List of Governors of Puerto Rico

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The Standard (flag) and Seal of the Governor of Puerto Rico
Juan Ponce de León II, 26th governor of Puerto Rico, grandson of the first governor, and the first native Puerto Rican to become governor

This list of Governors of Puerto Rico (Spanish: Gobernador de Puerto Rico) includes all persons who have held that post, either under Spanish or American rule. The Governor of Puerto Rico is the Head of Government of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. The position was first established by the Spanish Empire during the 16th century following the archipelago's colonization.

The first person to officially occupy the position was Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León on 1509. At the time, the Spanish monarchy was responsible for appointing the functionary who would perform this office. The first native Puerto Rican to perform the function was Juan Ponce de León II, as interim governor in 1579. During this administration, all of those appointed to take the position had served another function within the empire's government or the Roman Catholic Church. In 1898, the United States invaded Puerto Rico and the Spanish government ceded control of the island to the United States. During the first two years, the entire government in Puerto Rico was appointed by the President of the United States. In 1900, the American government approved the establishment of the Foraker Act as a federal law, this act established a civilian government in the island. In 1947, the federal Elective Governor Act was enacted, which created a new system where, since 1948, the governor is elected through a democratic process every four years. The governor is in charge of Puerto Rico's executive branch and is responsible for appointing executive branch agency heads, including the Secretary of State, who fulfills the role of lieutenant governor, the legislative branch's Ombudsman and Comptroller and all judges in the judicial branch.

History[edit]

Front entrance of La Fortaleza, the official residence of the governor

Cristopher Colombus discovered Puerto RIco on November 19th 1493, landing at some point in the Northwestern coast. The settlements did not begin immediately as in Santo Domingo, or Cuba. Contrary to popular belief, the "conquistadores" were not so, they were regular people who obtained a license of exploration of a new territory, through a contract called "capitulation". This "capitulation" was paid from their own pocket, which meant that any fight with the local Indians was highly counterproductive, since they could lose the mortgaged properties. The settlements followed the Roman practice of establishing 'coloniae' (Latin for 'settlements'), of citizens in a new land, mixing with the locals if there were any. The licensee performed the exploration at his own expense, and the end was to create a new urban centre. The Crown obligated itself, as Rome had done 100 years before, to annex such new centre and recognize the new mayoralties. Queen Isabella created the Kingdom of New Spain, capital in Santo Domingo in 1496. Juan Ponce de León executed his capitulation to explore Puerto Rico with the governor of Santo Domingo years before performing, but was unable to start, as Vicente Yáñez-Pinzon had been unable, and for the same reasons. Puerto Rico is born as a province or governorship of the kingdom of New Spain and remains so between 1508 and 1535. When king Charles I, V of Germany, sends Antonio Velasco, the governor of Mexico with the title of Viceroy of New Spain in 1535 he is in fact moving the capital of New Spain from Hispaniola to Mexico. Puerto Rico then becomes a governorship and province of Mexico until 1763, when it goes under the Captainship-General of Cuba. From 1763 to 1823 Puerto Rico is part of Cuba and when the Constitutional system is established in Spain, both Cuba and Puerto Rico become Overseas Provinces, depending directly form Old Spain, after the independence of the New Spain/Mexico. The separation of the post of civil and military governors in the Spanish Political system is owed precisely to Puerto Rican Member of Parliament Don (Sir) Demetrio O'Dally in the 1820's. That Act of Parliament is still in force today. In the Spanish Political system, the post of provincial governor is named by the central government, not elected. The governor oversees the national laws over the regional ones, as opposed to the US federal system whereby the governor is elected by the regions to oversee the regional interests over the federal. between 1508 and 1898 [1], the Crown named the governors, from a rooster of experienced individuals. They were in charge of the island's wealth and development, and was in charge of reporting the status thereof to the viceroy in Mexico from whom the defense spending depended, to the king in Spain, to the President of the Santo Domingo's High Court, from whom police, treasury and the judiciary depended. After 1580 the Captainship General of Puerto Rico was established, as an autonomous governorship within New Spain/Mexico first, and Cuba later, and the post of Captain General was added to that of governor. when the incumbent ceased his tenureship, the entering governor's team performed an Impeachment Trial. A full treasury and legal audit was performed. Several governors did not end well their audit, and ended up defending themselves before the Indies Court at the Supreme Court of Castile. on July 25, 1898, Spanish-American War, Puerto Rico by then an autonomous Spanish Overseas Province is invaded by American forces, United States ArmyUnited States and occupied.

