List of Guano Island claims

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The United States claimed a number of islands as insular areas under the Guano Islands Act of 1856. Only the eight administered as the US Minor Islands and one each annexed by American Samoa and Hawaii remain as possessions of the United States. Any other unresolved claims if they exist are dormant, and have not been contested by the United States in many years with the exception of Navassa.

Table[edit]

Island Region Alternate name Coordinates Current Status Resolution of U.S. claim[1]
Alto Velo Island Caribbean Isla Alto Velo 17°28′42″N 71°38′05″W / 17.4782°N 71.6347°W / 17.4782; -71.6347 (Alto Velo Island) Dominican Republic Dormant (see Alto Velo Claim)
Atafu Oceania Duke of York Group 8°33′06″S 172°30′03″W / 8.55167°S 172.50083°W / -8.55167; -172.50083 (Atafu) Tokelau Treaty of Tokehega
Bajo Nuevo Bank Caribbean Petrel Islands 15°53′N 78°38′W / 15.883°N 78.633°W / 15.883; -78.633 (Bajo Nuevo Bank) Disputed Remains in place as an unincorporated territory.
Also claimed by Colombia, Jamaica, and Nicaragua.
Baker Island Oceania New Nantucket 0°11′41″N 176°28′46″W / 0.19472°N 176.47944°W / 0.19472; -176.47944 (Baker Island) US Minor Islands Unincorporated territory
Birnie Island Oceania 03°35′S 171°33′W / 3.583°S 171.550°W / -3.583; -171.550 (Birnie Island) Kiribati Treaty of Tarawa
Butaritari Oceania Makin Atoll, Touching Island 3°10′04″N 172°49′33″E / 3.16778°N 172.82583°E / 3.16778; 172.82583 (Butaritari) Kiribati Treaty of Tarawa
Caroline Island Oceania Millennium Island 9°56′13.13″S 150°12′41.40″W / 9.9369806°S 150.2115000°W / -9.9369806; -150.2115000 (Caroline Island) Kiribati Treaty of Tarawa
Carondelet Reef Oceania 05°34′S 173°51′W / 5.567°S 173.850°W / -5.567; -173.850 (Carondelet Reef) Kiribati Treaty of Tarawa
Clipperton Island Pacific Ocean Passion Island 10°18′N 109°13′W / 10.300°N 109.217°W / 10.300; -109.217 (Clipperton Island) France Arbitrated by Victor Emmanuel III of Italy[2]
Ducie Island Oceania 24°40′09″S 124°47′11″W / 24.66917°S 124.78639°W / -24.66917; -124.78639 (Ducie Island) British Territory Dormant. Administered by Pitcairn Islands.
Enderbury Island Oceania Guano Island 3°08′S 171°05′W / 3.133°S 171.083°W / -3.133; -171.083 (Enderbury Island) Kiribati Treaty of Tarawa
Fakaofo Oceania Bowditch Island 9°21′55″S 171°12′54″W / 9.36528°S 171.21500°W / -9.36528; -171.21500 (Fakaofo) Tokelau Treaty of Tokehega
Flint Island Oceania 11°25′48″S 151°49′9″W / 11.43000°S 151.81917°W / -11.43000; -151.81917 (Flint Island) Kiribati Treaty of Tarawa
Fox Island Atlantic Ocean 47°06′18″N 65°00′00″W / 47.105°N 65.0°W / 47.105; -65.0 (Fox Island) Canada Dormant
French Frigate Shoals Oceania Kānemiloha'i 23°44′56″N 166°8′46″W / 23.74889°N 166.14611°W / 23.74889; -166.14611 (French Frigate Shoals) Hawaii Assumed sole competing claim thru annexation of Hawaii
(1898); included in State of Hawaii (1959).
Funafuti Oceania 8°31′S 179°13′E / 8.517°S 179.217°E / -8.517; 179.217 (Funafuti) Tuvalu Tuvalu-US Treaty of 1983
Howland Island Oceania Worth Island 0°48′07″N 176°38′3″W / 0.80194°N 176.63417°W / 0.80194; -176.63417 (Howland Island) US Minor Islands Unincorporated territory
