List of Governors of New Jersey

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Governor of New Jersey
Seal of New Jersey.svg
Chris Christie 2011 Shankbone.JPG
Incumbent
Chris Christie

since January 19, 2010
Style The Honorable
Residence Drumthwacket
Term length Four years
Inaugural holder William Livingston
Formation August 31, 1776
Deputy Kim Guadagno
Salary $175,000 (2013)[1]
Website www.state.nj.us/governor

The Governor of New Jersey is the head of the executive branch of New Jersey's government and the commander-in-chief of the state's military forces. The governor has a duty to enforce state laws and the power to either approve or veto bills passed by the New Jersey Legislature, to convene the legislature, and to grant pardons, except in cases of treason or impeachment.[2]

There have been 55 official governors of New Jersey, with several others acting as governor for a time.[note 1] In the official numbering, governors are counted only once each, and traditionally, only elected governors were included. However, legislation signed on January 10, 2006, allowed acting governors who had served at least 180 days to be considered full governors. The law was retroactive to January 1, 2001; it therefore changed the titles of Donald DiFrancesco and Richard Codey, affecting Jim McGreevey's numbering.[3] The current governor is Chris Christie, who took office on January 19, 2010.

Governors[edit]

Head and shoulders of a dignified and serious man.
William Livingston, 1st Governor of New Jersey and signer of the United States Constitution
Portrait of aging, silver-haired man in judge's robes.
William Paterson, 2nd Governor of New Jersey, signer of the United States Constitution, and Justice of the United States Supreme Court
Middle-aged, thick-haired man wearing a suit and tie, gazing forward, his right hand touching the side of his face thoughtfully.
John W. Griggs, 29th Governor of New Jersey and 44th U.S. Attorney General
Bespectacled middle-aged man wearing a suit and tie, gazing forward.
Woodrow Wilson, 34th Governor of New Jersey and 28th President of the United States
Bespectacled man with neatly combed dark hair, wearing a suit and tie.
Walter Evans Edge, 36th Governor of New Jersey
Middle-aged man with neatly combed hair, wearing a suit and tie.
Charles Edison, 42nd Governor of New Jersey and 46th U.S. Secretary of the Navy
Smiling, middle-aged man with graying hair, wearing a suit and tie.
James Florio, 49th Governor of New Jersey
Three-quarter photographic portrait of a white man in his 50s, dressed in a suit and tie. He is balding but has a grayish beard, and he is wearing glasses.
Jon Corzine, 54th Governor of New Jersey
For the period before independence, see the list of colonial governors of New Jersey.

New Jersey was one of the original thirteen colonies and was admitted as a state on December 18, 1787. Prior to declaring its independence, New Jersey was a colony of the Kingdom of Great Britain.

The first New Jersey State Constitution, ratified in 1776, provided that a governor be elected annually by the state legislature, the members of which were selected by the several counties.[4] Under this constitution, the governor was president of the upper house of the legislature, then called the Legislative Council.[4] The 1844 constitution provided for a popular vote to elect the governor,[5] who no longer presided over the upper house of the legislature, now called the Senate. The 1844 constitution also lengthened the governor's term to three years, set to start on the third Tuesday in January following an election, and barred governors from succeeding themselves.[6] The 1947 constitution extended terms to four years, and limits governors from being elected to more than two consecutive terms, though they can run again after a third term has passed.[7]

The 1776 constitution provided that the vice-president of the Legislative Council would act as governor (who was president of the Council) should that office be vacant.[4] The 1844 constitution placed the president of the Senate first in the line of succession,[8] as did the subsequent 1947 constitution.[9] A constitutional amendment in 2006 created the office of lieutenant governor,[10] to be elected on the same ticket for the same term as the governor,[11] and if the office of governor is vacant, the lieutenant governor becomes governor.[12] This office was first filled in 2010.

