905[46] Roosevelt, TheodoreTheodore Roosevelt [m]
Kibbey, Joseph HenryJoseph Henry Kibbey March 7, 1905[46][47] May 1, 1909 Roosevelt, TheodoreTheodore Roosevelt
Sloan, Richard ElihuRichard Elihu Sloan May 1, 1909[48][49] February 14, 1912 Taft, William HowardWilliam Howard Taft

Governors of the State of Arizona[edit]

The state of Arizona was admitted to the Union on February 14, 1912, the last of the contiguous states to be admitted.

The state constitution of 1912 called for the election of a governor every two years.[50] The term was increased to four years by a 1968 amendment.[51][52] The constitution originally included no term limit,[53] but an amendment passed in 1992 allows governors to succeed themselves only once;[50] before this, four governors were elected more than twice in a row. Gubernatorial terms begin on the first Monday in the January following the election.[50] Governors who have served the two term limit can run again after four years out of office.

Arizona is one of seven states which does not have a lieutenant governor; instead, in the event of a vacancy in the office of governor, the Secretary of State, if elected, succeeds to the office. If the secretary of state was appointed, rather than elected, or is otherwise ineligible to hold the office of governor, the first elected and eligible person in the line of succession assumes the office. The state constitution specifies the line of succession to be the Secretary of State, Attorney General, State Treasurer and Superintendent of Public Instruction, in that order. If the governor is out of the state or impeached, the next elected officer in the line of succession becomes acting governor until the governor returns or is cleared.[54] The line of succession has gone beyond secretary of state once, when Bruce Babbitt, as state attorney general, became governor upon the death of Wesley Bolin; the secretary of state at the time, Rose Mofford, was an appointee to replace Bolin,[55] who himself had succeeded to the office due to the resignation of his predecessor, Raul Hector Castro. Mofford would later succeed Evan Mecham as governor when he was impeached.

      Democratic (16)[n]       Republican (10)[o]

Ernest McFarland, tenth Governor of Arizona
Bruce Babbitt, 16th Governor of Arizona, and 47th U.S. Secretary of the Interior
Janet Napolitano, 21st Governor of Arizona, and third U.S. Secretary of Homeland Security
#[p]   Governor Term start Term end Party Terms[q]
1   Hunt, George W. P.George W. P. Hunt February 14, 1912 January 1, 1917 Democratic 2
2 Campbell, Thomas EdwardThomas Edward Campbell January 1, 1917 December 25, 1917 Republican 12[r]
1 Hunt, George W. P.George W. P. Hunt December 25, 1917 January 6, 1919 Democratic 12[r]
2 Campbell, Thomas EdwardThomas Edward Campbell January 6, 1919 January 1, 1923 Republican 2
1 Hunt, George W. P.George W. P. Hunt January 1, 1923 January 7, 1929 Democratic 3
3 Phillips, John CalhounJohn Calhoun Phillips January 7, 1929 January 5, 1931 Republican 1
1 Hunt, George W. P.George W. P. Hunt January 5, 1931 January 2, 1933 Democratic 1
4 Moeur, Benjamin BakerBenjamin Baker Moeur January 2, 1933 January 4, 1937 Democratic 2
5 Stanford, Rawghlie ClementRawghlie Clement Stanford January 4, 1937 January 2, 1939 Democratic 1
6 Jones, Robert TaylorRobert Taylor Jones January 2, 1939 January 6, 1941 Democratic 1
7 Osborn, Sidney PrestonSidney Preston Osborn January 6, 1941 May 25, 1948 Democratic 3 12[s]
8 Garvey, Dan EdwardDan Edward Garvey May 25, 1948 January 1, 1951 Democratic 1 12[t]
9 Pyle, John HowardJohn Howard Pyle January 1, 1951 January 3, 1955 Republican 2
10 McFarland, ErnestErnest McFarland January 3, 1955 January 5, 1959 Democratic 2
11 Fannin, PaulPaul Fannin January 5, 1959 January 4, 1965 Republican 3
12 Goddard, Jr., Samuel PearsonSamuel Pearson Goddard, Jr. January 4, 1965 January 2, 1967 Democratic 1
13 Williams, Jack RichardJack Richard Williams January 2, 1967 January 6, 1975 Republican 3[u]
14 Castro, Raul HectorRaul Hector Castro January 6, 1975 October 20, 1977 Democratic 13[v]
15 Bolin, WesleyWesley Bolin October 20, 1977 March 4, 1978 Democratic 13[s][w]
16 Babbitt, BruceBruce Babbitt March 4, 1978 January 5, 1987 Democratic 2 13[x]
17 Mecham, EvanEvan Mecham January 5, 1987 April 4, 1988 Republican 12[y]
18 Mofford, RoseRose Mofford April 4, 1988 March 6, 1991 Democratic 12[w]
19 Symington III, FifeFife Symington III March 6, 1991 September 5, 1997 Republican 1 12[z][aa][ab]
20 Hull, Jane DeeJane Dee Hull September 5, 1997 January 6, 2003 Republican 1 12[t][ab]
21 Napolitano, JanetJanet Napolitano January 6, 2003 January 21, 2009 Democratic 1 12[ac]
22 Brewer, JanJan Brewer January 21, 2009 Incumbent Republican 1 12[t][ad]

