List of Governors of Puerto Rico
This list of Governors of Puerto Rico (Spanish: Gobernador de Puerto Rico) includes all persons who have held that post, either under Spanish or American rule. The Governor of Puerto Rico is the Head of Government of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. The position was first established by the Spanish Empire during the 16th century following the archipelago's colonization.
The first person to officially occupy the position was Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León on 1509. At the time, the Spanish monarchy was responsible for appointing the functionary who would perform this office. The first native Puerto Rican to perform the function was Juan Ponce de León II, as interim governor in 1579. During this administration, all of those appointed to take the position had served another function within the empire's government or the Roman Catholic Church. In 1898, the United States invaded Puerto Rico and the Spanish government ceded control of the island to the United States. During the first two years, the entire government in Puerto Rico was appointed by the President of the United States. In 1900, the American government approved the establishment of the Foraker Act as a federal law, this act established a civilian government in the island. In 1947, the federal Elective Governor Act was enacted, which created a new system where, since 1948, the governor is elected through a democratic process every four years. The governor is in charge of Puerto Rico's executive branch and is responsible for appointing executive branch agency heads, including the Secretary of State, who fulfills the role of lieutenant governor, the legislative branch's Ombudsman and Comptroller and all judges in the judicial branch.
- 1 History
- 2 List of Governors of Puerto Rico
- 3 See also
- 4 External links
- 5 Notes
- 6 References
- 7 Further reading
Cristopher Colombus discovered Puerto RIco on November 19th 1493, landing at some point in the Northwestern coast. The settlements did not begin immediately as in Santo Domingo, or Cuba. Contrary to popular belief, the "conquistadores" were not so, they were regular people who obtained a license of exploration of a new territory, through a contract called "capitulation". This "capitulation" was paid from their own pocket, which meant that any fight with the local Indians was highly counterproductive, since they could lose the mortgaged properties. The settlements followed the Roman practice of establishing 'coloniae' (Latin for 'settlements'), of citizens in a new land, mixing with the locals if there were any. The licensee performed the exploration at his own expense, and the end was to create a new urban centre. The Crown obligated itself, as Rome had done 100 years before, to annex such new centre and recognize the new mayoralties. Queen Isabella created the Kingdom of New Spain, capital in Santo Domingo in 1496. Juan Ponce de León executed his capitulation to explore Puerto Rico with the governor of Santo Domingo years before performing, but was unable to start, as Vicente Yáñez-Pinzon had been unable, and for the same reasons. Puerto Rico is born as a province or governorship of the kingdom of New Spain and remains so between 1508 and 1535. When king Charles I, V of Germany, sends Antonio Velasco, the governor of Mexico with the title of Viceroy of New Spain in 1535 he is in fact moving the capital of New Spain from Hispaniola to Mexico. Puerto Rico then becomes a governorship and province of Mexico until 1763, when it goes under the Captainship-General of Cuba. From 1763 to 1823 Puerto Rico is part of Cuba and when the Constitutional system is established in Spain, both Cuba and Puerto Rico become Overseas Provinces, depending directly form Old Spain, after the independence of the New Spain/Mexico. The separation of the post of civil and military governors in the Spanish Political system is owed precisely to Puerto Rican Member of Parliament Don (Sir) Demetrio O'Dally in the 1820's. That Act of Parliament is still in force today. In the Spanish Political system, the post of provincial governor is named by the central government, not elected. The governor oversees the national laws over the regional ones, as opposed to the US federal system whereby the governor is elected by the regions to oversee the regional interests over the federal. between 1508 and 1898 , the Crown named the governors, from a rooster of experienced individuals. They were in charge of the island's wealth and development, and was in charge of reporting the status thereof to the viceroy in Mexico from whom the defense spending depended, to the king in Spain, to the President of the Santo Domingo's High Court, from whom police, treasury and the judiciary depended. After 1580 the Captainship General of Puerto Rico was established, as an autonomous governorship within New Spain/Mexico first, and Cuba later, and the post of Captain General was added to that of governor. when the incumbent ceased his tenureship, the entering governor's team performed an Impeachment Trial. A full treasury and legal audit was performed. Several governors did not end well their audit, and ended up defending themselves before the Indies Court at the Supreme Court of Castile. on July 25, 1898, Spanish-American War, Puerto Rico by then an autonomous Spanish Overseas Province is invaded by American forces, United States ArmyUnited States and occupied.