      Federalist (4)       Democratic-Republican (3)       Democratic (27)       Whig (4)       Republican (17)
(official numbering, does not include repeat or acting governors)

#
[note 2]
Governor Term start Term end Party Lt. Governor
[13]
Terms
[note 3]
1 William Livingston August 31, 1776 July 25, 1790 Federalist None 13 12
[note 4]
Elisha Lawrence July 25, 1790 October 29, 1790 Federalist 12
[note 5]
2 William Paterson October 29, 1790 March 30, 1793 Federalist 2 12
[note 6]
[note 7]
Thomas Henderson March 30, 1793 June 3, 1793 Federalist 12
[note 5]
3 Richard Howell June 3, 1793 October 31, 1801 Federalist 8
[note 8]
4 Joseph Bloomfield October 31, 1801 October 28, 1802 Democratic-
Republican
1
John Lambert October 28, 1802 October 29, 1803 Democratic-
Republican
1
[note 9]
4 Joseph Bloomfield October 29, 1803 October 29, 1812 Democratic-
Republican
9
[note 10]
5 Aaron Ogden October 29, 1812 October 29, 1813 Federalist 1
6 William Sanford Pennington October 29, 1813 June 19, 1815 Democratic-
Republican
1 12
[note 11]
William Kennedy June 19, 1815 October 26, 1815 Democratic-
Republican
12
[note 5]
[note 12]
7 Mahlon Dickerson October 26, 1815 February 1, 1817 Democratic-
Republican
1 12
[note 13]
8 Isaac Halstead Williamson February 6, 1817 October 30, 1829 Federalist 12 12
[note 14]
[note 15]
[note 16]
Garret D. Wall Democratic
[note 17]
9 Peter Dumont Vroom November 6, 1829 October 26, 1832 Democratic 3
10 Samuel L. Southard October 26, 1832 February 27, 1833 Whig 12
[note 13]
11 Elias P. Seeley February 27, 1833 October 25, 1833 Whig 12
[note 18]
9 Peter Dumont Vroom October 25, 1833 November 3, 1836 Democratic 3
12 Philemon Dickerson November 3, 1836 October 27, 1837 Democratic 1
13 William Pennington October 27, 1837 October 27, 1843 Whig 6
14 Daniel Haines October 27, 1843 January 21, 1845 Democratic 1
[note 19]
15 Charles C. Stratton January 21, 1845 January 18, 1848 Whig 1
[note 20]
14 Daniel Haines January 18, 1848 January 21, 1851 Democratic 1
16 George F. Fort January 21, 1851 January 17, 1854 Democratic 1
17 Rodman M. Price January 17, 1854 January 20, 1857 Democratic 1
18 William A. Newell January 20, 1857 January 17, 1860 Republican 1
19 Charles Smith Olden January 17, 1860 January 20, 1863 Republican 1
20 Joel Parker January 20, 1863 January 16, 1866 Democratic 1
21 Marcus Lawrence Ward January 16, 1866 January 19, 1869 Republican 1
22 Theodore Fitz Randolph January 19, 1869 January 16, 1872 Democratic 1
20 Joel Parker January 16, 1872 January 19, 1875 Democratic 1
23 Joseph D. Bedle January 19, 1875 January 15, 1878 Democratic 1
24 George B. McClellan January 15, 1878 January 18, 1881 Democratic 1
25 George C. Ludlow January 18, 1881 January 15, 1884 Democratic 1
26 Leon Abbett January 15, 1884 January 18, 1887 Democratic 1
27 Robert Stockton Green January 18, 1887 January 21, 1890 Democratic 1
26 Leon Abbett January 21, 1890 January 17, 1893 Democratic 1
28 George Theodore Werts January 17, 1893 January 21, 1896 Democratic 1
29 John W. Griggs January 21, 1896 January 31, 1898 Republican 13