Following the conclusion of the war, Spain was forced to cede Puerto Rico, along with Cuba, the Philippines and Guam, to the United States under the 1898 Treaty of Paris.[1] Puerto Rico began the twentieth century under the military rule of the United States with officials, including the governor, who were appointed by the President of the United States. In 1900, William McKinley signed the Foraker Act as a United States federal law, this established civilian (limited popular) government on Puerto Rico.[2] The new government had a governor and an executive council appointed by the President, a House of Representatives with 35 elected members, a judicial system with a Supreme Court, and a non-voting Resident Commissioner in Congress.[2] The first civilian governor of the island under the Foraker Act was Charles Herbert Allen. This system was still used after the approval of the Jones-Shafroth Act, which altered the structure of government in Puerto Rico, and was in use until 1948.

Following the approval of the federal Elective Governor Act by President Harry S Truman in 1947, the governor has been elected through a democratic process every four years since 1948.[3] Under this system, the governor is in charge of the island's executive branch.[3] In these elections, every person must vote for one of several candidates, each one of which represents a political party (currently consisting of the New Progressive Party of Puerto Rico, Puerto Rican Independence Party, Popular Democratic Party of Puerto Rico and Puerto Ricans for Puerto Rico Party) following the elective process the votes are counted and the candidate who gathers the plurality (not majority) of votes is certified as governor-elect and takes office on January 2 of the following year in a public inaugural ceremony which may be preceded by a private oath-taking ceremony.

In the governor's absence, or if the governor dies or is unable to perform the executive duties, the Secretary of State of Puerto Rico takes control of the executive position, as Acting Governor during a temporary absence or inability, and as Governor in case of death, resignation or impeachment and conviction.[3] The elected governor must designate a number of secretaries and other agency heads that will control the individual administrative agencies during his time in office, the selected secretaries are in charge of the island's health, natural resources, economy, correctional and judicial agencies and the department of consumer concerns, among others. The Governor's four-year term begins on January 2, the day after the New Year's Day holiday.

List of Governors of Puerto Rico[edit]

Governors under Spanish Crown[edit]

Image Name Took office Left office Reference
Juan Ponce de León.jpg Captain General
Don Juan Ponce de León
1509 1512 [4]
Juan Cerón 1511 1513 [5]
Rodrigo Moscoso 1513 1514 [6]
Captain General Cristóbal de Mendoza 1514 1515 [7]
Juan Ponce de León.jpg Captain General
Don Juan Ponce de León
1515 1519 [6]
Sánchez Velázquez 1519 1519 [7]
Antonio de la Gama 1519 1521 [7]
Pedro Moreno 1521 1523 [7]
Bishop Alonso Manso 1523 1524 [7]
Pedro Moreno 1524 1529 [7]
Antonio de la Gama 1529 1530 [7]
Lieutenant General Francisco Manuel de Landó 1530 1536 [7]
Vasco de Tiedra 1536 1537 [7]
Vasco de Tiedra 1537 1544 [7]
Jerónimo Lebrón de Quiñones 1544 1544 [7]
Lcdo.Iñigo López Cervantes y Loayza 1544 1546 [7]
Lcdo.Diego de Caraza 1546 1548 [7]
Diego de Caraza 1548 1550 [7]
Luis de Vallejo 1550 1555 [7]
Lcdo. Alonso Esteves 1555 1555 [7]
Lcdo. Diego de Caraza 1555 1561 [7]
Antonio de la Llama Vallejo 1561 1564 [7]