Following the conclusion of the war, Spain was forced to cede Puerto Rico, along with Cuba, the Philippines and Guam, to the United States under the 1898 Treaty of Paris. Puerto Rico began the twentieth century under the military rule of the United States with officials, including the governor, who were appointed by the President of the United States. In 1900, William McKinley signed the Foraker Act as a United States federal law, this established civilian (limited popular) government on Puerto Rico. The new government had a governor and an executive council appointed by the President, a House of Representatives with 35 elected members, a judicial system with a Supreme Court, and a non-voting Resident Commissioner in Congress. The first civilian governor of the island under the Foraker Act was Charles Herbert Allen. This system was still used after the approval of the Jones-Shafroth Act, which altered the structure of government in Puerto Rico, and was in use until 1948.
Following the approval of the federal Elective Governor Act by President Harry S Truman in 1947, the governor has been elected through a democratic process every four years since 1948. Under this system, the governor is in charge of the island's executive branch. In these elections, every person must vote for one of several candidates, each one of which represents a political party (currently consisting of the New Progressive Party of Puerto Rico, Puerto Rican Independence Party, Popular Democratic Party of Puerto Rico and Puerto Ricans for Puerto Rico Party) following the elective process the votes are counted and the candidate who gathers the plurality (not majority) of votes is certified as governor-elect and takes office on January 2 of the following year in a public inaugural ceremony which may be preceded by a private oath-taking ceremony.
In the governor's absence, or if the governor dies or is unable to perform the executive duties, the Secretary of State of Puerto Rico takes control of the executive position, as Acting Governor during a temporary absence or inability, and as Governor in case of death, resignation or impeachment and conviction. The elected governor must designate a number of secretaries and other agency heads that will control the individual administrative agencies during his time in office, the selected secretaries are in charge of the island's health, natural resources, economy, correctional and judicial agencies and the department of consumer concerns, among others. The Governor's four-year term begins on January 2, the day after the New Year's Day holiday.
List of Governors of Puerto Rico
Governors under Spanish Crown
|Image||Name||Took office||Left office||Reference|
Don Juan Ponce de León
|Captain General Cristóbal de Mendoza||1514||1515|||
Don Juan Ponce de León
|Antonio de la Gama||1519||1521|||
|Bishop Alonso Manso||1523||1524|||
|Antonio de la Gama||1529||1530|||
|Lieutenant General Francisco Manuel de Landó||1530||1536|||
|Vasco de Tiedra||1536||1537|||
|Vasco de Tiedra||1537||1544|||
|Jerónimo Lebrón de Quiñones||1544||1544|||
|Lcdo.Iñigo López Cervantes y Loayza||1544||1546|||
|Lcdo.Diego de Caraza||1546||1548|||
|Diego de Caraza||1548||1550|||
|Luis de Vallejo||1550||1555|||
|Lcdo. Alonso Esteves||1555||1555|||
|Lcdo. Diego de Caraza||1555||1561|||
|Antonio de la Llama Vallejo||1561||1564|||
|Francisco de Solís Osorio||1568||1574|||
|Francisco de Obando y Mexia||1575||1579|||
|Juan Ponce de León II||1579||1579|||
|Jerónimo de Agüero Campuzano||1580||1580|||
|Captain General Juan de Céspedes||1580||1581|||
|Captain General Juan López Melgarejo||1581||1582|||
|Captain General Gen Diego Menéndez de Valdés||1582||1593|||
|Colonel Pedro Suárez||1593||1597|||
|Captain General Antonio de Mosquero||1597||1598|||
|Captain General Alonso de Mercado||1599||1602|||
|Captain General Sancho Ochoa de Castro||1602||1608|||
|Gabriel de Rojas Párano||1608||1614|||
|Captain General Felipe de Beaumont y Navarra||1614||1620|||
