List of Governors of New York

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The Governor of New York is the head of the executive branch of New York's government and the commander-in-chief of the state's military forces.[1] The governor has a duty to enforce state laws, to convene the New York legislature,[1] the power to either approve or veto bills passed by the legislature,[2] and to grant pardons, except in cases of treason and impeachment.[3]

Fifty-six individuals have served as governor, four of whom served non-consecutive terms, totaling 60 distinct terms; the official numbering only lists each governor once, so there have officially been fifty-six governors. This numbering includes one acting governor: the lieutenant governor who filled the vacancy after the resignation of the governor, under the 1777 State Constitution.[4] The list does not include people who have acted as governor when the governor was out of state, such as Lt. Gov. Timothy L. Woodruff during Theodore Roosevelt's vice presidential campaign in 1900, or Acting Speaker of the New York State Assembly Moses M. Weinstein, who acted as governor for ten days in 1968 while the governor, the lieutenant governor, and the senate majority leader were out of the state, attending the Republican National Convention in Miami, Florida.[5]

Four men have become President of the United States after serving as Governor of New York: Martin Van Buren, Grover Cleveland, Theodore Roosevelt, and Franklin Delano Roosevelt, and six were Vice President of the United States. (Van Buren and Theodore Roosevelt held both offices.) Two governors have been Chief Justice of the United States: John Jay held that position when he was elected governor in 1795, and Charles Evans Hughes became chief justice in 1930, two decades after leaving the governorship.

The longest-serving governor was the first, George Clinton, who first took office on July 30, 1777, and served seven terms in two different periods, totaling just under 21 years in office. (As 18 of those years were consecutive, Clinton also served the longest consecutive period in office for a New York governor.) Charles Poletti had the shortest term, serving 29 days following the resignation of the previous governor in 1942. The current governor is Andrew Cuomo, who took office on January 1, 2011.

Governors[edit]

George Clinton, first Governor of New York, and 4th Vice President of the United States
John Jay, 2nd Governor of New York, and first Chief Justice of the United States
Daniel D. Tompkins, 4th Governor of New York, and 6th Vice President of the United States
DeWitt Clinton, 6th Governor of New York, and the Federalist nominee for the 1812 U.S. presidential election
Martin Van Buren, 9th Governor of New York, 8th Vice President of the United States, and 8th President of the United States
William H. Seward, 12th Governor of New York, and known for acquiring Alaska for the United States
Horatio Seymour, 18th Governor of New York, and the Democratic nominee for the 1868 U.S. presidential election
Samuel J. Tilden, 25th Governor of New York, and the Democratic nominee for the 1876 U.S. presidential election
Grover Cleveland, 28th Governor of New York, and 22nd and 24th President of the United States
Levi P. Morton, 31st Governor of New York, and 22nd Vice President of the United States
Theodore Roosevelt, 33rd Governor of New York, 25th Vice President of the United States, and 26th President of the United States
Charles Evans Hughes, 36th Governor of New York, 11th Chief Justice of the United States, and the Republican nominee for the 1916 U.S. presidential election
Al Smith, 42nd Governor of New York, and the Democratic nominee for the 1928 U.S. presidential election
Franklin D. Roosevelt, 44th Governor of New York, and 32nd President of the United States
Thomas E. Dewey, 47th Governor of New York, and the Republican nominee for the 1944 and 1948 U.S. presidential election
Nelson Rockefeller, 49th Governor of New York, and 41st Vice President of the United States
Andrew Cuomo, 56th Governor of New York (incumbent)

New York was one of the original thirteen colonies, and was admitted as a state on July 26, 1788. Prior to declaring its independence, New York was a colony of the Kingdom of Great Britain, which it in turn obtained from the Dutch as the colony of New Netherland; see the lists of colonial governors and of directors-general of New Netherland for the pre-statehood period.