[note 21]
Foster MacGowan Voorhees January 31, 1898 October 18, 1898 Republican 13
[note 22]
David Ogden Watkins October 18, 1898 January 17, 1899 Republican 13
[note 23]
30 Foster MacGowan Voorhees January 17, 1899 January 21, 1902 Republican 1
[note 24]
31 Franklin Murphy January 21, 1902 January 17, 1905 Republican 1
[note 25]
32 Edward C. Stokes January 17, 1905 January 21, 1908 Republican 1
33 John Franklin Fort January 21, 1908 January 17, 1911 Republican 1
[note 26]
34 Woodrow Wilson January 17, 1911 March 1, 1913 Democratic 13
[note 27]
[note 28]
James Fairman Fielder March 1, 1913 October 28, 1913 Democratic 13
[note 29]
Leon R. Taylor October 28, 1913 January 20, 1914 Democratic 13
[note 23]
35 James Fairman Fielder January 20, 1914 January 16, 1917 Democratic 1
[note 30]
[note 31]
36 Walter Evans Edge January 16, 1917 May 16, 1919 Republican 13
[note 13]
[note 31]
[note 32]
William Nelson Runyon May 16, 1919 January 13, 1920 Republican 13
[note 33]
Clarence E. Case January 13, 1920 January 20, 1920 Republican 13
[note 34]
37 Edward I. Edwards January 20, 1920 January 15, 1923 Democratic 1
38 George Sebastian Silzer January 15, 1923 January 19, 1926 Democratic 1
39 A. Harry Moore January 19, 1926 January 15, 1929 Democratic 1
40 Morgan Foster Larson January 15, 1929 January 19, 1932 Republican 1
39 A. Harry Moore January 19, 1932 January 3, 1935 Democratic 13
[note 13]
Clifford Ross Powell January 3, 1935 January 8, 1935 Republican 13
[note 33]
Horace Griggs Prall January 8, 1935 January 15, 1935 Republican 13
[note 34]
41 Harold G. Hoffman January 15, 1935 January 18, 1938 Republican 1
39 A. Harry Moore January 18, 1938 January 21, 1941 Democratic 1
42 Charles Edison January 21, 1941 January 18, 1944 Democratic 1
36 Walter Evans Edge January 18, 1944 January 21, 1947 Republican 1
43 Alfred E. Driscoll January 21, 1947 January 19, 1954 Republican 2
[note 35]
44 Robert B. Meyner January 19, 1954 January 16, 1962 Democratic 2
45 Richard J. Hughes January 16, 1962 January 20, 1970 Democratic 2
46 William T. Cahill January 20, 1970 January 15, 1974 Republican 1
47 Brendan Byrne January 15, 1974 January 19, 1982 Democratic 2
48 Thomas Kean January 19, 1982 January 16, 1990 Republican 2
49 James Florio January 16, 1990 January 18, 1994 Democratic 1
50 Christine Todd Whitman January 18, 1994 January 31, 2001 Republican 1 15
[note 36]
51 Donald DiFrancesco January 31, 2001 January 8, 2002 Republican 15
[note 33]
[note 37]
John Farmer, Jr. January 8, 2002 January 8, 2002 Republican 15
[note 38]
John O. Bennett January 8, 2002 January 12, 2002 Republican 15
[note 39]
Richard Codey January 12, 2002 January 15, 2002 Democratic 15
[note 39]
52 Jim McGreevey January 15, 2002 November 15, 2004 Democratic 12
[note 40]
53 Richard Codey November 15, 2004 January 17, 2006 Democratic 12
[note 34]
[note 37]
54 Jon Corzine January 17, 2006 January 19, 2010 Democratic 1
[note 41]
55 Chris Christie January 19, 2010 incumbent Republican Kim Guadagno 2
[46]
[note 42]