|Juan de Vargas||1620||1625|||
|Captain General Juan de Haro y Sanvítores||1625||1630|||
|Captain General Enrique Enriquez de Sotomayor||1631||1635|||
|Captain General Iñigo de la Mota Sarmiento||1635||1641|||
|Captain General Agustín de Silva y Figueroa||1641||1641|||
|Captain General Juan de Bolaños||1642||1643|||
|Fernando de la Riva Agüero y Setien||1643||1648|||
|Diego de Aguilera y Gamboa||1649||1655|||
|José Novoa y Moscoso Pérez y Buitron||1655||1660|||
|Captain General Juan Pérez de Guzmán y Chagoyen||1660||1664|||
|Jerónimo de Velasco||1664||1670|||
|Gaspar de Arteaga y Aunoavidao||1670||1674|||
|Captain General Baltazar Figueroa y Castilla||1674||1674|||
|Alonso de Campos y Espinosa||1675||1678|||
|Juan de Robles Lorenzana||1678||1683|||
|Captain General Gaspar Martínez de Andino||1683||1685|||
|Juan Francisco Medina||1685||1690|||
|Gaspar de Arredondo y Valle||1690||1695|||
|Juan Francisco Medina||1695||1697|||
|Antonio de Robles Silva||1698||1699|||
|Gabriel Suárez de Ribera||1700||1703|||
|Diego Jiménez de Villarán||1703||1703|||
|Francisco Sánchez Calderón||1703||1703|||
|Pedro Arroyo y Guerrero||1704||1705|||
|Juan Francisco López de Morla||1706||1706|||
|Francisco Danío Granados||1706||1708|||
|Colonel Juan de Ribera||1709||1715|||
|José Francisco Carreño||1716||1716|||
|Francisco Danio Granados||1720||1724|||
|Captain General José Antonio de Mendizabal y Azcue||1724||1730|||
|Lieutenant Colonel Matías de Abadía||1731||1743|||
|Domingo Pérez de Mandares||1743||1744|||
|Colonel Juan José Colomo||1744||1750|||
|Colonel Agustín de Parejas||1750||1751|||
|Lieutenant Colonel Esteban Bravo de Rivero||1751||1753|||
|Captain General Felipe Ramírez de Estenos||1753||1757|||
|Esteban Bravo de Rivero||1757||1759|||
|Mateo de Guaso Calderón||1759||1760|||
|Esteban Bravo de Rivero||1760||1761|||
|Lieutenant Colonel Ambrosio de Benavides||1761||1766|||
|Colonel Marcos de Vergara||1766||1766|||
|Lieutenant Colonel José Trentor||1766||1770|||
|Colonel Miguel de Musesas||1770||1776|||
|Colonel José Dufresne||1776||1783|||
|Field Marshal Don Juan Andrés Daban y Busterino||1783||1789|||
|Coronel Francisco Torralbo y Robles||1789||1789|||
|Brigadier General Miguel Antonio de Ustariz||1789||1792|||
|Coronel Francisco Torralbo y Robles||1792||1794|||
|Brigadier General Enrique Grimarest||1794||1795|||
|Field Marshal Don Ramón de Castro y Gutiérrez||1795||1804|||
|Salvador Meléndez Bruna||1809||1820|||
|Brigadier General Juan Vasco y Pascual||March 24, 1820||August 7, 1820|||
|Brigadier General Gonzalo Arostegui y Herrera||August 7, 1820||February 12, 1822|||
|Coronel José de Navarro||February 12, 1822||May 30, 1822|||
|Francisco González de Linares||May 30, 1822||December 4, 1823|||
|Lieutenant General Miguel Luciano de La Torre y Pando||December 4, 1823||1837|||
|Francisco Javier de Moreda y Prieto||1837||1838|||
|Field Marshal Miguel López de Baños||1838||1841|||
|Lieutenant General Santiago Méndez de Vigo||1841||1844|||
|Lieutenant General Rafael de Aristegui y Vélez||1844||1847|||
|Field Marshal Don Juan Prim de Prats y Gonzalez||1847||1848|||
|Lieutenant General Juan de la Pezuela y Cevallos||1848||1851|||
|Enrique de España y Taberner||1851||1852|||
|Lieutenant General Fernándo Norzagaray y Escudero||1852||1855|||
|Lieutenant General Andrés García Gamba||1855||1855|||
|Lieutenant General José Lemery Ibrarrola Ney y Gonzalez||1855||1857|||
|Lieutenant General Fernando Cotoner y Chacon||1857||1860|||
|Sabino Gamir Maladen||1860||1860|||
|Lieutenant General Rafael Echague y Bermingham||1860||1862|||
|Brigadier General Rafael Izquierdo y Gutierrez||1862||1863|||
|Lieutenant General Féliz María de Messina Iglesias||1863||1865|||
|Lieutenant General José María Marchessi y Oleaga||1865||1867|||
|General Julián Juan Pavia Lacy||1867||1868|||
|General José Laureano Sanz y Posse||1868||1870|||
|Lieutenant General Gabriel Baldrich||1870||1871|||
|General Ramón Gómez Pulido||1871||1872|||
|General Simón de la Torre Ormaza||1872||1872|||