Francisco Bahamonde De Lugo

1564 1568 [7]
Francisco de Solís Osorio 1568 1574 [7]
Francisco de Obando y Mexia 1575 1579 [7]
Juan Ponce de Leon II.JPG Juan Ponce de León II 1579 1579 [8]
Jerónimo de Agüero Campuzano 1580 1580 [7]
Captain General Juan de Céspedes 1580 1581 [7]
Captain General Juan López Melgarejo 1581 1582 [7]
Captain General Gen Diego Menéndez de Valdés 1582 1593 [7]
Colonel Pedro Suárez 1593 1597 [7]
Captain General Antonio de Mosquero 1597 1598 [7]
Captain General Alonso de Mercado 1599 1602 [7]
Captain General Sancho Ochoa de Castro 1602 1608 [7]
Gabriel de Rojas Párano 1608 1614 [7]
Captain General Felipe de Beaumont y Navarra 1614 1620 [7]
Juan de Vargas 1620 1625 [7]
Captain General Juan de Haro y Sanvítores 1625 1630 [7]
Captain General Enrique Enriquez de Sotomayor 1631 1635 [7]
Captain General Iñigo de la Mota Sarmiento 1635 1641 [7]
Captain General Agustín de Silva y Figueroa 1641 1641 [7]
Captain General Juan de Bolaños 1642 1643 [7]
Fernando de la Riva Agüero y Setien 1643 1648 [7]
Diego de Aguilera y Gamboa 1649 1655 [7]
José Novoa y Moscoso Pérez y Buitron 1655 1660 [7]
Captain General Juan Pérez de Guzmán y Chagoyen 1660 1664 [7]
Jerónimo de Velasco 1664 1670 [7]
Gaspar de Arteaga y Aunoavidao 1670 1674 [9]
Diego Roblandillo 1674 1674 [9]
Captain General Baltazar Figueroa y Castilla 1674 1674 [9]
Alonso de Campos y Espinosa 1675 1678 [9]
Juan de Robles Lorenzana 1678 1683 [9]
Captain General Gaspar Martínez de Andino 1683 1685 [9]
Juan Francisco Medina 1685 1690 [9]
Gaspar de Arredondo y Valle 1690 1695 [9]
Juan Francisco Medina 1695 1697 [9]
Tomás Franco 1697 1698 [9]
Antonio de Robles Silva 1698 1699 [9]
Gabriel Suárez de Ribera 1700 1703 [9]
Diego Jiménez de Villarán 1703 1703 [9]
Francisco Sánchez Calderón 1703 1703 [9]
Pedro Arroyo y Guerrero 1704 1705 [9]
Juan Francisco López de Morla 1706 1706 [9]
Francisco Danío Granados 1706 1708 [9]
Colonel Juan de Ribera 1709 1715 [9]
José Francisco Carreño 1716 1716 [9]
Alfonso Bortodano 1716 1720 [9]
Francisco Danio Granados 1720 1724 [9]
Captain General José Antonio de Mendizabal y Azcue 1724 1730 [9]
Lieutenant Colonel Matías de Abadía 1731 1743 [9]
Domingo Pérez de Mandares 1743 1744 [9]
Colonel Juan José Colomo 1744 1750 [9]
Colonel Agustín de Parejas 1750 1751 [9]
Lieutenant Colonel Esteban Bravo de Rivero 1751 1753 [9]
Captain General Felipe Ramírez de Estenos 1753 1757 [9]
Esteban Bravo de Rivero 1757 1759 [9]
Mateo de Guaso Calderón 1759 1760 [9]
Esteban Bravo de Rivero 1760 1761 [9]
Ambrosio de Benavides.jpg Lieutenant Colonel Ambrosio de Benavides 1761 1766 [9]
Colonel Marcos de Vergara 1766 1766 [9]
Lieutenant Colonel José Trentor 1766 1770 [9]
Colonel Miguel de Musesas 1770 1776 [9]
Colonel José Dufresne 1776 1783 [9]
Don Juan Daban .jpg Field Marshal Don Juan Andrés Daban y Busterino 1783 1789 [9]
Coronel Francisco Torralbo y Robles 1789 1789 [9]
Retrato del Governador don Miguel Antonio de Ustáriz (pintura).jpg Brigadier General Miguel Antonio de Ustariz 1789 1792 [6]
Coronel Francisco Torralbo y Robles 1792 1794 [9]
Brigadier General Enrique Grimarest 1794 1795 [6]