Other high offices held[edit]

Fourteen of Arizona's governors have held federal offices, including two Cabinet secretaries and three ambassadors. One of them was originally a military governor of California and two of them were originally chosen to be Governor of Idaho Territory, though one of them refused that position. Eight of them have served in the U.S. Congress, three of them representing the Arizona Territory, two of them representing Arizona, and three of them representing other states. Five governors (marked with an *) resigned to serve other offices.

In addition to the governors listed, the first appointed governor of the Arizona Territory who died before taking office, John A. Gurley, was a Representative from Ohio.[62] One Confederate governor, John Baylor, served as a Confederate Congressman from Texas.[63]

Governor Gubernatorial term Other offices held Sources
Goodwin, John NobleJohn Noble Goodwin 1863–1866 Delegate from Arizona Territory*, Representative from Maine [64]
McCormick, Richard C.Richard C. McCormick 1866–1868 Delegate from Arizona Territory*, Representative from New York [65]
Hoyt, John PhiloJohn Philo Hoyt 1877–1878 Governor of Idaho Territory* but later declined the post, finding his predecessor was wrongly removed. [66]
Frémont, John C.John C. Frémont 1878–1881 Senator from California, Military Governor of California [67]
Irwin, John N.John N. Irwin 1890–1892 Governor of Idaho Territory, Minister to Portugal [68][69]
Murphy, OakesOakes Murphy 1892–1893, 1898–1902 Delegate from Arizona Territory [70]
Franklin, Benjamin JosephBenjamin Joseph Franklin 1896–1897 Representative from Missouri [35]
McCord, Myron H.Myron H. McCord 1897–1898 Representative from Wisconsin [71]
Hunt, George W. P.George W. P. Hunt 1912–1917, 1917–1919,
1923–1929, 1931–1933
Minister to Siam [72]
McFarland, ErnestErnest McFarland 1955–1959 Senator from Arizona (including as majority leader) [73]
Fannin, PaulPaul Fannin 1959–1965 Senator from Arizona [74]
Castro, Raul HectorRaul Hector Castro 1975–1977 Ambassador to El Salvador, Ambassador to Bolivia, Ambassador to Argentina* [75]
Babbitt, BruceBruce Babbitt 1978–1987 Secretary of the Interior [76]
Napolitano, JanetJanet Napolitano 2003–2009 Secretary of Homeland Security* [77]

Living former governors[edit]

As of March 2011, six former governors are alive. The most recent death of a former governor was that of Evan Mecham (1987–1988), who died on February 21, 2008.