The office of governor was established by the first New York State Constitution in 1777. The governor was originally for a term of three years,[6] though the constitution did not specify when the term began. A 1787 law set the start of the term at July 1.[7] The New York State Constitutional Convention of 1821 amended the state constitution, reducing the term of office to two years,[8] moving the election to November,[9] and moving the beginning and the end of the term to coincide with the calendar year.[10] An 1874 amendment extended the term of office back to three years,[11] but the 1894 constitution again reduced it to two years.[12] The most recent constitution of 1938 extended the term to the current four years.[13] There is no limit to the amount of consecutive terms a governor may serve.

The state constitution has provided since 1777 for the election of a lieutenant governor, who is also ex officio president of the state senate, to the same term (keeping the same term lengths as the governor throughout all the constitutional revisions). Originally, in the event of the death, resignation or impeachment of the governor, the lieutenant governor would become acting governor until the end of the yearly legislative term, the office being filled in a special election, if there was a remainder of the term.[14] Since the 1821 constitution, the lieutenant governor explicitly becomes governor upon such vacancy in the office and serves for the entire remainder of the term.[15] Should the office of lieutenant governor become vacant, the president pro tempore of the state senate[note 1] performs all the duties of the lieutenant governor until the vacancy is filled either at the next gubernatorial election or by appointment.[note 2] Likewise, should both offices become vacant at the same time, the president pro tempore acts as governor, with the office of lieutenant governor remaining vacant. Should the presidency pro tempore be vacant too, or the incumbent unable to fulfill the duties, the speaker of the assembly is next in the line of succession.[16] The lieutenant governor is elected on the same ticket as the governor, since 1954 with a single joint vote cast for both offices, but is nominated separately.[17]

      Democratic (26)       Democratic-Republican (9)       Federalist (1)       Republican (18)       Whig (5)