Ramon de Castro.jpg Field Marshal Don Ramón de Castro y Gutiérrez 1795 1804 [9]
Toribio Montes 1804 1809 [9]
Salvador Meléndez Bruna 1809 1820 [9]
Brigadier General Juan Vasco y Pascual March 24, 1820 August 7, 1820 [9]
Brigadier General Gonzalo Arostegui y Herrera August 7, 1820 February 12, 1822 [9]
Coronel José de Navarro February 12, 1822 May 30, 1822 [9]
Francisco González de Linares May 30, 1822 December 4, 1823 [9]
Miguel de la Torre.jpg Lieutenant General Miguel Luciano de La Torre y Pando December 4, 1823 1837 [9]
Francisco Javier de Moreda y Prieto 1837 1838 [9]
Field Marshal Miguel López de Baños 1838 1841 [9]
Lieutenant General Santiago Méndez de Vigo 1841 1844 [9]
Lieutenant General Rafael de Aristegui y Vélez 1844 1847 [9]
Juanprim.gif Field Marshal Don Juan Prim de Prats y Gonzalez 1847 1848 [10]
Lieutenant General Juan de la Pezuela y Cevallos 1848 1851 [6]
Enrique de España y Taberner 1851 1852 [6]
Fernando Escudero Norzagaray.jpg Lieutenant General Fernándo Norzagaray y Escudero 1852 1855 [6]
Lieutenant General Andrés García Gamba 1855 1855 [6]
Lieutenant General José Lemery Ibrarrola Ney y Gonzalez 1855 1857 [6]
Lieutenant General Fernando Cotoner y Chacon 1857 1860 [6]
Sabino Gamir Maladen 1860 1860 [6]
Lieutenant General Rafael Echague y Bermingham 1860 1862 [6]
Brigadier General Rafael Izquierdo y Gutierrez 1862 1863 [6]
Lieutenant General Féliz María de Messina Iglesias 1863 1865 [6]
Lieutenant General José María Marchessi y Oleaga 1865 1867 [6]
General Julián Juan Pavia Lacy 1867 1868 [6]
General José Laureano Sanz y Posse 1868 1870 [6]
Lieutenant General Gabriel Baldrich 1870 1871 [6]
General Ramón Gómez Pulido 1871 1872 [6]
General Simón de la Torre Ormaza 1872 1872 [6]
Brigadier General Joaquín Eurile Hernan 1872 1873 [6]
Lieutenant General Juan Martínez Plowes 1873 1873 [6]
General Rafael Primo de Rivera y Sobremonte 1873 1874 [6]
General José Laureano Sanz y Posse 1875 1875 [6]
General Segundo de la Portilla Gutierrez 1875 1877 [6]
General Manuel de la Serna Hernandez y Pinzón 1877 1878 [6]
General José Gamir Maladen 1878 1878 [6]
General Eulogio Despujols y Dussay 1878 1881 [6]
General Segundo de la Portilla Gutierrez 1881 1883 [6]
General Miguel de la Vega Inclán y Palma 1883 1884 [6]
General Don Carlos Suances Campos 1884 1884 [6]
General Ramón Fajardo Izquierdo 1884 1884 [6]
General Luis Daban y Ramírez de Arellanó 1884 1887 [6]
General Romualdo Palacios Gonzalez 1887 1887 [6]
General Juan Contreras Martinez 1887 1888 [6]
General Pedro Ruiz Dana 1888 1890 [6]
Brigadier General José Pascual Bonanza 1890 1890 [6]
General José Lasso y Pérez 1890 1893 [6]
General Luis Daban y Ramírez de Arrellanó 1893 1895 [6]
General José Gamir 1895 1896 [6]
General Emilio March 1896 1896 [6]
General Sabas Marín González 1896 1898 [11]
Ricardo de Ortega y Diez.jpg General Ricardo de Ortega y Diez 1898 1898 [12]
General Andrés González Muñoz 1898 1898 [13]
Ricardo de Ortega y Diez.jpg General Ricardo de Ortega y Diez 1898 1898 [12]
Macias1.jpg General Manuel Macías Casado 1898 1898 [14]
Ricardo de Ortega y Diez.jpg General Ricardo de Ortega y Diez 1898 1898 [12]

