List of Hammond organs

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The Hammond organ is an electric organ invented by Laurens Hammond and John M Hanert[1] and first manufactured in 1935.[2] Various models were produced, which originally used tonewheels to generate sound via additive synthesis, where component waveform ratios are mixed by sliding drawbars. Around 2 million Hammond organs have been manufactured, and it has been described as one of the most successful organs ever.[3] The organ is commonly used with, and associated with, the Leslie Speaker.

Tonewheel organs[edit]

Tonewheel organs generate sound by mechanical tonewheels that rotate in front of electromagnetic pickups. Each tonewheel assembly creates audio with low harmonic content, close to a sine wave. Inside the coil is a permanent magnet. As the teeth of the tonewheel pass by, the strength of the magnetism changes—when the tip of a tooth is closest to the tip of the magnet, the magnetism is strongest. As the magnetism varies, that creates AC in the coil, which becomes one of the frequencies used in harmonic synthesis.[4]

Image Model Name / Number Years produced Description
A 1935–1938[5] The first Hammond in production. Two 61-note manuals, 25-note pedalboard, 2 x 9 drawbars per manual, 2 pedal drawbars, 9 presets per manual.[5]
Hammond A-100 inside-1.jpg
A-100 1959–1965[6] A B-3 / C-3's internals in an integrated package with power amp and speakers[7]
AeolianHammond Player Organ model BA, NYSFair 2011.jpg
B-A 1938[8] Model B-C style organ with built-in player organ mechanism[9] (possibly Duo-Art), custom built by Aeolian-Skinner.[10]
Hammond BC and Leslie.jpg
B-C 1936–1942[11] The first organ produced in the deeper Model B cabinet, to accommodate the chorus generator[11]
Hammond B2.jpg
B-2 1949–1954[12] Model B style cabinet with variable vibrato (V1, V2, V3, C1, C2, C3)
Hammond B3 at RCA Studio B.jpg
B-3 1954–1974[13] The best known Hammond. Similar to the B-2, but with the added harmonic percussion circuit. Made famous by Jimmy Smith who influenced numerous other players.[14]
Hammond C2 (Supernatural).jpg
C-2 1949–1954[12] Model C style cabinet with variable vibrato (V1, V2, V3, C1, C2, C3)
Hammond c3 Emilio Muñoz.jpg
C-3 1954–1974[13] Similar to the C-2, but with the added harmonic percussion circuit
Hammond D.jpg
D 1939–1942[8] A model C organ with factory supplied chorus generator
D-100 1963–1969[15] Internals of an RT-3 with built-in amp and speakers
Hammond Concert model E Organ - Science Museum, London.jpg
E 1937–1949[16] The first attempt at a full size American Guild of Organists (AGO) 32-note pedalboard. Also included four toe pistons
Svenska Grammofonstudion, Gothenburg Sweden, organs.jpg
E-100 1965–1970[17] A cut-down version of the A-100
E-200 1965–1971[18] A version of the E-100 specifically designed for churches
E-300 1965–1969[19] A version of the E-100 with additional "harp sustain" feature
G-100 1964–1967[20] Non-drawbar tonewheel organ. Included 65 stop tablets, 12 couplers, 18 thumb pistons, 8 toe pistons. Also known as the Grand-100
Hammond H-100 series.jpg
H-100 1965–1969[21] Tonewheel organ with additional features. Not generally considered to be particularly popular.[22]
H-200 1969–1975[23] Version of the H-100 designed for churches and theatres
HX-100 1970-1975[citation needed] Version of the H100 in a pseudo X66 case for stage work. Supplied with D10 speaker.[citation needed]
Hammond L-112.jpg
L-100 series 1961–1968[16] First Hammond to retail for under £1,000. Much abused by Keith Emerson.[24]
Hammond Porta-B (L-100P).jpg
Porta B
series
1971–1974[25] (1970[26]) Portable version of L-100 series for professional use.[26] There were several versions on each country, built by different factories:[27]
  • L-100NS / L-PNS-100 – USA version (LP-100 ?)
  • L-100-PN / L-100PNS – Belgian version, also sold in Netherlands. S means a version with sustain pedal.
  • P-100 / L-100-P – converted L-102, sold in Germany and Denmark.
  • P-100-S – a version with sustain pedal (1972–1974)
  • P-100-H
M 1948–51[12][28] First spinet organ. 2x44 key manuals, 12 note pedalboard.
Painted Hammond organ.png
M-2 1951–1955[12][28] An M with selectable vibrato
Hammond M3, DNA Studios.jpg
M-3 1955–1964[12][28] An M-2 with B-3 / C-3 style harmonic percussion
Expo Pink Floyd - Organ.jpg
M-100 1961–1968[29] Tonewheel spinet organ, replacing the M series. Includes presets.
Hammond R-100 series with Rhythm II.jpg
R-100 1970–1975[30] E-100 style organ with transistor / solid-state power amp and built-in Leslie
Hammond RT.jpg
RT 1949 Replacement for the Model E. Tonewheel organ similar to DV but with 32 note AGO pedalboard
Hammond RT-2.JPG
RT-2 1949–1954[6] Like a C-2, but with a full 32 note AGO pedalboard
Hammond RT-3, Abbey Road Studios.jpg
RT-3 1954–1969[6] Like a C-3, but with a full 32 note AGO pedalboard
Hammond T series Organ, St Martin's church, Withcall (geography.org.uk 3225114 821173ee).jpg
T-100 series 1968–1975[31] A tonewheel spinet with a transistor / solid-state power amplifier
Hammond X-66, Eboardmuseum (shining).jpg
X-66 1967–1973[32] 12-tone tonewheel generator with frequency divider and various additional features
X-77 1968–1973[33] A restyled H-100, designed to replace the B-3. Had its own Leslie cabinet, the X-77L