Acting governor[edit]

Prior to 2010, unlike most other states, New Jersey did not have the office of lieutenant governor. Until 2010, when the office of governor was vacant or the governor was unable to fulfill his/her duties through injury, the President of the State Senate served as the acting governor. The Senate President continued in the legislative role during his/her tenure as the state's acting chief executive, thus giving the person control over executive and legislative authority. The acting governor served either until the next general election, until the governor recovered from his/her injuries, or, if the governor died or resigned less than 16 months before end of the term, until the end of the term. Richard Codey served as acting governor of New Jersey until January 2006, following the resignation of Jim McGreevey in late 2004. Following the resignation of Christine Todd Whitman in 2001 to become EPA Administrator, Donald DiFrancesco assumed the acting governor's post. The position of Lieutenant Governor was created in the 2005 state election effective with the 2009 election.

Following Whitman's resignation and DiFrancesco's departure, John O. Bennett served as acting governor for three and a half days. During that time, he signed a few bills into law, gave a State of the State Address, and held parties at Drumthwacket, the New Jersey Governor's Mansion. Similarly, Richard J. Codey served as acting governor as well. Because control of the New Jersey State Senate was split, resulting in two Senate co-Presidents, Codey and Bennett, each held the office of acting governor for three days. Perhaps this spectacle as much as any other factor led to the voters' decision to amend the state constitution to create the office of Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey.

Other high offices held[edit]

This is a table of congressional seats, other federal offices, and other governorships held by governors. All representatives and senators mentioned represented New Jersey. Acting governors are included only when they filled a vacancy in the office of governor, not when they acted for a time when the governor was out of state or unable to serve.