Iles du Connétable Atlantic Ocean Constable Islands 4°49′25″N 51°56′11″W / 4.82361°N 51.93639°W / 4.82361; -51.93639 (Iles du Connétable) France Rescinded. Administered by French Guiana.
Jarvis Island Oceania Bunker Island 0°22′S 160°01′W / 0.367°S 160.017°W / -0.367; -160.017 (Jarvis Island) US Minor Islands Unincorporated territory
Johnston Atoll Oceania 16°44′13″N 169°31′26″W / 16.737°N 169.524°W / 16.737; -169.524 (Johnston Atoll) US Minor Islands Unincorporated territory
Kanton Island Oceania Canton Island 2°50′S 171°40′W / 2.833°S 171.667°W / -2.833; -171.667 (Kanton Island) Kiribati Treaty of Tarawa
Kingman Reef Oceania Danger Rock 6°24′N 162°24′W / 6.400°N 162.400°W / 6.400; -162.400 (Kingman Reef) US Minor Islands Unincorporated territory
Kiritimati Oceania Christmas Island 1°52′N 157°24′W / 1.867°N 157.400°W / 1.867; -157.400 (Kiritimati) Kiribati Treaty of Tarawa
Makin (islands) Oceania Little Makin 3°23′00″N 173°00′00″E / 3.38333°N 173.00000°E / 3.38333; 173.00000 (Makin (islands)) Kiribati Treaty of Tarawa
Malden Island Oceania Independence Island 4°1′S 154°56′W / 4.017°S 154.933°W / -4.017; -154.933 (Malden Island) Kiribati Treaty of Tarawa
Manihiki Oceania Island of Pearls 10°24′S 161°00′W / 10.400°S 161.000°W / -10.400; -161.000 (Manihiki) Cook Islands Cook Islands–United States Maritime Boundary Treaty
Manra Island Oceania Sydney Island 4°27′S 171°16′W / 4.450°S 171.267°W / -4.450; -171.267 (Manra Island) Kiribati Treaty of Tarawa
McKean Island Oceania Wigram Island 3°35′S 174°02′W / 3.583°S 174.033°W / -3.583; -174.033 (McKean Island) Kiribati Treaty of Tarawa
Midway Atoll Oceania Middlebrook Islands 28°12′N 177°21′W / 28.200°N 177.350°W / 28.200; -177.350 (Midway Atoll) US Minor Islands Unincorporated territory
Minami Torishima Oceania Marcus Island 24°18′N 153°58′E / 24.300°N 153.967°E / 24.300; 153.967 (Minami Torishima) Japan Returned to Japan in 1968 after it had been given to US by Treaty of San Francisco
Navassa Island Caribbean Navaza 18°24′10″N 75°0′45″W / 18.40278°N 75.01250°W / 18.40278; -75.01250 (Navassa Island) US Minor Islands Unincorporated territory. Also claimed by Haiti.
Nikumaroro Oceania Gardner Island 4°40′S 174°31′W / 4.667°S 174.517°W / -4.667; -174.517 (Nikumaroro) Kiribati Treaty of Tarawa
Niulakita Oceania Sophia Island 10°45′S 179°30′E / 10.750°S 179.500°E / -10.750; 179.500 (Niulakita) Tuvalu Tuvalu-US Treaty of 1983
Nukufetau Oceania 8°00′S 178°30′E / 8.000°S 178.500°E / -8.000; 178.500 (Nukufetau) Tuvalu Tuvalu-US Treaty of 1983
Nukulaelae Oceania 9°22′52″S 179°51′08″E / 9.38111°S 179.85222°E / -9.38111; 179.85222 (Nukulaelae) Tuvalu Tuvalu-US Treaty of 1983
Nukunonu Oceania Bowditch Island 9°10′06″S 171°48′35″W / 9.16833°S 171.80972°W / -9.16833; -171.80972 (Nukunonu) Tokelau Treaty of Tokehega
Orona Oceania Hull Island 4°30′S 172°10′W / 4.500°S 172.167°W / -4.500; -172.167 (Orona) Kiribati Treaty of Tarawa
Palmyra Atoll Oceania 5°53′N 162°5′W / 5.883°N 162.083°W / 5.883; -162.083 (Palmyra Atoll) US Minor Islands Incorporated territory.[3] U.S. assumed sole competing claim thru annexation of Hawaii (1898), but not included in State of Hawaii (1959).