# Governor Took office Left office Party Lt. Governor Terms
[note 3]
1   George Clinton July 30, 1777 June 30, 1795 Democratic-
Republican
  Pierre Van Cortlandt 6
[note 4]
[note 5]
2   John Jay July 1, 1795 June 30, 1801 Federalist   Stephen Van Rensselaer III 2
1   George Clinton July 1, 1801 June 30, 1804 Democratic-
Republican
  Jeremiah Van Rensselaer 1
3   Morgan Lewis July 1, 1804 June 30, 1807 Democratic-
Republican
  John Broome 1
4   Daniel D. Tompkins July 1, 1807 February 24, 1817 Democratic-
Republican
  John Broome 3 12
[note 6]
  John Tayler (Acting)
  DeWitt Clinton
  John Tayler
5   John Tayler
(Acting)
[note 7]
February 24, 1817 June 30, 1817 Democratic-
Republican
  Philetus Swift (Acting) 12
[note 8]
6   DeWitt Clinton July 1, 1817 December 31, 1822 Democratic-
Republican
  John Tayler 2
[note 9]
7   Joseph C. Yates January 1, 1823 December 31, 1824 Democratic-
Republican
  Erastus Root 1
[note 10]
6   DeWitt Clinton January 1, 1825 February 11, 1828 Democratic-
Republican
  James Tallmadge, Jr. 1 12
[note 11]
  Nathaniel Pitcher
8   Nathaniel Pitcher February 11, 1828 December 31, 1828 Democratic-
Republican
  Peter R. Livingston (Acting) 12
[note 12]
  Charles Dayan (Acting)
9   Martin Van Buren January 1, 1829 March 12, 1829 Democratic   Enos T. Throop 12
[note 13]
10   Enos T. Throop March 12, 1829 December 31, 1832 Democratic   Charles Stebbins (Acting) 1 12
[note 14]
  William M. Oliver (Acting)
  Edward Philip Livingston
11   William L. Marcy January 1, 1833 December 31, 1838 Democratic   John Tracy 3
12   William H. Seward January 1, 1839 December 31, 1842 Whig   Luther Bradish 2
13   William C. Bouck January 1, 1843 December 31, 1844 Democratic   Daniel S. Dickinson 1
14   Silas Wright January 1, 1845 December 31, 1846 Democratic   Addison Gardiner 1
15   John Young January 1, 1847 December 31, 1848 Whig   Addison Gardiner 1
  Albert Lester (Acting)
  Hamilton Fish
16   Hamilton Fish January 1, 1849 December 31, 1850 Whig   George Washington Patterson 1
17   Washington Hunt January 1, 1851 December 31, 1852 Whig   Sanford E. Church 1
18   Horatio Seymour January 1, 1853 December 31, 1854 Democratic   Sanford E. Church 1
19   Myron H. Clark January 1, 1855 December 31, 1856 Whig (fusion)   Henry Jarvis Raymond 1
20   John Alsop King January 1, 1857 December 31, 1858 Republican   Henry R. Selden 1
21   Edwin D. Morgan January 1, 1859 December 31, 1862 Republican   Robert Campbell 2
18   Horatio Seymour January 1, 1863 December 31, 1864 Democratic   David R. Floyd-Jones 1
22   Reuben Fenton January 1, 1865 December 31, 1868 Union   Thomas G. Alvord 2
  Stewart L. Woodford
23   John Thompson Hoffman January 1, 1869 December 31, 1872 Democratic   Allen C. Beach 2
24   John Adams Dix January 1, 1873 December 31, 1874 Republican   John C. Robinson 1
25   Samuel J. Tilden January 1, 1875 December 31, 1876 Democratic   William Dorsheimer 1
26   Lucius Robinson January 1, 1877 December 31, 1879 Democratic   William Dorsheimer 1
[note 15]
27   Alonzo B. Cornell January 1, 1880 December 31, 1882 Republican   George Gilbert Hoskins 1
28   Grover Cleveland January 1, 1883 January 6, 1885 Democratic   David B. Hill 12
[note 16]
29   David B. Hill January 6, 1885 December 31, 1891 Democratic   Dennis McCarthy (Acting) 2 12
[note 14]
  Edward F. Jones
30   Roswell P. Flower January 1, 1892 December 31, 1894 Democratic   William F. Sheehan 1
31   Levi P. Morton January 1, 1895 December 31, 1896 Republican   Charles T. Saxton 1
[note 17]
32   Frank S. Black January 1, 1897 December 31, 1898 Republican   Timothy L. Woodruff 1
33   Theodore Roosevelt January 1, 1899 December 31, 1900 Republican   Timothy L. Woodruff 1
34   Benjamin Barker Odell, Jr. January 1, 1901 December 31, 1904 Republican   Timothy L. Woodruff 2
  Frank W. Higgins
35   Frank W. Higgins January 1, 1905 December 31, 1906 Republican   M. Linn Bruce 1
  John Raines (Acting)
36   Charles Evans Hughes January 1, 1907 October 6, 1910 Republican   Lewis Stuyvesant Chanler 1 12
[note 18]
  Horace White
37   Horace White October 6, 1910 December 31, 1910 Republican   George H. Cobb (Acting) 12
[note 12]
38   John Alden Dix January 1, 1911 December 31, 1912 Democratic   Thomas F. Conway 1
39   William Sulzer January 1, 1913 October 17, 1913 Democratic   Martin H. Glynn 12
[note 19]
40   Martin H. Glynn October 17, 1913 December 31, 1914 Democratic   Robert F. Wagner (Acting) 12
[note 12]
41   Charles S. Whitman January 1, 1915 December 31, 1918 Republican   Edward Schoeneck 2
42   Al Smith January 1, 1919 December 31, 1920 Democratic   Harry C. Walker 1
43   Nathan Lewis Miller January 1, 1921 December 31, 1922 Republican   Jeremiah Wood 1
  Clayton R. Lusk (Acting)
42   Al Smith January 1, 1923 December 31, 1928 Democratic   George R. Lunn 3
  Seymour Lowman
  Edwin Corning
44   Franklin D. Roosevelt January 1, 1929 December 31, 1932 Democratic   Herbert H. Lehman 2
45   Herbert H. Lehman January 1, 1933 December 3, 1942 Democratic   M. William Bray 3 12
[note 20]
[note 21]
  Charles Poletti
46   Charles Poletti December 3, 1942 December 31, 1942 Democratic   Joe R. Hanley (Acting) 12
[note 12]
47   Thomas Dewey January 1, 1943 December 31, 1954 Republican   Thomas W. Wallace 3
  Joe R. Hanley
  Frank C. Moore
  Arthur H. Wicks (Acting)
  Walter J. Mahoney (Acting)
48   W. Averell Harriman January 1, 1955 December 31, 1958 Democratic   George DeLuca 1
49   Nelson Rockefeller January 1, 1959 December 18, 1973 Republican   Malcolm Wilson 3 12
[note 22]
50   Malcolm Wilson December 18, 1973 December 31, 1974 Republican   Warren M. Anderson (Acting) 12
[note 12]
51   Hugh Carey January 1, 1975 December 31, 1982 Democratic   Mary Anne Krupsak 2
  Mario Cuomo
52   Mario Cuomo January 1, 1983 December 31, 1994 Democratic   Alfred DelBello 3
  Warren M. Anderson (Acting)
  Stan Lundine
53   George Pataki January 1, 1995 December 31, 2006 Republican   Betsy McCaughey Ross 3
  Mary O. Donohue
54   Eliot Spitzer January 1, 2007 March 17, 2008 Democratic   David Paterson 12
[note 23]
55   David Paterson March 17, 2008 December 31, 2010 Democratic   Joseph Bruno (Acting) 12
[note 12]
  Dean Skelos (Acting)
  Malcolm Smith (Acting)
  Pedro Espada (Acting)
[note 24]
  Richard Ravitch (Contested)
[note 25]
  Malcolm Smith (Acting)
[note 26]
  Richard Ravitch
[note 27]
56   Andrew Cuomo January 1, 2011 Incumbent Democratic   Robert Duffy 1
[note 28]