Vacuum tube musical instruments[edit]

Vacuum tube musical instruments mean electronic musical instruments generating sound with vacuum tube-based electronic oscillators. Hammond Organ Company commercialized it in late-1930s as Novachord (1939–1942) and Solovox (1940–1948). Especially, new designs introduced on Novachord — subtractive synthesis and frequency divider — were immediately followed by many manufacturers of electronic organs and polyphonic synthesizers during 1940s-1970s. However, Hammond Organ Company did not adopt these on main products until late-1960s, except for S series chord organ (1950–1966) and "Solo Pedal Unit" on RT series and D-100 (1949–1969).

Image Model Name / Number Years produced Description
Novachord frontS.jpg
Novachord (model H) 1939–1942[34] First commercial polyphonic synthesizer. Although Novachord itself is not referred to as an electronic organ, its basic design became mainstream, being implemented in electronic organs and polyphonic synthesizers during 1940s-1970s.
Solovox
(model J,K,L)
1940–1950[35] Monophonic attachment keyboard instrument, intended to accompany the pianos with lead voice of organ and orchestral sound. It consists of two units — a 3-octave mini keyboard attaching under the piano keyboard, and a tone cabinet including electronic sound generator, amplifier and loudspeaker.[36] The sound generator is based on a vacuum tube oscillator and octave divider circuits originally designed for Novachord. There are three minor changed models:[35]
  • Model J (1940–1946)
  • Model K (1946–1948)
  • Model L (1948–1950)
Solo Pedal Unit
on RT series and D-100
1949–1969[6] Solo Pedal Unit (or Pedal Solo Unit) provides a monophonic bright bass sound on RT series and model D-100 consoles, layered with tradiotional polyphonic tonewheel pedal sound. Although Solo Pedal Unit is highest-note priority and it can play only one note at a time, the players can play polyphonic bass lines by the help of traditional pedal sound. The sound generator is electrically similar to Solovox Model L. It consists of a vacuum tube oscillator and five frequency divider circuits, controlled by a volume and 8-stop tablets (Bourdon 32', Bombarde 32', 16', 8', 4', 2' & 1', mute, pedal solo on) placed on the right side of lower manual. Although there are five revisions of units, these are interchangeable on all RT series consoles.[37]
Hammond S-6 Chord Organ, Museum of Making Music.jpg
S series
Chord Organ
1950–1966[38] First chord organ. Its "easy to play"[39] style initiated a new market segment leading to today's home keyboard market.[40] The S series Chord Organ can be played via following interfaces:[38]
  • 37-note keyboard for solo or chords
  • 96-chord buttons (12-semitones × 8-chords variation) for chords
  • 2 wire touch-plates for strumming effect
  • 2 bass pedals for root & 5th
  • 1 expression pedal (or knee lever) for total volume control
  • 3 volume knobs for volume of each part (solo, chord, bass)

Transistor organs[edit]

Hammond started to produce transistor organs when the production of tonewheels became too expensive, switching to full-time Integrated Circuit (IC) models in 1975.[41][42]

Image Model Name / Number Years produced Description
Aurora (Century, Custom and Classic)[citation needed] 1975[26] First composite spinet organ with both drawbars and electronic voices, no tonewheels.