Governors under U.S. colonial administration[edit]

Military government[edit]

Image Name Took office Left office Reference
Nelson Appleton Miles.jpg Commanding General Nelson A. Miles 1898 1898 [15]
John R. Brooke.jpg Major General John R. Brooke 1898 1898 [16]
Guy V. Henry.jpg Major General Guy Vernon Henry 1898 1899 [17]
GeorgeWDavis.jpg Major General George Whitefield Davis 1899 1900 [6]

Post-Foraker Act of 1900[edit]

Image Name Took office Left office Notes Reference
Charles Herbert Allen, 1898.jpg Charles Herbert Allen 1900 1901 First U.S. civil governor appointed by President William McKinley [18]
William H. Hunt.jpg William Henry Hunt 1901 1904 [19]
Beekman Winthrop 1904 1907 [7]
Regispost.jpg Regis Henri Post 1907 1909 [7]
GR Colton Puerto Rico Governor.jpg Colonel George Radcliffe Colton 1909 1913 [7]
Arthur Yager.JPG Arthur Yager 1913 1921 [20]
José E. Benedicto 1921 1921 Interim governor [7]
E Mont Reily.jpg Emmet Montgomery Reily 1921 1923 [21]
Juan Bernardo Huyke 1923 1923 Interim Governor [7]
TOWNER, HORACE M. HONORABLE.jpg Horace Mann Towner 1923 1929 [22]
James R. Beverley 1929 1929 [7]
Theodore Roosevelt Jr. 1921.jpg Theodore Roosevelt Jr. 1929 1932 [23]
James R. Beverley 2nd Term 1932 1933 [7]
Robert Hayes Gore 1933 1934 [24]
Benjamin Jason Horton 1934 1934 [7]
Blanton C. Winship.jpg General Blanton C. Winship 1934 1939 Summarily removed by President Roosevelt on May 12, 1939.[25][26] [27]
José E. Colón 1939 1939 Interim governor [6]
William Leahy cropped.jpg Fleet Admiral William D. Leahy 1939 1940 [28]
José Miguel Gallardo 1940 1941 Interim governor [6]
Commander Guy J. Swope 1941 1941 [29]
José Miguel Gallardo 1941 1941 Interim governor [6]
Rexford G Tugwell 08e03507t.jpg Rexford Tugwell 1941 1946 [30]
Jesus T. Piñero.jpg Jesús T. Piñero 1946 1949 Only native Puerto Rican governor appointed under U.S colonial administration [31]

Governors under the Constitution of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico[edit]