Other high offices held[edit]

This is a table of congressional and other federal offices, and ranking diplomatic positions to foreign countries held by New York governors. All representatives and senators mentioned represented New York.

* Denotes those offices for which the governor resigned the governorship.
† Denotes those offices from which the governor resigned to take the governorship.
Name Gubernatorial term U.S. Congress Other offices held Source
House Senate
George Clinton 1777–1795
1801–1804
Delegate to the Continental Congress, Vice President of the United States [20]
John Jay 1795–1801 President of the Continental Congress, U.S. Secretary for Foreign Affairs, Minister to Spain, Chief Justice of the United States [21]
Daniel D. Tompkins 1807–1817 H Vice President of the United States* [22]
DeWitt Clinton 1817–1822
1825–1828
S [23]
Nathaniel Pitcher 1828 H [24]
Martin Van Buren 1829 S† U.S. Secretary of State*, Minister to the United Kingdom, Vice President of the United States, President of the United States [25]
Enos T. Throop 1829–1832 H [26]
William L. Marcy 1833–1838 S† U.S. Secretary of War, U.S. Secretary of State [27]
William H. Seward 1839–1842 S U.S. Secretary of State [28]
Silas Wright 1845–1846 H S† [29]
John Young 1847–1848 H [30]
Hamilton Fish 1849–1850 H S U.S. Secretary of State [31]
Washington Hunt 1851–1852 H [32]
John Alsop King 1857–1858 H [33]
Edwin D. Morgan 1859–1862 S [34]
Reuben Fenton 1865–1868 H† S [35]
John Adams Dix 1873–1874 S Minister to France, U.S. Secretary of the Treasury [36]
Grover Cleveland 1883–1884 President of the United States* [37]
David B. Hill 1885–1891 S [38]
Roswell P. Flower 1892–1894 H [39]
Levi P. Morton 1895–1896 H Minister to France, Vice President of the United States [40]
Frank S. Black 1897–1898 H† [41]
Theodore Roosevelt 1899–1900 Vice President of the United States, President of the United States [42]
Benjamin B. Odell, Jr. 1901–1904 H [43]
Charles Evans Hughes 1907–1910 U.S. Secretary of State, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court*, Chief Justice of the United States.
William Sulzer 1913 H† [44]
Martin H. Glynn 1913–1914 H [45]
Franklin D. Roosevelt 1929–1932 President of the United States [46]
Herbert H. Lehman 1933–1942 S [47]
W. Averell Harriman 1955–1958 U.S. Secretary of Commerce, Ambassador to the United Kingdom, Ambassador to the Soviet Union [48]
Nelson Rockefeller 1959–1973 Vice President of the United States [49]
Hugh Carey 1975–1982 H† [50]
Andrew Cuomo 2011— U.S. Secretary of Housing and Urban Development

Living former governors[edit]

Four former governors are alive, the oldest being Mario Cuomo (1983–1994, born 1932). The most recent governor to die was Hugh Carey (1975–1982), on August 7, 2011.