|Brigadier General Joaquín Eurile Hernan||1872||1873|||
|Lieutenant General Juan Martínez Plowes||1873||1873|||
|General Rafael Primo de Rivera y Sobremonte||1873||1874|||
|General José Laureano Sanz y Posse||1875||1875|||
|General Segundo de la Portilla Gutierrez||1875||1877|||
|General Manuel de la Serna Hernandez y Pinzón||1877||1878|||
|General José Gamir Maladen||1878||1878|||
|General Eulogio Despujols y Dussay||1878||1881|||
|General Segundo de la Portilla Gutierrez||1881||1883|||
|General Miguel de la Vega Inclán y Palma||1883||1884|||
|General Don Carlos Suances Campos||1884||1884|||
|General Ramón Fajardo Izquierdo||1884||1884|||
|General Luis Daban y Ramírez de Arellanó||1884||1887|||
|General Romualdo Palacios Gonzalez||1887||1887|||
|General Juan Contreras Martinez||1887||1888|||
|General Pedro Ruiz Dana||1888||1890|||
|Brigadier General José Pascual Bonanza||1890||1890|||
|General José Lasso y Pérez||1890||1893|||
|General Luis Daban y Ramírez de Arrellanó||1893||1895|||
|General José Gamir||1895||1896|||
|General Emilio March||1896||1896|||
|General Sabas Marín González||1896||1898|||
|General Ricardo de Ortega y Diez||1898||1898|||
|General Andrés González Muñoz||1898||1898|||
|General Ricardo de Ortega y Diez||1898||1898|||
|General Manuel Macías Casado||1898||1898|||
|General Ricardo de Ortega y Diez||1898||1898|||
Governors under U.S. colonial administration
|Image||Name||Took office||Left office||Reference|
|Commanding General Nelson A. Miles||1898||1898|||
|Major General John R. Brooke||1898||1898|||
|Major General Guy Vernon Henry||1898||1899|||
|Major General George Whitefield Davis||1899||1900|||
Post-Foraker Act of 1900
|Image||Name||Took office||Left office||Notes||Reference|
|Charles Herbert Allen||1900||1901||First U.S. civil governor appointed by President William McKinley|||
|William Henry Hunt||1901||1904|||
|Regis Henri Post||1907||1909|||
|Colonel George Radcliffe Colton||1909||1913|||
|José E. Benedicto||1921||1921||Interim governor|||
|Emmet Montgomery Reily||1921||1923|||
|Juan Bernardo Huyke||1923||1923||Interim Governor|||
|Horace Mann Towner||1923||1929|||
|James R. Beverley||1929||1929|||
|Theodore Roosevelt Jr.||1929||1932|||
|James R. Beverley 2nd Term||1932||1933|||
|Robert Hayes Gore||1933||1934|||
|Benjamin Jason Horton||1934||1934|||
|General Blanton C. Winship||1934||1939||Summarily removed by President Roosevelt on May 12, 1939.|||
|José E. Colón||1939||1939||Interim governor|||
|Fleet Admiral William D. Leahy||1939||1940|||
|José Miguel Gallardo||1940||1941||Interim governor|||
|Commander Guy J. Swope||1941||1941|||
|José Miguel Gallardo||1941||1941||Interim governor|||
|Jesús T. Piñero||1946||1949||Only native Puerto Rican governor appointed under U.S colonial administration|||
Governors under the Constitution of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico
|#||Image||Name||Took office||Left office||Party||Affiliation
within U.S. politics
|1||Luis Muñoz Marín
|1949||1965||Popular Democratic Party||Independent[a]|
|2||Roberto Sánchez Vilella
|1965||1969||Popular Democratic Party||Democrat[b]|
|3||Luis A. Ferré
|1969||1973||New Progressive Party||Republican[c]|
|4||Rafael Hernández Colón
|1973||1977||Popular Democratic Party||Democrat[d]|
|5||Carlos Romero Barceló
|1977||1985||New Progressive Party||Democrat[d]|
|6||Rafael Hernández Colón
|1985||1993||Popular Democratic Party||Democrat[d]|
|1993||2001||New Progressive Party||Democrat|
|8||Sila María Calderón
|2001||2005||Popular Democratic Party||Democrat[e]|
|9||Aníbal Acevedo Vilá
|2005||2009||Popular Democratic Party||Democrat[f]|
|2009||2013||New Progressive Party||Republican|
|11||Alejandro García Padilla
|2013||Popular Democratic Party||Democrat[g]|
- Trías Monge (1995) "Aunque se le percibía como Demócrata e influía decisivamente en las gestiones del Partido Demócrata de Puerto Rico, Muñoz Marín nunca se afilió formalmente a ese partido ni participó en actividad alguna de los partidos políticos estadounidenses."