Penrhyn Island Oceania Tongareva 9°00′20″S 157°58′10″W / 9.00556°S 157.96944°W / -9.00556; -157.96944 (Penrhyn Island) Cook Islands Cook Islands–United States Maritime Boundary Treaty
Pukapuka Oceania San Bernardo Island 10°53′S 165°40′W / 10.883°S 165.667°W / -10.883; -165.667 (Pukapuka) Cook Islands Cook Islands–United States Maritime Boundary Treaty
Quita Sueño Bank Caribbean Quitasueño 14°19′N 81°10′W / 14.317°N 81.167°W / 14.317; -81.167 (Quita Sueño Bank) Colombia Vasquez-Saccio Treaty of 1981
Rakahanga Oceania Grand Duke Alexander Island 10°02′S 161°05′W / 10.033°S 161.083°W / -10.033; -161.083 (Rakahanga) Cook Islands Cook Islands–United States Maritime Boundary Treaty
Rawaki Island Oceania Phoenix Island 3°42′40″S 170°42′43″W / 3.711°S 170.712°W / -3.711; -170.712 (Rawaki Island) Kiribati Treaty of Tarawa
Roncador Bank Caribbean 13°34′N 80°05′W / 13.567°N 80.083°W / 13.567; -80.083 (Roncador Bank) Colombia Vasquez-Saccio Treaty of 1981
Rosalind Bank Caribbean Rosa Linda Bank 16°26′N 80°31′W / 16.433°N 80.517°W / 16.433; -80.517 (Rosalind Bank) Colombia Colombia-US Treaty of 1981
Serrana Bank Caribbean 14°20′N 80°20′W / 14.333°N 80.333°W / 14.333; -80.333 (Serrana Bank) Colombia Vasquez-Saccio Treaty of 1981
Serranilla Bank Caribbean 15°50′N 79°50′W / 15.833°N 79.833°W / 15.833; -79.833 (Serranilla Bank) Disputed May remain in place; Vasquez-Saccio Treaty of 1981 silent on the matter. Colombia and Jamaica agreed to a condominium; Nicaragua also lays claim.
Starbuck Island Oceania Volunteer Island 5°37′S 155°56′W / 5.617°S 155.933°W / -5.617; -155.933 (Starbuck Island) Kiribati Treaty of Tarawa
Swains Island[4] Oceania 11°03′20″S 171°04′40″W / 11.05556°S 171.07778°W / -11.05556; -171.07778 (Swains Island) American Samoa Treaty of Tokehega
Swan Islands Caribbean Islas Santanilla 17°24′38″N 83°55′19″W / 17.41056°N 83.92194°W / 17.41056; -83.92194 (Swan Islands) Honduras Honduras-US Treaty of 1972
Tabuaeran Oceania Fanning Island 3°51′36″N 159°21′52″W / 3.86000°N 159.36444°W / 3.86000; -159.36444 (Tabuaeran) Kiribati Treaty of Tarawa
Teraina Oceania Washington Island 4°41′00″N 160°22′40″W / 4.68333°N 160.37778°W / 4.68333; -160.37778 (Teraina) Kiribati Treaty of Tarawa
Triángulo Oeste Gulf of Mexico West Triangle 20°57′N 92°14′W / 20.95°N 92.23°W / 20.95; -92.23 (Triángulo Oeste) Mexico Abandoned claim in 1895
Vostok Island Oceania Staver Island 10°06′S 152°23′W / 10.100°S 152.383°W / -10.100; -152.383 (Vostok Island) Kiribati Treaty of Tarawa
Winslow Reef Oceania 01°36′S 174°57′W / 1.600°S 174.950°W / -1.600; -174.950 (Winslow Reef) Kiribati Treaty of Tarawa

Images[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Formerly Disputed Islands". Office of Insular Affairs. 2007-01-11. Retrieved 2009-09-09. 
  2. ^ Original treaty between Mexico and France, French Foreign Ministry Archives, https://pastel.diplomatie.gouv.fr/choiseul/ressource/pdf/D19090019.pdf
  3. ^ "History: Under the American Flag". Office of Insular Affairs. 2006-01-30. Retrieved 2009-09-09. 
  4. ^ Page 213, in Jimmy M. Skaggs (1994), The Great Guano Rush: Entrepreneurs and American Overseas Expansion. ISBN 978-0-312-10316-3.

Further reading[edit]