      New Progressive Party        Popular Democratic Party
# Image Name Took office Left office Party Affiliation
within U.S. politics
1 Luis Muñoz Marín.jpg Luis Muñoz Marín[32]
(1898–1980)
1949 1965 Popular Democratic Party Independent[a]
2 Gobernador de Puerto Rico Roberto Sánchez Vilella en el año 1958.jpg Roberto Sánchez Vilella[34]
(1913–1997)
1965 1969 Popular Democratic Party Democrat[b]
3 Luis A. Ferré.jpg Luis A. Ferré[36]
(1904–2003)
1969 1973 New Progressive Party Republican[c]
4 Rafael Hernández Colón 1973.png Rafael Hernández Colón[38]
(b. 1936)
1973 1977 Popular Democratic Party Democrat[d]
5 Carlos Antonio Romero-Barceló.jpg Carlos Romero Barceló[40]
(b. 1932)
1977 1985 New Progressive Party Democrat[d]
6 Rafael Hernández Colón 1973.png Rafael Hernández Colón[38]
(b. 1936)
1985 1993 Popular Democratic Party Democrat[d]
7 Dr Pedro Rosello.jpg Pedro Rosselló[41]
(b. 1944)
1993 2001 New Progressive Party Democrat[42]
8 Puerto Rican Governor Sila Calderon at the Pentagon, Feb 27, 2001.jpg Sila María Calderón[43]
(b. 1942)
2001 2005 Popular Democratic Party Democrat[e]
9 Anibal.jpg Aníbal Acevedo Vilá[45]
(b. 1962)
2005 2009 Popular Democratic Party Democrat[f]
10 Luis Fortuño congressional portrait.jpg Luis Fortuño
(b. 1960)
2009 2013 New Progressive Party Republican[47]
11 Alejandro Garcia Padilla -cropped.jpg Alejandro García Padilla
(b. 1971)
2013 Popular Democratic Party Democrat[g]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Trías Monge (1995) "Aunque se le percibía como Demócrata e influía decisivamente en las gestiones del Partido Demócrata de Puerto Rico, Muñoz Marín nunca se afilió formalmente a ese partido ni participó en actividad alguna de los partidos políticos estadounidenses."[33]
  2. ^ Metro (2012) "Desde la presidencia de Lyndon B. Johnson y la gobernación de Roberto Sánchez Vilella, no teníamos un presidente demócrata en Washington y un gobernador demócrata en San Juan."[35]
  3. ^ Fernós (2003) "[...]su dirigente Don Luis A. Ferré, presidente del Partido Republicano en Puerto Rico."[37]
  4. ^ a b c Montalvo (2012) "Carlos Romero Barceló y Rafael Hernández Colón son de partidos contrarios en la Isla, pero demócratas en la política estadounidense."[39]
  5. ^ Castilla y León. "[Calderón] pertenece al Partido Popular Democrático de Puerto Rico y al Partido Demócrata de Estados Unidos."[44]
  6. ^ DARN (2011) "[Acevedo Vilá] was an active member of the National Governors Association, the Southern Governors Association and the Democratic Governors Association."[46]
  7. ^ Varela (2013) "[...] Governor Alejandro Padilla, a Democrat [...]"[48]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Treaty of Peace Between the United States and Spain". Yale University. Retrieved 2007-09-23. 
  2. ^ a b "Foraker Act (Organic Act of 1900)". Library of Congress. Retrieved 2007-09-23. 
  3. ^ a b c "Rama Ejecutiva" (in Spanish). Gobierno del Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico. Archived from the original on 2007-08-13. Retrieved 2007-09-23. 
  4. ^ "Ponce de León, Juan". Infoplease. Retrieved 2007-09-19. 
  5. ^ "Puerto Rico in the Great Depression". New Deal Network. Retrieved 2007-09-18. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as "Governors of Puerto Rico - Under Spanish Rule". El Boricua. Retrieved 2007-09-19. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax "Puerto Rico - Chronology". World's Statesmen. Retrieved 2007-09-19. 
  8. ^ Casa Blanca reveals centuries of San Juan history
  9. ^ "Rafael Cordero Molina: Maestro de proceres, Siervo de Dios" (in Spanish). Puerto Rico en breve. Retrieved 2007-09-19. 
  10. ^ "Presencia del ideario masónico en el proyecto revolucionario antillano de Ramón Emeterio Betances" (in Spanish). Universidad de Puerto Rico. Retrieved 2007-09-19. 
  11. ^ a b c "Protagonistas de la Guerra Hispano Americana en Puerto Rico Parte VII" (in Spanish). Coqui.net. Retrieved 2007-09-18. 
  12. ^ "Teniente general Andrés González Muñoz" (in Spanish). Puerto Rico en breve. Retrieved 2007-09-19. 
  13. ^ "Protagonistas de la Guerra Hispano Americana en Puerto Rico Parte VI" (in Spanish). Coqui.net. Retrieved 2007-09-19. 
  14. ^ "Nelson Appleton Miles". Find A Grave. Retrieved 2007-09-19. 
  15. ^ "John R. Brooke". Library of Congress. Retrieved 2007-09-19. 