- Metro (2012) "Desde la presidencia de Lyndon B. Johnson y la gobernación de Roberto Sánchez Vilella, no teníamos un presidente demócrata en Washington y un gobernador demócrata en San Juan."
- Fernós (2003) "[...]su dirigente Don Luis A. Ferré, presidente del Partido Republicano en Puerto Rico."
- Montalvo (2012) "Carlos Romero Barceló y Rafael Hernández Colón son de partidos contrarios en la Isla, pero demócratas en la política estadounidense."
- Castilla y León. "[Calderón] pertenece al Partido Popular Democrático de Puerto Rico y al Partido Demócrata de Estados Unidos."
- DARN (2011) "[Acevedo Vilá] was an active member of the National Governors Association, the Southern Governors Association and the Democratic Governors Association."
- Varela (2013) "[...] Governor Alejandro Padilla, a Democrat [...]"
- "Treaty of Peace Between the United States and Spain". Yale University. Retrieved 2007-09-23.
- "Foraker Act (Organic Act of 1900)". Library of Congress. Retrieved 2007-09-23.
- "Rama Ejecutiva" (in Spanish). Gobierno del Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico. Archived from the original on 2007-08-13. Retrieved 2007-09-23.
- "Ponce de León, Juan". Infoplease. Retrieved 2007-09-19.
- "Puerto Rico in the Great Depression". New Deal Network. Retrieved 2007-09-18.
- "Governors of Puerto Rico - Under Spanish Rule". El Boricua. Retrieved 2007-09-19.
- "Puerto Rico - Chronology". World's Statesmen. Retrieved 2007-09-19.
- Casa Blanca reveals centuries of San Juan history
- "Governantes de Puerto Rico" (in Spanish). Link to Puerto Rico. Retrieved 2007-09-19.[dead link]
- "Rafael Cordero Molina: Maestro de proceres, Siervo de Dios" (in Spanish). Puerto Rico en breve. Retrieved 2007-09-19.
- "Presencia del ideario masónico en el proyecto revolucionario antillano de Ramón Emeterio Betances" (in Spanish). Universidad de Puerto Rico. Retrieved 2007-09-19.
- "Protagonistas de la Guerra Hispano Americana en Puerto Rico Parte VII" (in Spanish). Coqui.net. Retrieved 2007-09-18.
- "Teniente general Andrés González Muñoz" (in Spanish). Puerto Rico en breve. Retrieved 2007-09-19.
- "Protagonistas de la Guerra Hispano Americana en Puerto Rico Parte VI" (in Spanish). Coqui.net. Retrieved 2007-09-19.
- "Nelson Appleton Miles". Find A Grave. Retrieved 2007-09-19.
- "John R. Brooke". Library of Congress. Retrieved 2007-09-19.
- "Guy Vernor Henry". Arlington National Cemetery Website. Retrieved 2007-09-19.
- "Allen, Charles Herbert, (1848 - 1934)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 2007-09-19.
- "Hunt, William Henry". Federal Judicial Center. Retrieved 2007-09-19.
