List of High Courts of India
India's unitary judicial system is made up of the Supreme Court of India at the national level, for the entire country and the 24 High Courts at the State & Union territory level. These courts have jurisdiction over a state, a union territory or a group of states and union territories. Below the High Courts are a hierarchy of subordinate courts such as the civil courts, family courts, criminal courts and various other district courts. High Courts are instituted as constitutional courts under Part VI, Chapter V, Article 214 of the Indian Constitution.
The High Courts are the principal civil courts of original jurisdiction in the state along with District Courts which are subordinate to the High courts. However, High courts exercise their original civil and criminal jurisdiction only if the courts subordinate to the High court in the state are not competent (not authorized by law) to try such matters for lack of pecuniary, territorial jurisdiction. High courts may also enjoy original jurisdiction in certain matters if so designated specifically in a state or Federal law. e.g.: Company law cases are instituted only in a High court.
However, primarily the work of most High Courts consists of Appeals from lower courts and writ petitions in terms of Article 226 of the Constitution of India. Writ Jurisdiction is also original jurisdiction of High Court. The precise territorial jurisdiction of each High Court varies. The appeal order is the following: tehsil-kotwali-criminal/civil courts - district - high court - supreme court.
Each state is divided into judicial districts presided over by a 'District and Sessions Judge'. He is known as a District Judge when he presides over a civil case, and a Sessions Judge when he presides over a criminal case. He is the highest judicial authority below a High Court judge. Below him, there are courts of civil jurisdiction, known by different names in different states.
Under Article 141 of the Constitution of India, all courts in India (which includes High courts) are bound by the judgments and orders of the Supreme Court of India by precedence.
Judges in a High Court are appointed by the President of India in consultation with the Chief Justice of India and the governor of the state. High Courts are headed by a Chief Justice. The Chief Justices are ranked #14 (in their state) and #17 (outside their state) in the Indian order of precedence. The number of judges in a court is decided by dividing the average institution of main cases during the last five years by the national average, or the average rate of disposal of main cases per judge per year in that High Court, whichever is higher.
The Calcutta High Court is the oldest High Court in the country, established on 2 July 1862. High courts which handle a large number of cases of a particular region, have permanent benches (or a branch of the court) established there. Benches are also present in states which come under the jurisdiction of a court outside its territorial limits. Smaller states with few cases may have circuit benches established. Circuit benches (known as circuit courts in some parts of the world) are temporary courts which hold proceedings for a few selected months in a year. Thus cases built up during this interim period are judged when the circuit court is in session.
The following are the 24 High Courts of India sorted by name, year established, Act by which it was established, jurisdiction, headquarters, benches, and the maximum number of judges sanctioned.
|Court name||Established||Act established||Jurisdiction||Seat||Benches||Jud.||Chief Justice|
|Allahabad High Court||1866-06-11||High Courts Act, 1861||Uttar Pradesh||Allahabad||Lucknow||95||Hon'ble Shri Shiv Kriti Singh|
|Andhra Pradesh High Court||1954-07-05||Andhra State Act, 1953||Andhra Pradesh||Hyderabad||39||Hon'ble The Chief Justice P.C. Ghose|
|Bombay High Court||1862-08-14||High Courts Act, 1861||Maharashtra, Goa, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu||Mumbai||Nagpur, Panaji, Aurangabad||60||Hon'ble Shri Justice Mohit Shah|
|Calcutta High Court||14 August 1862||High Courts Act, 1861||West Bengal, Andaman and Nicobar Islands||Kolkata||Port Blair (circuit bench)||63||Hon'ble Shri Justice Arun Mishra|
|Chhattisgarh High Court||2000-01-11||Madhya Pradesh Re-organisation Act, 2000||Chhattisgarh||Bilaspur||12||Hon'ble Shri Justice Yatindra Singh|
|Delhi High Court||1966-10-31||Delhi High Court Act, 1966||National Capital Territory of Delhi||New Delhi||43||Hon'ble Shri Justice D. Murugesan|
|Gauhati High Court||1948-03-01||Government of India Act, 1935||Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Nagaland, Mizoram||Guwahati||Kohima, Aizwal, Itanagar||27||Hon'ble Shri Justice A K Goel|
|Gujarat High Court||1960-05-01||Bombay Reorgansisation Act, 1960||Gujarat||Ahmedabad||42||Hon'ble Shri Chief Justice Bhaskar Bhattacharya|