Name Gubernatorial term Date of birth
Mario Cuomo 1983–1994 (1932-06-15) June 15, 1932 (age 81)
George Pataki 1995–2006 (1945-06-24) June 24, 1945 (age 68)
Eliot Spitzer 2007–2008 (1959-06-10) June 10, 1959 (age 54)
David Paterson 2008–2010 (1954-05-20) May 20, 1954 (age 59)

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The state constitutions refer to this position as the "temporary president of the senate"
  2. ^ On September 22, 2009, the New York Court of Appeals upheld the right of the governor to appoint a lieutenant governor to fill the vacancy.
  3. ^ The fractional terms of some governors are not to be understood absolutely literally; rather, they are meant to show single terms during which multiple governors served, due to resignations, deaths and the like.
  4. ^ There was no codified start for terms when Clinton took office; the date was set at July 1 in 1787, starting presumably in 1789.
  5. ^ Many sources state the early governors took office on April 1; however, the elections were held lasting three days beginning on the last Tuesday of April, with the oath of office being delivered on July 1.[18]
  6. ^ Resigned to be Vice President of the United States.
  7. ^ Under the Constitution of 1777, Tayler was acting governor until the end of the legislative year.
  8. ^ As lieutenant governor, acted as governor for unexpired term.
  9. ^ The length and dates of terms were changed in 1821, during DeWitt Clinton's second term, which then ended on December 31, 1822 instead of July 1, 1823.
  10. ^ As per the 1821 constitution, Yates' term was the first to last two years instead of three.
  11. ^ Died in office.
  12. ^ a b c d e f As lieutenant governor, filled unexpired term.
  13. ^ Resigned to be United States Secretary of State
  14. ^ a b As lieutenant governor, filled unexpired term, and was subsequently elected in their own right.
  15. ^ As per an 1874 amendment to the constitution (taking effect January 1, 1875), Robinson's term was the first to last three years instead of two. As Tilden had been elected prior to the amendment taking effect, he served the old two-year term.[19]
  16. ^ Resigned to be President of the United States.
  17. ^ As per the 1894 constitution, Morton's term was the first to last two years instead of three.
  18. ^ Resigned to be an Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court.
  19. ^ Impeached and removed from office for campaign contribution fraud.
  20. ^ As per the 1938 constitution, Lehman's fourth term, commencing January 1, 1939, was the first scheduled to last four years instead of two.
  21. ^ Resigned to be Director of Foreign Relief and Rehabilitation Operations at the U.S. Department of State
  22. ^ Resigned to devote himself to his Commission on Critical Choices for Americans.
  23. ^ Resigned due to a prostitution scandal
  24. ^ Espada is a Democrat, but combined with the Republicans in a change of leadership which triggered the 2009 New York State Senate leadership crisis.
  25. ^ Ravitch was appointed on July 8, 2009, but the appointment was contested in the courts. On August 20, the Appellate Division rejected the appointment, and Ravitch de facto vacated the office.
  26. ^ Smith succeeded Espada on July 9 as Temporary President of the New York State Senate, and claimed to be Acting Lt. Gov. under the provisions of the New York State Constitution while the appointment of Ravitch was contested. Smith was de facto the sole occupant of the office from August 20 to September 22.
  27. ^ On September 22, the New York Court of Appeals reversed the Appellate Division's ruling, and thus re-instated Ravitch to the lieutenant governorship, beginning de jure on July 8.
  28. ^ Governor Cuomo's first term expires on December 31, 2014.