Governor Term of office Date of birth
Raul Hector Castro 1975–1977 (1916-06-12) June 12, 1916 (age 97)
Bruce Babbitt 1978–1987 (1938-06-27) June 27, 1938 (age 75)
Rose Mofford 1988–1991 (1922-06-10) June 10, 1922 (age 91)
Fife Symington III 1991–1997 (1945-08-12) August 12, 1945 (age 68)
Jane Dee Hull 1997–2003 (1935-08-08) August 8, 1935 (age 78)
Janet Napolitano 2003–2009 (1957-11-29) November 29, 1957 (age 56)

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The date the governor took the oath of office in Arizona. Due to the distance from Washington, D.C., to Arizona, many governors were appointed and confirmed months before being able to exercise power in the territory.
  2. ^ The date the governor left office. When it happened in unusual circumstances, it is noted; otherwise, it was simply when his term expired or he was replaced by the president.
  3. ^ John A. Gurley died prior to taking office as first appointed governor; Goodwin, who was Chief Justice of the Arizona Territorial Supreme Court, was appointed in his place.
  4. ^ a b Resigned to take an elected seat as delegate to the U.S. House of Representatives.
  5. ^ It is unknown when Frémont took the oath of office; Goff states that he and his family arrived in Prescott on the afternoon of October 6, 1878.
  6. ^ Resigned. Frémont spent little time in the territory; and the Secretary of the Territory asked him to resume his duties or resign, and he chose resignation.[19]
  7. ^ Resigned after Grover Cleveland was elected, so that the Democrat could appoint a Democrat as governor.[21]
  8. ^ Resigned due to a disagreement with the federal government on arid land policy.[25]
  9. ^ Resigned to handle family business out of state.[28]
  10. ^ Hughes had abolished many territorial offices, and unhappy officials successfully petitioned President Cleveland to remove him.[33]
  11. ^ Resigned to serve in the Spanish–American War.[39]
  12. ^ Asked by President Roosevelt to resign for opposing the Newlands Reclamation Act.[43]
  13. ^ Resigned to accept appointment as assistant chief of the records and pension bureau at the U.S. Department of War.[46]
  14. ^ Includes three terms served by a repeat governor.
  15. ^ Includes one term served by a repeat governor.
  16. ^ Repeat governors are officially numbered only once; subsequent terms are marked with their original number italicized.
  17. ^ The fractional terms of some governors are not to be understood absolutely literally; rather, they are meant to show single terms during which multiple governors served, due to resignations, deaths and the like.
  18. ^ a b Thomas Edward Campbell's narrow election win was overturned by the Arizona Supreme Court on December 22, 1917, which, following a recount, awarded the office to George W.P. Hunt. Campbell vacated the office three days later.[56]
  19. ^ a b Died in office.
  20. ^ a b c As secretary of state, filled unexpired term, and was subsequently elected in their own right.
  21. ^ The Constitution was amended in 1968 to increase gubernatorial terms from two to four years; Williams' first two terms were for two years, his third was for four years.
  22. ^ Resigned to take post as U.S. Ambassador to Argentina.
  23. ^ a b As secretary of state, filled unexpired term.
  24. ^ As state attorney general, filled unexpired term, and was subsequently elected in his own right; the secretary of state at the time had been appointed,[55] not elected, and therefore not in the line of succession according to the Arizona constitution.[54]
  25. ^ Impeached and removed from office on charges of obstruction of justice and misuse of government funds.[57]
  26. ^ Arizona adopted runoff voting after Evan Mecham won with only 43% of the vote. The 1990 election was very close, and a runoff was held on February 26, 1991, which Symington won, and he was inaugurated on March 6, 1991.[58]
  27. ^ Resigned after being convicted of bank fraud, since state law does not allow felons to hold office; the conviction was later overturned and he was pardoned by President Bill Clinton.[59]
  28. ^ a b Fife Symington resigned on September 5, 1997; Jane Dee Hull did not take the oath of office until September 8, but she was governor for those three days regardless of the delay.[60]
  29. ^ Resigned to become U.S. Secretary of Homeland Security.
  30. ^ Governor Brewer's first full term expires on expires on January 5, 2015. There were questions as to whether she is term limited or eligible to run again, but she is not seeking re-election.[61]

References[edit]