Denotes an office for which the governor resigned the governorship, in order to assume the noted office.
† Denotes an office that the person resigned, to become governor.
Governor Gubernatorial term U.S. Congress Other offices held Source
U.S. House U.S. Senate
Livingston, WilliamWilliam Livingston 1776–1790 Continental Delegate (1774–1776) [47]
Paterson, WilliamWilliam Paterson 1790–1793 S† Continental Delegate, Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court* [48]
Henderson, ThomasThomas Henderson 1793 H Elected as a Continental Delegate but declined [49]
Bloomfield, JosephJoseph Bloomfield 1801–1802
1803–1812
H [50]
Lambert, JohnJohn Lambert 1802–1803 S [51]
Ogden, AaronAaron Ogden 1812–1813 S [52]
Dickerson, MahlonMahlon Dickerson 1815–1817 S* U.S. Secretary of the Navy (1834–1838) [53][54]
Vroom, Peter DumontPeter Dumont Vroom 1829–1832
1833–1836
H Minister to Prussia [55]
Southard, Samuel L.Samuel L. Southard 1832–1833 S* President pro tempore of the U.S. Senate, U.S. Secretary of the Navy [56]
Dickerson, PhilemonPhilemon Dickerson 1836–1837 H† [57]
Pennington, WilliamWilliam Pennington 1837–1843 H Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives (Feb. 1, 1860 – Mar. 3, 1861) [58]
Stratton, Charles C.Charles C. Stratton 1845–1848 H [59]
Price, Rodman M.Rodman M. Price 1854–1857 H [60]
Newell, William A.William A. Newell 1857–1860 H Governor of the Territory of Washington (1880–1884) [61]
Ward, Marcus LawrenceMarcus Lawrence Ward 1866–1869 H [62]
Randolph, Theodore FitzTheodore Fitz Randolph 1869–1872 S [63]
Green, Robert StocktonRobert Stockton Green 1887–1890 H† [64]
Griggs, John W.John W. Griggs 1896–1898 U.S. Attorney General* [65]
Wilson, WoodrowWoodrow Wilson 1911–1913 President of the United States* [66]
Edge, Walter EvansWalter Evans Edge 1917–1919
1944–1947
S* Ambassador to France (1929–1933) [67]
Edwards, Edward I.Edward I. Edwards 1920–1923 S [68]
Moore, A. HarryA. Harry Moore 1926–1929
1932–1935
1938–1941
S†* [69][70]
Hoffman, Harold G.Harold G. Hoffman 1935–1938 H [71]
Edison, CharlesCharles Edison 1941–1944 U.S. Secretary of the Navy [72]
Cahill, William T.William T. Cahill 1970–1973 H† [73]
Florio, JamesJames Florio 1990–1994 H† [74]
Whitman, Christine ToddChristine Todd Whitman 1994–2001 Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency* [75]
Corzine, JonJon Corzine 2006–2010 S† [76]
  • Note: Garret D. Wall, who was elected to be governor in 1829 but declined, served as a U.S. Senator (1835–1841).[77]
  • Note: Gov. William Pennington (1837–1843) was appointed Governor of the Territory of Minnesota by President Millard Fillmore (1850–1853), but declined.

Living former governors[edit]

As of September 2014, eight former governors and two former acting governors were alive, the oldest being Brendan Byrne (1974–1982, born 1924). The most recent governor to die and the most recently serving governor to have died was William T. Cahill (1970–1974), on July 1, 1996.

Governor Gubernatorial term Date of birth
Brendan Byrne 1974–1982 (1924-04-01) April 1, 1924 (age 90)
Thomas Kean 1982–1990 (1935-04-21) April 21, 1935 (age 79)
James Florio 1990–1994 (1937-08-29) August 29, 1937 (age 77)
Christine Todd Whitman 1994–2001 (1946-09-26) September 26, 1946 (age 67)
Donald DiFrancesco 2001–2002 (1944-11-20) November 20, 1944 (age 69)
John Farmer, Jr. 2002 (acting) (1957-06-24) June 24, 1957 (age 57)
John O. Bennett 2002 (acting) (1948-08-06) August 6, 1948 (age 66)
Richard Codey 2002 (acting)
2004–2006
(1946-11-27) November 27, 1946 (age 67)
Jim McGreevey 2002–2004 (1957-08-06) August 6, 1957 (age 57)
Jon Corzine 2006–2010 (1947-01-01) January 1, 1947 (age 67)