References[edit]

General
Constitutions
Specific
  1. ^ a b New York Constitution article IV, § 3
  2. ^ New York Constitution article IV, § 7
  3. ^ New York Constitution article IV, § 4
  4. ^ "Governors of New York". State of New York. Retrieved March 28, 2008. 
  5. ^ McFadden, Robert D. (December 3, 2007). "Moses Weinstein, 95, Legislator and Judge, Dies". The New York Times. Retrieved September 7, 2008. 
  6. ^ 1777 New York Constitution article XVIII
  7. ^ "Governors of New York". New York Department of State. Retrieved March 28, 2008. 
  8. ^ 1821 New York Constitution article III, § 1
  9. ^ 1821 New York Constitution article I, § 15
  10. ^ 1821 New York Constitution article I, § 16
  11. ^ John Joseph Lalor, ed. (1883). "New York". Cyclopædia of Political Science, Political Economy, and the Political History of the United States II. Chicago: Melbert B. Cary & Company. p. 1017. Retrieved March 28, 2008. 
  12. ^ 1894 New York Constitution article IV, § 1
  13. ^ New York Constitution article IV, § 1
  14. ^ 1777 New York Constitution article X
  15. ^ New York Constitution article IV § 5
  16. ^ New York Constitution article IV § 6
  17. ^ "Executive Branch of the Several States". The Green Papers. Retrieved March 28, 2008. 
  18. ^ Jenkins, John S. (1851). Lives of the Governors of the State of New York. Auburn: Derby and Miller. p. 121. Retrieved March 28, 2008. 
  19. ^ Lincoln, Charles Z. (1906). The Constitutional History of New York II. Rochester, New York: The Lawyers Co-Operative Publishing Company. p. 512. ISBN 0-8476-9431-3. Retrieved March 28, 2008. 
  20. ^ "Clinton, George". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. July 12, 2010. 
  21. ^ "John Jay". The Supreme Court Historical Society. Archived from the original on July 10, 2010. Retrieved July 13, 2010. 
  22. ^ "Tompkins, Daniel D.". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. July 12, 2010. 
  23. ^ "Clinton, DeWitt". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. July 12, 2010. 
  24. ^ "Pitcher, Nathaniel". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. July 12, 2010. 
  25. ^ "Martin, Van Buren". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. March 28, 2008. 
  26. ^ "Throop, Enos Thompson". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. July 12, 2010. 
  27. ^ "March, William Learned". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. March 28, 2008. 
  28. ^ "Seward, William Henry". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. July 12, 2010. 
  29. ^ "Wright, Silas Jr.". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. March 28, 2008. 
  30. ^ "Young John". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. July 12, 2010. 
  31. ^ "Fish, Hamilton". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. July 12, 2010. 
  32. ^ "Hunt, Washington". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. July 12, 2010. 
  33. ^ "King, John Alsop". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. July 12, 2010. 
  34. ^ "Morgan, Edwin Denison". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. July 12, 2010. 
  35. ^ "Fenton, Reuben Eaton". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. March 28, 2008. 
  36. ^ "Dix, John Adams". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. July 12, 2010. 
  37. ^ "Grover Cleveland". The White House. Retrieved July 12, 2010. 
  38. ^ "Hill, David Bennett". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. July 12, 2010. 
  39. ^ "Flower, Roswell Pettibone". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. July 12, 2010. 
  40. ^ "Morton, Levi Parsons". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. July 12, 2010. 
  41. ^ "Black, Frank Swett". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. March 28, 2008. 
  42. ^ "Theodore Roosevelt". The White House. Retrieved July 12, 2010. 
  43. ^ "Odell, Benjamin Barker". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. July 12, 2010. 
  44. ^ "Sulzer, William". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. March 28, 2008. 
  45. ^ "Glynn, Martin Henry". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. July 12, 2010. 
  46. ^ "Franklin D. Roosevelt". The White House. Retrieved July 12, 2008. 
  47. ^ "Lehman, Herbert Henry". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. July 12, 2010. 
  48. ^ "Averell Harriman". HistoryCenteral.com. Retrieved July 12, 2010. 
  49. ^ "Rockefeller, Nelson Aldrich". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. July 12, 2010. 
  50. ^ "Carey, Hugh Leo". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and Historian of the United States Senate. March 28, 2008. 

External links[edit]