General
Constitution
Specific
  1. ^ "State of Arizona Elected Officials' Salaries". Arizona State Legislature. Retrieved July 3, 2010. 
  2. ^ AZ Const. art. 5
  3. ^ "Arizona Governor Janet Napolitano". National Governors Association. Archived from the original on September 12, 2008. Retrieved October 20, 2008. 
  4. ^ Robinson, William Morrison (1941). Justice in Grey: A History of the Judicial System of the Confederate States of America. Harvard University Press. p. 310. Retrieved August 3, 2010. 
  5. ^ McClintock pp. 142–143
  6. ^ Colton, Ray Charles (1985). The Civil War in the Western Territories. University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 9–10. ISBN 0-8061-1902-0. Retrieved August 3, 2010. 
  7. ^ a b Colton, Ray Charles (1985). The Civil War in the Western Territories. University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 122–123. ISBN 0-8061-1902-0. Retrieved August 3, 2010. 
  8. ^ Cowles, Calvin Duvall (1900). The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies. United States Government Printing Office. p. 930. Retrieved August 3, 2010. 
  9. ^ Wellman, Paul Iselin (1987). Death in the Desert: The Fifty Years' War for the Great Southwest. University of Nebraska Press. pp. 83–85. ISBN 0-8032-9722-X. Retrieved August 3, 2010. 
  10. ^ Heidler, David Stephen; Jeanne t. Heidler, David J. Coles (2002). Encyclopedia Of The American Civil War: A Political, Social, and Military History. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 1412. ISBN 0-393-04758-X. Retrieved August 3, 2010. 
  11. ^ Wagoner p. 20
  12. ^ McClintock p. 329
  13. ^ a b McGinnis, Ralph Y.; Calvin N. Smith (1994). Abraham Lincoln and the Western Territories. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 91. ISBN 0-8304-1247-6. 
  14. ^ Goff pp. 26–27
  15. ^ Nicolson, John (1974). The Arizona of Joseph Pratt Allyn. University of Arizona Press. p. 39. ISBN 0-8165-0386-9. Retrieved October 11, 2008. "McCormick was appointed April 10 and took the oath of office July 9, 1866." 
  16. ^ Goff p. 55
  17. ^ Goff p. 66
  18. ^ Goff pp. 76–77
  19. ^ a b c Walker, Dale L. (1997). Rough Rider: Buckey O'Neill of Arizona. University of Nebraska Press. pp. 23–24. ISBN 0-8032-9796-3. Retrieved August 3, 2010. 
  20. ^ Goff p. 88
  21. ^ a b Wagoner p. 221
  22. ^ Goff pp. 98–99
  23. ^ Goff p. 112
  24. ^ Walker, Dale L. (1997). Rough Rider: Buckey O'Neill of Arizona. University of Nebraska Press. p. 81. ISBN 0-8032-9796-3. Retrieved August 3, 2010. 
  25. ^ Wagoner p. 276
  26. ^ Goff pp. 118–119
  27. ^ "Arizona". Appletons' Annual Cyclopaedia and Register of Important Events. New. series, Volume 17 (1892 ed.). 1893. p. 16. Retrieved October 10, 2008. 
  28. ^ Goff p. 127
  29. ^ A Biographical Congressional Directory, 1774 to 1903. United States Government Printing Office. 1903. p. 711. Retrieved October 11, 2008. 
  30. ^ Goff p. 129
  31. ^ Goff p. 146
  32. ^ Lincoln Library, Carl Sandburg Collections (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Library) (1897). "Arizona". Appletons' Annual Cyclopaedia and Register of Important Events. 3rd. series, Volume 1 (1896 ed.). p. 26. Retrieved October 11, 2008. 
  33. ^ Johnson, Rossiter; John Howard Brown (1904). The Twentieth Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable Americans. The Biographical Society. Retrieved October 11, 2008. 
  34. ^ Goff pp. 154–155
  35. ^ a b "Franklin, Benjamin Joseph". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved October 11, 2008. 
  36. ^ McClintock p. 345
  37. ^ Goff p. 167
  38. ^ Wagoner p. 345
  39. ^ Roth, Mitchel P.; James Stuart Olson (2001). Historical Dictionary of Law Enforcement. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 207. ISBN 0-313-30560-9. Retrieved October 11, 2008. 
  40. ^ McClintock p. 346
  41. ^ Goff p. 132