Classic top of range with strings brass and presets.Final model had pro-chord.[citation needed]

B3000 1978[43] (or 1975[44]) Solid-state copy of the B-3, with additional string division, electric and grand pianos. Key click was re-introduced.[26] Supplied with matching Leslie HL-722.[citation needed]
Hammond VS-300 Cadette (1973) built in Japan.jpg
Cadette
(model V,VS)
1969–1970s[45][46] Entry-level all-tab transistor spinet organ, no tonewheels. This series were all designed in the United States, built in Japan, and subsequently also assembled in England: Initially, first series were built by Yamaha (c.1969–), then by Nihon Hammond during 1973–1975. Subsequently Hammond UK began to import these models in kit form, and assembled in proper wooden cases for domestic market.[45][46]
Hammond Colonnade - manual 1.jpg
Colonnade 1979[47] or 1982[48] Console version of Aurora Classic.[citation needed]
Commodore Single set of drawbars.[citation needed]
Elegante 1980s[citation needed] Hammond 1980`s Flagship 2 x 61 note manuals,25 pedals everything on it.[citation needed]
Concorde 1972 - c.1977[49] (or 1973[26]) First LSI-based Hammond console organ with drawbars, no tonewheels.[26] This model was once erroneously advertised as a next generation top model take over the X-77, called X-99; though, its official name was a Concorde.[50]
Hammond Cougar Keys.jpg
Cougar 1973–1976[51] Transistor spinet organ with drawbars, in some extent, corresponded to a kind of successor of L-100 series tonewheel spinet organ, although its new drawbars arrangement is slightly exotic; its upper manual has normal nine drawbars; on the other hand, lower manual has only two 8' drawbars with sawtooth. This anomalous design was only followed by a few models (8000 series, 8100 series, and 8200 Aurora series).[51]
Dolphin 1973–1976[52] Spinet organ with built-in polyphonic synthesizer and 20 one finger chords.
J-100 1967–1968[53] (Late 1960s[31]) Transistor spinet organ - no tonewheels
Hammond Maverick 5200.jpg
Maverick 1973–1975[54] Middle-priced all-tab spinet organ.
Phoenix 1972[26] First LSI-based all-tab Hammond spinet organ.
Hammond Piper Autochord organ (clip).png
Piper Autochord 1970–1979[55] First automatic chording instrument. Single manual, with automatic rhythm, automatic chording and no bass pedals.[26][56]
Portable B-200 series Successor of X-5, portable version of Aurora 8222.[57]
Hammond Portable X-2 combo organ inside.jpg
Portable X-2 1978[26] Single manual version of X-5.[58]
Hammond X-5 rear.jpg
Portable X-5 1979[12] Portable spinet, transistor copy of the B-3 (or Porta B), derived from Ace Tone GT-7[59] circa 1971. Manufactured by Nihon Hammond, a Japanese joint venture between main company and Sakata (parent company of Ace Tone).
Hammond Regent 4172.jpg
Regent 1973–1976[60] First all-tab theatrical-style Hammond organ.
Hilary and Her Hammond Romance 126.jpg
Romance series 1977–1983[61] Integrated circuit generated spinet organ. No drawbars.
156 Museu de la Música, orgue elèctric.jpg
Sounder 1973[26] First Hammond to retail for under $500, sold through both music and mass merchant outlets. Single manual organ.

Digital organs[edit]

After the Hammond Organ Company ceased trading in 1985, production initially went to Noel Crabbe's Hammond Organ Australia, and then to Suzuki Musical Instrument Corporation, who, under the name Hammond-Suzuki, manufacture digital organs.[62]