- "Arthur Yager 1908-1913". Georgetown College. Retrieved 2007-09-19.
- "The Architecture of Power". Carnegie Mellon University. Retrieved 2007-09-19.
- "Towner, Horace Mann, (1855 - 1937)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 2007-09-19.
- "TR's Family Tree". Theodore Roosevelt Association. Retrieved 2007-09-19.
- Washington Post (1933), "Warren D. Robbins Minister to Canada; White House Also Chooses Robert H. Gore as Governor of Puerto Rico", Washington Post (April 29, 1933): 2
- Report of the Commission of Inquiry on Civil Rights in Puerto Rico. The Commission of Inquiry on Civil Rights in Puerto Rico, editor. 70 pages. May 22, 1937. Published by The Law Library Microform Consortium (LLMC). Accessed on 30 October 2010.
- Vito Marcantonio, U.S. Congressman. Five Years of Tyranny. Speech before the U.S. House of Representatives. Cheverote Productions. 14 August 1939. The entire speech is contained in the Congressional Record 14 August 1939. Retrieved 30 October 2010.
- Vito Marcantonio. "Five Years of Tyranny". Cheverote Productions. Archived from the original on 2007-08-08. Retrieved 2007-09-19.
- "William D. Leahy - Biography". Williamdleahy.com (official web site). Retrieved 2007-09-19.
- "Swope, Guy Jacob, (1892 - 1969)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 2007-09-19.
- "Rexford G. Tugwell (1891-1979)". The Eleanor Roosevelt National Historic Site. Retrieved 2007-09-19.
- "Jesus T. Piñero". Library of Congress. Retrieved 2007-09-19.
- "Luis Muñoz Marín - Biografia". Fundación Luis Muñoz Marín. Retrieved 2007-09-19.
- Trías Monge, José (1995). Historia Constitucional de Puerto Rico (in Spanish) V. La Editorial. Retrieved August 10, 2013.
- Luis R. Negrón. "Roberto Sánchez Vilella" (in Spanish). Puerto Rico en breve. Retrieved 2007-09-19mdy.
- "Líderes populares reclaman a Cox Alomar para Oficina de PR en Washington". Metro Puerto Rico (Metro International). December 20, 2012. Retrieved August 10, 2013.
- "Luis A. Ferré". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2007-09-19.
- Fernós, Antonio (2003). Ser Nosotros Mismos!: La Angustiosa Lucha Del Pueblo Puertorriqueño Por Su Soberanía Nacional (in Spanish). La Editorial. Retrieved August 10, 2013.
- "Rafael Hernández Colón". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2007-09-19.
- Montalvo, Iza (October 8, 2012). "Exgobernadores de PR visitan Florida en campaña por Obama". La Opinión (in Spanish).
- "Romero-Barceló, Carlos Antonio, (1932 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 2007-09-19.
- "Pedro Rosselló" (in Spanish). Senado de Puerto Rico. Retrieved 2007-09-19.
- "Hon. Pedro Rosselló - Resumen Biográfico" (in Spanish). 1998. Retrieved August 10, 2013. "[Rosselló es] Vicepresidente de la Asociación de Gobernadores Demócratas."
- "Sila Maria Calderón". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2007-09-19.
- "Calderón Serra, Sila María" (in Spanish). Junta de Castilla y León. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
- "Acevedo-Vilá, Aníbal, (1962 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 2007-09-19.
- "Former Governor Aníbal Acevedo Vilá to Present at DANR Leadership Forum in Puerto Rico". Dominican American National Roundtable. August 7, 2011. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
- "WSJ: Luis Fortuno is a Republican Star". Republican Governors Association. Retrieved August 10, 2013.
- Varela, Julio (May 22, 2013). "Opinion: For Puerto Rico to ever progress, the politics of status must disappear". NBC Latino (NBC). Retrieved August 10, 2013.
- Mellander, Gustavo A.(1971) The United States in Panamanian Politics: The Intriguing Formative Years. Daville,Ill.:Interstate Publishers. OCLC 138568.
- Mellander, Gustavo A.; Nelly Maldonado Mellander (1999). Charles Edward Magoon: The Panama Years. Río Piedras, Puerto Rico: Editorial Plaza Mayor. ISBN 1-56328-155-4. OCLC 42970390.