  42. ^ "Resignation of Arizona's Governor". The New York Times. April 30, 1902. Retrieved October 11, 2008. 
  43. ^ Goff p. 136
  44. ^ Goff p. 178
  45. ^ Herner, Charles (1970). The Arizona Rough Riders. University of Arizona Press. p. 221. ISBN 0-8165-0206-4. Retrieved October 11, 2008. 
  46. ^ a b c McClintock p. 354
  47. ^ Goff p. 189
  48. ^ McClintock p. 359
  49. ^ Goff p. 199
  50. ^ a b c AZ Const. art 5, § 1
  51. ^ Ralph E. Hughes v. Douglas K. Martin (PDF), (Arizona Supreme Court 2002-08-20). “Nelson involved two allegedly conflicting amendments both approved by voters in the 1968 election, to Article 5 of the Arizona Constitution. ... The other amendment, proposition 104, extended the term of offices of the executive department, including the office of state auditor, from two years to four years.”
  52. ^ Berman, David R. (1998). Arizona Politics & Government: The Quest for Autonomy, Democracy, and Development. University of Nebraska Press. p. 112. ISBN 0-8032-6146-2. Retrieved August 3, 2010. 
  53. ^ AZ Const. art. 5, old § 1
  54. ^ a b AZ Const. art 5, § 6
  55. ^ a b "Arizona Governor Rose Mofford". National Governors Association. Retrieved October 20, 2008. [dead link]
  56. ^ "Arizona Governor Thomas Edward Campbell". National Governors Association. Retrieved October 13, 2008. [dead link]
  57. ^ "Arizona Governor Evan Mecham". National Governors Association. Retrieved October 13, 2008. [dead link]
  58. ^ Mullaney, Marie Marmo (1994). Biographical Directory of the Governors of the United States, 1988–1994. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 29–30. ISBN 0-313-28312-5. Retrieved October 11, 2008. 
  59. ^ "Arizona Governor J. Fife Symington III". National Governors Association. Retrieved October 13, 2008. [dead link]
  60. ^ Todd S., Purdum (1997-09-04). "Arizona Governor Convicted Of Fraud and Will Step Down". The New York Times. Retrieved October 11, 2008. 
  61. ^ "Arizona Gov. Jan Brewer won't seek reelection". CNN. 2014-03-12. Retrieved March 12, 2014. 
  62. ^ "Gurley, John Addison". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved October 11, 2008. 
  63. ^ "Baylor, John Robert". The Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved October 11, 2008. 
  64. ^ "Goodwin, John Noble". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved October 10, 2008. 
  65. ^ "McCormick, Richard Cunningham". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved October 10, 2008. 
  66. ^ "Hoyt, John Philo". The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography. Volume XI. James T. White & Company. 1901. p. 556. Retrieved October 11, 2008. 
  67. ^ "Frémont, John Charles". Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved October 11, 2008. 
  68. ^ Brosnan, Cornelius James (1918). History of the State of Idaho. Charles Scribner's Sons. pp. 217–218. Retrieved October 11, 2010. 
  69. ^ Wagoner p. 296
  70. ^ "Murphy, Nathan Oakes". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved October 11, 2008. 
  71. ^ "McCord, Myron Hawley". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved October 11, 2008. 
  72. ^ Goff, John S. (1973). George W. P. Hunt and His Arizona. Socio Technical Publications. p. 121. OCLC 799442. 
  73. ^ "McFarland, Ernest William". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved October 13, 2008. 
  74. ^ "Fannin, Paul Jones". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. Retrieved October 13, 2008. 
  75. ^ "Arizona Governor Raul H. Castro". National Governors Association. Retrieved October 13, 2008. [dead link]
  76. ^ "Arizona Governor Bruce Edward Babbitt". National Governors Association. Retrieved October 13, 2008. [dead link]
  77. ^ "Arizona Governor Janet Napolitano". National Governors Association. Retrieved January 20, 2009. [dead link]

External links[edit]