Image Model Name / Number Years produced Description
Super B 1986[48] First full-digitally sampled Hammond organ, with dual manual, downloadable voice tables, and MIDI.[48][63]
Hammond XB-2 (partial).jpg
XB-2 1991–1998[12] Single manual organ. First digital organ produced by Hammond-Suzuki.
Get organ-ized!.jpg
XB-3 1993–1998[64] Dual manual organ with 4 sets of drawbars, reverse colour presets and waterfall keys.I an extended B3 case.[citation needed]
XB-5 Two manual organ with one set of drawbars.[citation needed]
XM-1 / XM-c1 1997–2005[64] MIDI organ module (XM-1) with drawbar controller (XM-c1)
XB-1 1998–2005[64] Standalone version of the XM-1
XK-2 1999–2004[65] Improved XB-2 with waterfall keys
Hammond XE-1.jpg
XE series XE-1 / XE-2 / XE-200: Modular all singing and dancing single manual modular organ (XE-1), dual manual(XE-2), and built in cabinet (XE-200)[citation needed]
New B-3 2003–present[66] A replica of the original B-3 with digitally generated tonewheel simulation
Jon Hammond at XK-1 Hammond Organ JAZZKELLER FRANKFURT.jpg
XK-1 2005–2011 Cut down version of XK-3, but extended vib/cho settings later in XK-3C
XM-2 / XM-c2 2005–present MIDI module version of the XK-1
XK-3 2004–2007 Same internals as a New B-3 with cheaper keyboard base and built in Leslie simulator. Can be expanded with optional lower manual, stand and pedalboard.[67]
Sven Hammond Figee.jpg
XK-3c 2007–present[68] Updated version of the XK-3
Hammond SK1 (rear).png
SK1 2011–present[69] Stage keyboard with pianos and other instrument samples as well as organ
SK-2 2011–present Dual manual SK-1
XK-1c 2013–present Improved XK-1