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Only acting governors who filled a vacant office are included in the list. People who acted as governor for a period when the governor was out of state or unable to serve for a period are noted with their governor. It is possible other people acted as governor for short periods but were not recorded.
  2. ^ Repeat governors are officially numbered only once; subsequent terms are marked with their original number italicized.
  3. ^ The fractional terms of some governors are not to be understood absolutely literally; rather, they are meant to show how many times a governor was elected, and to show single terms during which multiple governors served, due to resignations, deaths and the like.
  4. ^ Died in office
  5. ^ a b c As vice-president of the Legislative Council, acted as governor for unexpired term
  6. ^ Resigned to be an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States
  7. ^ The National Governors Association states Paterson took office on October 30; however, older books specify that he took office on October 29.[14]
  8. ^ Howell was in Pennsylvania in command of the New Jersey militia during the Whiskey Rebellion; during his absence, Thomas Henderson, as vice-president of the Legislative Council, acted as governor from September 20 to December 25, 1794.[15]
  9. ^ The 1802 election was deadlocked, with the legislature unable to pick a candidate, giving up on November 25, 1802. Lambert, as vice-president of the Legislative Council, acted as governor until the next election.[16]
  10. ^ Bloomfield was in New York in command of Military District 3 during the War of 1812; during his absence, Charles Clark, as vice-president of the Legislative Council, acted as governor from June 1 to October 29, 1812, when Bloomfield's term ended.[17]
  11. ^ Resigned to be a federal judge in the District of New Jersey.[18]
  12. ^ All official listings omit Kennedy, who acted as governor for four months.[19]
  13. ^ a b c d Resigned to take an elected seat in the U.S. Senate.
  14. ^ Elected by the legislature to be governor upon Mahlon Dickerson's resignation.[20] Between Dickerson's resignation and Williamson's election, it is unknown who was acting governor.
  15. ^ No source mentions anyone acting as governor between Dickerson's resignation and Williamson's election; the vice-president of the Legislative Council at the time was Jesse Upson, so he likely acted as governor.[21]
  16. ^ Williamson was known to be a Federalist; though the Federalist Party ceased existing around 1820, no sources say Williamson changed his party affiliation, perhaps choosing to remain loyal to the Federalist ideals.[22] One source describes him as an "ex-Federalist" before he was even elected.[23] A contemporary source says he remained in office until the "Jackson party" controlled the legislature; as this is a reference to the Democratic-Republican Party, it can be assumed Williamson did not switch to that party.[24]
  17. ^ Wall was elected on October 30, 1829; however, he declined the post, effective November 6, 1829.[25]
  18. ^ Seeley was vice-president of the Legislative Council at the time of Southard's resignation; however, Seeley was elected governor rather than simply acting in the post for the rest of Southard's term.[26]
  19. ^ The 1844 constitution took effect during Haines' first term, setting the end of his term at the third Tuesday in January.[6]
  20. ^ First governor elected under the terms of the 1844 constitution, which increased term lengths from one to three years, and which also made him the first popularly elected governor.[6]
  21. ^ Resigned to be U.S. Attorney General.
  22. ^ As president of the Senate, acted as governor until his own resignation. Voorhees was nominated for governor for the 1898 election, but the constitution prohibited governors from succeeding themselves. To get around this, he resigned his Senate seat (and thus ceased being acting governor), so that he could run for governor, winning the race.[27]
  23. ^ a b As speaker of the house of representatives, acted as governor for unexpired term.
  24. ^ Voorhees was out of the country in Europe for several weeks in 1900; William M. Johnson, as president of the Senate, formally acted as governor from May 21 to June 19.[28][29][30]
  25. ^ Murphy was out of the state twice in 1904; Edmund W. Wakelee, as president of the Senate, formally acted as governor twice, and according to page 284 the 1905 Manual of the Legislature, served from April 25 to June 5, when Murphy was in Europe, and from June 14 to June 27, when Murphy was visiting Chicago and St. Louis.[31] However, page 16 of the same book states that he served from April 25 to June 5, and June 15 to June 27.[28] He actually took the oaths of office on April 26 and June 14.[30]
  26. ^ Fort was out of the state for some time in 1909; Joseph Sherman Frelinghuysen, Sr., as president of the Senate, acted as governor for an unknown period.[32]
  27. ^ Resigned to be President of the United States.
  28. ^ Wilson was out of the state for multiple periods during his administration.[29] Documented episodes include from May 3 to June 3, 1911, during which time Ernest R. Ackerman, as president of the Senate, acted as governor,[33][34] though another source states he took the oath on May 4.[35] Ackerman also acted as governor from October 25, 1911, for about a week, and again for about a week in mid-November, 1911.[36] John Dyneley Prince became president of the Senate in 1912, and is known to have acted as governor on at least 11 different occasions.[36]
  29. ^ As president of the Senate, acted as governor until his own resignation. As with Voorhees, he had been nominated for governor for the 1913 election, but under the constitution could not succeed himself, so he resigned from the Senate to run, winning the election.[37]
  30. ^ Fielder was out of the state for a time in June 1914; John W. Slocum, as president of the Senate, acted as governor for an unknown period.[38] Walter Evans Edge later became president of the Senate, and acted as governor for five weeks in 1915.[39] Later again, George W. F. Gaunt became president of the Senate and acted as governor, though only two days are specifically known: September 19, 1916 and October 9, 1916.[40]
  31. ^ a b One source states that George W. F. Gaunt, as president of the Senate, acted as governor in 1917, but it is unknown if he was acting in place of James Fairman Fielder or Walter Evans Edge.[29]
  32. ^ Edge was out of the state for a time in 1918; Thomas F. McCran, as president of the Senate, is known to have acted as governor, but for an unknown period.[29]
  33. ^ a b c As president of the Senate, acted as governor until his Senate term ended.
  34. ^ a b c As president of the Senate, acted as governor for unexpired term.
  35. ^ Driscoll's second term was the first elected under the terms of the 1947 constitution, which increased term lengths to four years.[7]
  36. ^ Resigned to be Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency.
  37. ^ a b Acted as governor for longer than 180 days after January 1, 2001, so is considered a full governor pursuant to a 2006 law[3]
  38. ^ As attorney general, acted as governor for 90 minutes between Senate sessions[41]
  39. ^ a b In early 2002, the state Senate was evenly split between Republicans and Democrats.[42] The compromise to pick a senate president – and therefore, an acting governor – was to have John Bennett, a Republican, act as governor from 1:30 p.m. January 8 to 12:01 a.m. January 12, and Democrat Richard Codey would then act from 12:01 a.m. January 12 to noon on January 15, at which point the elected governor Jim McGreevey took office.[43]
  40. ^ Resigned due to a sex scandal involving an aide.
  41. ^ Corzine was severely injured in a car accident on April 12, 2007; Richard Codey, as president of the Senate, acted as governor until May 7, 2007.[44] Corzine also left the country in 2010 for a vacation to Switzerland; Stephen M. Sweeney, as president of the Senate, acted as governor from January 14 to around January 17.[45]
  42. ^ Governor Christie's second term expires January 16, 2018; he is term limited.