  16. ^ "Guy Vernor Henry". Arlington National Cemetery Website. Retrieved 2007-09-19. 
  17. ^ "Allen, Charles Herbert, (1848 - 1934)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 2007-09-19. 
  18. ^ "Hunt, William Henry". Federal Judicial Center. Retrieved 2007-09-19. 
  19. ^ "Arthur Yager 1908-1913". Georgetown College. Retrieved 2007-09-19. 
  20. ^ "The Architecture of Power". Carnegie Mellon University. Retrieved 2007-09-19. 
  21. ^ "Towner, Horace Mann, (1855 - 1937)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 2007-09-19. 
  22. ^ "TR's Family Tree". Theodore Roosevelt Association. Retrieved 2007-09-19. 
  23. ^ Washington Post (1933), "Warren D. Robbins Minister to Canada; White House Also Chooses Robert H. Gore as Governor of Puerto Rico", Washington Post (April 29, 1933): 2 
  24. ^ Report of the Commission of Inquiry on Civil Rights in Puerto Rico. The Commission of Inquiry on Civil Rights in Puerto Rico, editor. 70 pages. May 22, 1937. Published by The Law Library Microform Consortium (LLMC). Accessed on 30 October 2010.
  25. ^ Vito Marcantonio, U.S. Congressman. Five Years of Tyranny. Speech before the U.S. House of Representatives. Cheverote Productions. 14 August 1939. The entire speech is contained in the Congressional Record 14 August 1939. Retrieved 30 October 2010.
  26. ^ Vito Marcantonio. "Five Years of Tyranny". Cheverote Productions. Archived from the original on 2007-08-08. Retrieved 2007-09-19. 
  27. ^ "William D. Leahy - Biography". Williamdleahy.com (official web site). Retrieved 2007-09-19. 
  28. ^ "Swope, Guy Jacob, (1892 - 1969)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 2007-09-19. 
  29. ^ "Rexford G. Tugwell (1891-1979)". The Eleanor Roosevelt National Historic Site. Retrieved 2007-09-19. 
  30. ^ "Jesus T. Piñero". Library of Congress. Retrieved 2007-09-19. 
  31. ^ "Luis Muñoz Marín - Biografia". Fundación Luis Muñoz Marín. Retrieved 2007-09-19. 
  32. ^ Trías Monge, José (1995). Historia Constitucional de Puerto Rico (in Spanish) V. La Editorial. Retrieved August 10, 2013. 
  33. ^ Luis R. Negrón. "Roberto Sánchez Vilella" (in Spanish). Puerto Rico en breve. Retrieved 2007-09-19mdy. 
  34. ^ "Líderes populares reclaman a Cox Alomar para Oficina de PR en Washington". Metro Puerto Rico (Metro International). December 20, 2012. Retrieved August 10, 2013. 
  35. ^ "Luis A. Ferré". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2007-09-19. 
  36. ^ Fernós, Antonio (2003). Ser Nosotros Mismos!: La Angustiosa Lucha Del Pueblo Puertorriqueño Por Su Soberanía Nacional (in Spanish). La Editorial. Retrieved August 10, 2013. 
  37. ^ a b "Rafael Hernández Colón". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2007-09-19. 
  38. ^ Montalvo, Iza (October 8, 2012). "Exgobernadores de PR visitan Florida en campaña por Obama". La Opinión (in Spanish). 
  39. ^ "Romero-Barceló, Carlos Antonio, (1932 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 2007-09-19. 
  40. ^ "Pedro Rosselló" (in Spanish). Senado de Puerto Rico. Retrieved 2007-09-19. 
  41. ^ "Hon. Pedro Rosselló - Resumen Biográfico" (in Spanish). 1998. Retrieved August 10, 2013. "[Rosselló es] Vicepresidente de la Asociación de Gobernadores Demócratas." 
  42. ^ "Sila Maria Calderón". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2007-09-19. 
  43. ^ "Calderón Serra, Sila María" (in Spanish). Junta de Castilla y León. Retrieved 10 August 2013. 
  44. ^ "Acevedo-Vilá, Aníbal, (1962 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 2007-09-19. 
  45. ^ "Former Governor Aníbal Acevedo Vilá to Present at DANR Leadership Forum in Puerto Rico". Dominican American National Roundtable. August 7, 2011. Retrieved 10 August 2013. 
  46. ^ "WSJ: Luis Fortuno is a Republican Star". Republican Governors Association. Retrieved August 10, 2013. 
  47. ^ Varela, Julio (May 22, 2013). "Opinion: For Puerto Rico to ever progress, the politics of status must disappear". NBC Latino (NBC). Retrieved August 10, 2013. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Mellander, Gustavo A.(1971) The United States in Panamanian Politics: The Intriguing Formative Years. Daville,Ill.:Interstate Publishers. OCLC 138568.
  • Mellander, Gustavo A.; Nelly Maldonado Mellander (1999). Charles Edward Magoon: The Panama Years. Río Piedras, Puerto Rico: Editorial Plaza Mayor. ISBN 1-56328-155-4. OCLC 42970390.