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bush & Kassel 2006, p. 168.
  2. ^ Corbin 2006, p. 151.
  3. ^ Waring 2002, p. 319.
  4. ^ Reid, Gordon (November 2003). "Synthesizing tonewheel organs". Sound On Sound. Retrieved 25 April 2011. 
  5. ^ a b Vail 2002, p. 68.
  6. ^ a b c d Vail 2002, pp. 74.
  7. ^ Vail 2002, pp. 74-75.
  8. ^ a b Vail 2002, p. 71.
  9. ^ "Model B-A". The Hammond-Leslie FAQ, VintageHammond.com. 
  10. ^ "Aeolian/Hammond Player Organ". Hammond Products, OrganHouse.com.  – Two manufacturer plates can be confirmed : one is "Hammond Organ Mechanism Model BA" by Hammond Instrument Co., and the other is "Aeolian-Hammond Player model BA" by Aeolian-Skinner organ Co.
  11. ^ a b Vail 2002, p. 69.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g Spark, Rod (October 1997). The History Of The Hammond. Sound on Sound. Retrieved 30 July 2013. 
  13. ^ a b Vail 2002, p. 49.
  14. ^ Vail 2002, p. 19.
  15. ^ Vail 2002, p. 76.
  16. ^ a b Vail 2002, p. 72.
  17. ^ Vail 2002, p. 77.
  18. ^ Vail 2002, p. 79.
  19. ^ Vail 2002, p. 79-80.
  20. ^ Vail 2002, p. 81.
  21. ^ Vail 2002, p. 83.
  22. ^ Vail 2002, p. 85.
  23. ^ Vail 2002, p. 86.
  24. ^ Faragher 2011, p. 78.
  25. ^ BlueBook Hammond and Leslie c.1984, p. H-9.
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Hammond Zone, Hammond Accomplishments 1970–1979
  27. ^ De Hammond Encyclopedia, Porta B - Portable L 100 serie uitvoeringen.
  28. ^ a b c Vail 2002, p. 89.
  29. ^ Vail 2002, p. 91.
  30. ^ De Hammond Encyclopedia, R 100 serie Retrieved 5 August 2013.
  31. ^ a b Faragher 2011, p. 85.
  32. ^ Vail 2002, p. 93.
  33. ^ Vail 2002, p. 96.
  34. ^ Howell, Steve; Wilson, Dan. "Novachord". Hollow Sun. Retrieved 26 April 2011.  See also site's History page.
  35. ^ a b De Hammond Encyclopedia, Solovox, een extra klavier
  36. ^ Hammond Zone, The Hammond Solovox (1940).
  37. ^ Pedal Solo Unit for RT, RT-2, & RT-3 Consoles. Service Manual. Hammond Organ Company. 
  38. ^ a b De Hammond Encyclopedia, Hammond S-Series; The Chord Organ
  39. ^ "New, Easy to Play, Inexhaustible, Exciting ... and Best of All ... Worthwhile ! — Hammond Chord Organ", ad, September 27, 1958 
  40. ^ Hammond Zone, Hammond Accomplishments 1950–1969
  41. ^ Kakehashi 2002, p. 176.
  42. ^ Riley 2006, p. 58,63.
  43. ^ BlueBook Hammond and Leslie c.1984, p. H-33.
  44. ^ Faragher 2011, p. 75.
  45. ^ a b De Hammond Encyclopedia, V-100 Cadette series — Serial number plates by Yamaha were printed as: "Built by Nippon Gakki Company, Limited to Specifications of Hammond Organ Company, Chicago, ILL. Made in Japan". Also vivid color tablet buttons and "rice paper finish" wood print panel seem to share the design language of Yamaha Electone at that time.
  46. ^ a b De Hammond Encyclopedia, VE & VS series — De HAMMOND VS-serie — Serial number plates (probably not by Yamaha) were simply printed as: "Hammond International, Chicago, ILL. Made in Japan".
  47. ^ BlueBook Hammond and Leslie c.1984, p. H-32.
  48. ^ a b c Hammond Zone, Hammond Accomplishments 1980–1989
  49. ^ De Hammond Encyclopedia, Concorde.
  50. ^ De Hammond Encyclopedia, X-99.
  51. ^ a b De Hammond Encyclopedia, Cougar 7100 series
  52. ^ BlueBook Hammond and Leslie c.1984, pp. H-20–H-22.
  53. ^ Introductory Section, User Manual 1970, p. SC-12.
  54. ^ BlueBook Hammond and Leslie c.1984, p. H-18.
  55. ^ BlueBook Hammond and Leslie c.1984, p. H-14.
  56. ^ De Hammond Encyclopedia, Hammond Piper Autochord.
  57. ^ De Hammond Encyclopedia, B-200.
  58. ^ De Hammond Encyclopedia, Hammond X-2.
  59. ^ De Hammond Encyclopedia, Hammond X-5.
  60. ^ De Hammond Encyclopedia, Regent 4100 Series.
  61. ^ Welch, Jerry (2011). "Organ Identification". Organ Service Company, Inc. Retrieved 31 July 2013. 
  62. ^ Faragher 2011, p. 14.
  63. ^ De Hammond Encyclopedia, Hammond Super B.
  64. ^ a b c Magnus, Nick (October 1998). Hammond XB1. Sound on Sound. Retrieved 2 August 2013. 
  65. ^ Jacques, David (2001). Review: Hammond-Suzuki XK-2. none. Retrieved 2 Feb 2014. 
  66. ^ Hugh Robjohns. "Hammond B3: Modelled Electromechanical Tonewheel Organ". Sound On Sound (July 2003). 
  67. ^ Robjohns, Hugh (July 2005). Hammond XK3/XLK3 & Leslie 2121/2101. Sound on Sound. Retrieved 31 July 2013. 
  68. ^ Hart, Terry (12 August 2011). Hammond XK-3C. Mixdown Magazine. Retrieved 2 August 2013. 
  69. ^ Fortner, Stephen (13 December 2011). Hammond SK1. Keyboard Magazine. Retrieved 2 August 2013. 
Bibliography
Other sources
  • "De Hammond Encyclopedia" (in Dutch). Hammond Toonwielorgelvereniging Netherland (Hammond Oragn Club Holland). Retrieved 2013-08-06. 
  • Service Manual. Hammond Organ Company. 
    • Hammond Organ Models (retyped PDF). Winterpark, FL.: Audio Playground Synthesizer Museum. 2001 [1970]. Archived from the original on 2010-11-24. Retrieved 2013-08-07.  (recreation of original in 1970); Originally published as: Introductory Section. Service Manual. Melrose Park, Illinois: Hammond Organ Company. 1970. HO-495-1-2500. 
    • The Blue Book of HAMMOND (retyped PDF). 2001 [c.1975]. Retrieved 2013-08-07. 
      Note: It seems a retyped copy of original "Introductory Section" of Service Manual in circa 1975, or similar.
    • BlueBook Hammond and Leslie (scanned image in PDF). 2009 [c.1984]. Retrieved 2013-08-07. 
      Note: It seems a reprint of "Introductory Section" of Service Manual circa 1984, or similar.
  • "History & Reference". Hammond Zone. Retrieved 2013-08-06.