References[edit]

General
Constitutions
Specific
  1. ^ "Christie is 4th-highest paid governor, survey says". Star-Ledger. June 25, 2013. Retrieved September 16, 2013. 
  2. ^ NJ Constitution article V
  3. ^ a b New Jersey Legislature. P.L.2005, c. 282.: Provides title of person who serves as Acting Governor for continuous period of at least 180 days will be "Governor of the State of New Jersey" for official and historical purposes. Approved January 9, 2006, retroactive to January 1, 2001. Accessed January 6, 2008.
  4. ^ a b c 1776 Constitution article 7
  5. ^ 1844 Constitution article V, § 2
  6. ^ a b c 1844 Constitution article V, § 3
  7. ^ a b NJ Constitution article V, § 1, cl. 5
  8. ^ 1844 Constitution article V , § 12
  9. ^ NJ Constitution article V, § 1, cl. 6, original
  10. ^ NJ Constitution article XI, § 7
  11. ^ NJ Constitution article V, § 1, cl. 4
  12. ^ NJ Constitution article V, § 1, cl. 6, as amended
  13. ^ The office of lieutenant governor was created in 2006 and was first filled in 2010.
  14. ^ Report p. 122
  15. ^ Report p. 123
  16. ^ Lee pp. 155–156
  17. ^ Report p. 124
  18. ^ "Pennington, William Sanford". Federal Judicial Center. Retrieved January 14, 2010. [dead link]
  19. ^ Report pp. 125–126
  20. ^ Lee pp. 160–161
  21. ^ Lundy et al. (1921) p. 127
  22. ^ Whitehead, John (1897). The Civil and Judicial History of New Jersey, Volume I. The Boston History Company. p. 361. Retrieved January 15, 2010. 
  23. ^ Birkner, Michael (1984–1901). Samuel L. Southard: Jeffersonian Whig. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-8386-3160-7. Retrieved January 15, 2010. 
  24. ^ Elmer, Lucius Quintus Cincinnatus (1872). Collections of the New Jersey Historical Society, Volume VII. p. 175. Retrieved January 15, 2010. 
  25. ^ Lee pp. 377–378
  26. ^ "Elias Pettit Seeley". New Jersey State Library. Retrieved January 14, 2010. 
  27. ^ "Foster McGowan Voorhees". New Jersey State Library. Retrieved January 14, 2010. 
  28. ^ a b Lundy et al. (1905) p. 16
  29. ^ a b c d Lundy et al. (1921) p. 22
  30. ^ a b "Governor's Oaths". New Jersey Department of State. Retrieved January 19, 2010. 
  31. ^ Lundy et al. (1905) p. 284
  32. ^ Lundy et al. (1921) p. 252
  33. ^ Documents of the One Hundred and Thirty-Sixth Legislature of the State of New Jersey and the Sixty-Eighth Under the New Constitution I. Trenton, New Jersey: State Gazette Publishing Company. 1912. p. 475. Retrieved January 19, 2010. 
  34. ^ Lundy et al. (1921) p. 262
  35. ^ Kerney p. 140
  36. ^ a b Kerney p. 141
  37. ^ "James Fairman Fielder". New Jersey State Library. Retrieved January 14, 2010. 
  38. ^ Lundy et al. (1921) p. 361
  39. ^ Official Congressional Directory, 2nd Edition, February 1920. 1920. p. 64. Retrieved January 19, 2010. 
  40. ^ Jersey, New (1916). Acts of the Legislature of the State of New Jersey. pp. 1009–1010. Retrieved January 19, 2010. 
  41. ^ David Kocieniewski (January 8, 2002). "Newark Stadium Bill Dies in Final Session". The New York Times. Retrieved January 14, 2010. "During the 90 minutes between Mr. DiFrancesco's departure and Mr. Bennett's swearing in, Attorney General John J. Farmer Jr. will formally hold the title of acting governor." 
  42. ^ David Kocieniewski (January 12, 2002). "The Hours of Power of an Acting Governor: Deconstructing Bennett's 3-Day Legacy". The New York Times. Retrieved January 22, 2010. 
  43. ^ "New Jersey Governor John O. Bennett". National Governors Association. Archived from the original on December 25, 2009. Retrieved January 22, 2010. 
  44. ^ David W. Chen (May 6, 2007). "Corzine to Resume Duties as Governor on Monday". The New York Times. Retrieved January 15, 2010. 
  45. ^ "New Jersey's New Senate President Fills in for Corzine". WNYC. January 15, 2010. Retrieved January 21, 2010. 
  46. ^ http://www.nj.com/politics/index.ssf/2014/01/chris_christie_officially_begins_second_term_with_passionate_speech_that_dodges_scandals.html#incart_river_default
  47. ^ "Livingston, William". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved January 13, 2010. 
  48. ^ "Paterson, William". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress]]. Retrieved January 13, 2010. 
  49. ^ "Henderson, Thomas". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved January 15, 2010. 
  50. ^ "Bloomfield, Joseph". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved January 13, 2010. 
  51. ^ "Lambert, John". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved January 13, 2010. 
  52. ^ "Ogden, Aaron". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved January 13, 2010. 
  53. ^ "Dickerson, Mahlon". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved January 13, 2010. 
  54. ^ "New Jersey Governor Mahlon Dickerson". National Governors Association. Archived from the original on December 25, 2009. Retrieved January 15, 2010. 
  55. ^ "Vroom, Peter Dumont". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved January 13, 2010. 
  56. ^ "Southard, Samuel Lewis". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved January 13, 2010. 
  57. ^ "Dickerson, Philemon". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved January 13, 2010. 
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