|Himachal Pradesh High Court||1971||State of Himachal Pradesh Act, 1970||Himachal Pradesh||Shimla||09||Hon'ble Mr. Justice Ajay Manikrao Khanwilkar|
|Jammu and Kashmir High Court||1943-08-28||Letters Patent issued by the Maharaja of Kashmir||Jammu & Kashmir||Srinagar & Jammu||14||Hon'ble Shri Justice Mahesh Mittal Kumar|
|Jharkhand High Court||2000-11-15||Bihar Reorganisation Act, 2000||Jharkhand||Ranchi||12||Hon'ble Shri Justice Prakash Tatia|
|Karnataka High Court||1884||Mysore High Court Act, 1884||Karnataka||Bengaluru||Circuit Benches at Hubli-Dharwad & Gulbarga||40||Hon'ble Shri Chief Justice D.H.Waghela|
|Kerala High Court||1956||States Reorganisation Act, 1956||Kerala, Lakshadweep||Ernakulam||40||Hon'ble Smt Justice Manjula Chellur|
|Madhya Pradesh High Court||1936-01-02||Government of India Act, 1935||Madhya Pradesh||Jabalpur</ref></ref></ref>||Gwalior, Indore||42||Hon'ble Shri Justice Sharad Arvind Bobade|
|Madras High Court||1862-08-15||High Courts Act, 1861||Tamil Nadu, Puducherry||Chennai||Madurai||47||Hon'ble Thiru. Justice Rajesh Kumar Agrawal|
|Manipur High Court||2013-03-25||North-Eastern Areas (Reorganisation) and Other Related Laws (Amendment) Act, 2012||Manipur,||Imphal||3||Hon'ble Shri Justice Laxmi Kanta Mohapatra|
|Meghalaya High Court||2013-03-25||North-Eastern Areas (Reorganisation) and Other Related Laws (Amendment) Act, 2012||Meghalaya,||Shillong||3||Hon'ble Shri Justice T. Meena Kumari|
|Orissa High Court||1948-04-03||Orissa High Court Order, 1948||Odisha||Cuttack||27||Hon'ble Shri Justice Adarsh Kumar Goel|
|Patna High Court||1916-09-02||Government of India Act, 1915||Bihar||Patna||43||Hon'ble Ms Justice Rekha Doshit|
|Punjab and Haryana High Court||1947-11-08||High Court (Punjab) Order, 1947||Punjab, Haryana, Chandigarh||Chandigarh||53||Hon'ble Shri Justice Sanjay Kishan Kaul|
|Rajasthan High Court||1949-06-21||Rajasthan High Court Ordinance, 1949||Rajasthan||Jodhpur||Jaipur||40||Hon'ble Shri Justice Amitava Roy|
|Sikkim High Court||1975||The 38th amendment to the Constitution of India||Sikkim||Gangtok||03||Hon'ble Shri Acting Chief Justice Sonam Phintso Wangdi|
|Tripura High Court||2013-03-26||North-Eastern Areas (Reorganisation) and Other Related Laws (Amendment) Act, 2012||Tripura||Agartala||04||Hon'ble Chief Justice Laxmi Kanta Mohapatra|
|Uttarakhand High Court||2000-11-09||Uttar Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2000||Uttarakhand||Nainital||09||Hon'ble Shri Justice Barin Ghosh|
High Courts by state/ union territory
Courts under High Court
- District Courts of India
- District Munsiff Court
- Courts of Judicial Magistrate of First Class
- Courts of Judicial Magistrate of Second Class
Notes and Citations
- "Indian Courts". Archived from the original on 21 Jul 2011. Retrieved 21 September 2012.
- Originally known established at Agra. Shifted to Allahabad in 1875.
- Lahore High Court established in 1919-03-21. Jurisdiction covered undivided Punjab and Delhi. In 1947-08-11 a separate High Court of Punjab was created with its seat at Simla under the Indian Independence Act, 1947 which had jurisdiction over Punjab, Delhi and present Himachal Pradesh and Haryana. In 1966 after the reorganisation of the State of Punjab, the High Court was designated as the High Court of Punjab and Haryana. The Delhi High Court was established on 1966-10-31 with its seat at Simla.
- Originally known as the High Court of Assam and Nagaland, renamed as Gauhati High Court in 1971 by the North East Areas (Reorganisation) Act, 1971.
- Srinagar is the summer capital, Jammu is the winter capital.
- Originally known as Mysore High Court, renamed as Karnataka High Court in 1974.
- The High Court of Travancore-Cochin was inaugurated at Kochi on 7 July 1949. The state of Kerala was formed by the States Reorganisation Act, 1956. That Act abolished the Travancore-Cochin High Court and created the Kerala High Court. The Act also extended the jurisdiction of the Kerala High Court to Lakshadweep.
- Under the Government of India Act, 1935 by Letters Patent dated 2-1-1936 a High Court was established at Nagpur for the Central Provinces. After the reorganization of states, this High Court was shifted to Jabalpur in 1956.
- Originally known as Punjab High Court, renamed as Punjab and Haryana High Court in 1966
- "Jurisdiction and Seats of Indian High Courts". Eastern Book Company. Retrieved 2 September 2005.
- "Judge strength in High Courts increased". Press Information Bureau–Govt. of India. Retrieved 2 September 2005.
- "Judiciary". Supreme Court of India. Retrieved 2 September 2005.
- "Constitution of India". Wikisource. Retrieved 31 December 2005.
- "Soon, High Courts in 3 northeastern States". Retrieved 11 May 2012.
- "New chief justice of Delhi high court to assume charge on Wednesday". Retrieved 6 November 2012.