List of Hungarian Jews
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This is a list of Hungarian Jews. There has been a Jewish presence in today's Hungary since Roman times (bar a brief expulsion during the Black Death), long before the actual Hungarian nation. Jews fared particularly well under the Ottoman Empire, and after emancipation in 1867. At its height, the Jewish population of historical Hungary numbered more than 900,000, but the Holocaust and emigration, especially during the 1956 Hungarian Revolution, has reduced that to around 100,000, most of whom live in Budapest and its suburbs.
This is a list of anyone who could be reliably described as "Hungarian" and is of significant Jewish heritage (ethnic or religious). See List of Hungarian Americans for descendents of Hungarian émigrés born in America, a significant number of whom are of Jewish ancestry.
The names are presented in the Western European convention of the given name preceding the family name, whereas in Hungary, the reverse is true, as in most Asian cultures.
- 1 Historical figures
- 2 Religious figures
- 3 Inventors and scientists
- 4 Olympic gold medalists at the Summer Games
- 5 Mathematicians
- 6 Chess players
- 7 Psychoanalysts
- 8 Historians
- 9 Films and stage
- 10 Actors
- 11 Conductors
- 12 Composers
- 13 Performers of music
- 14 Musicians
- 15 Writers
- 16 Artists
- 17 Business
- 18 Industrialists and bankers
- 19 Families ennobled between 1874 and 1918 (mainly industrialists)
- 20 Sports
- 21 See also
- 22 References
- 23 External links
- György Aczél, official in charge of cultural life in Kádár's Hungary, 1957–1988
- Leó Frankel, one of the leaders of the Paris Commune
- Nissim Cahn, co-founder of the Jewish Brotherhood
- Gyula Germanus, islamologist, (non-Jewish mother, Jewish father)
- Ignác Goldziher, islamologist
- Tivadar Herzl (Theodore Herzl), spiritual founder of Israel
- Béla Kun, de facto leader of Hungary for 4 months in 1919 (non-Jewish mother, Jewish father)
- Max Nordau, co-founder of the World Zionist Organization
- Tom Lantos
- György Lukács
- Trebitsch Lincoln, British adventurer 
- Georges Politzer
- Joseph Pulitzer, newspaper publisher
- Sándor Radó (Alexander Radó) Switzerland-based Soviet master spy in World War II
- Mátyás Rákosi, de facto leader of Hungary, 1947–1956
- Ervin Szabó director of the Budapest Public Library System, 1911–1918
- Tibor Szamuely, politician 
- Ármin Vámbéry, orientalist and traveler
- Vilmos Vázsonyi, first Jewish Justice minister of Hungary, 1917–1918
Inventors and scientists
- László Bíró, inventor of the ballpoint pen.
- Marcel Breuer architect
- Dennis Gabor, inventor of the holography.
- David Gestetner, inventor of the stencil duplicator [full citation needed]
- Peter Carl Goldmark, inventor of long-playing (LP) records
- András Gróf (Andrew Grove), pioneer of the semiconductor industry, CEO of Intel
- Rudolf E. Kálmán of Kalman filter
- Gedeon Richter, pharmaceuticals - inventor & industrialist
- David Schwarz, inventor of the Zeppelin[full citation needed]
- Charles Weissmann, biochemist
- Eugene Wigner (Wigner Jenő), physicist and Nobel laureate (parents were Lutheran by religion)
Nobel Prize winners
||This section contains information of unclear or questionable importance or relevance to the article's subject matter. Please help improve this article by clarifying or removing superfluous information. (December 2014)|
Seven out of the ten Nobel Prize winners who were born in Hungary were Jewish. This number does not include Robert Bárány, who was born in Vienna, John Polanyi, who was born in Berlin, Milton Friedman, who was born in Brooklyn, while Elie Wiesel was born in Sighet, belonging to Romania after the First World War. Avram Hershko was born in Karcag, Hungary, while the remaining six Nobel Prize winners on the list were born in Budapest. They helped to make Budapest the most Nobel Prize dense capital in the world after Vienna. 10 out of 15 Hungarian Nobel Prize winners were of Jewish religion or ethnicity.
- Robert Bárány** (1914) - Medicine;
- György Hevesy (George de Hevesy) (1943) - Chemistry; (born Roman Catholic)
- Jenő Wigner (Eugene Wigner) (1963) - Physics; (Lutheran convert)
- Dénes Gábor (Dennis Gabor) (1971) - Physics; (Lutheran convert)
- Milton Friedman ** (1976) - Economics
- János Polányi ** (John Charles Polanyi) (1986) - Chemistry;
- Elie Wiesel ** (1986) - Peace;
- János Harsányi (John Harsanyi) (1994) - Economics; (born Roman Catholic)
- Imre Kertész (2002) - Literature;
- Ferenc Herskó (Avram Hershko) (2004) - Chemistry
- ** His parents were born in Hungary
- Dennis Gabor
- Theodore von Kármán
- Nicholas Kürti
- John von Neumann
- Leó Szilárd
- Edward Teller
- László Tisza
- Eugene Wigner
- Peter Thomas Bauer, economist 
- Milton Friedman, his parents emigrated from Beregszász, then in Hungary.
- Frank Furedi, sociologist
- John Harsanyi, economist, game theory; Nobel laureate (born Roman Catholic, from a Jewish background) 
- Nicholas Kaldor, British economist
- János Kornai, economist 
- Gottlieb Wilhelm Leitner (1840–1899), educationist and orientalist[full citation needed]
- Karl Mannheim sociologist,
- Adolf Neubauer, Hebraist
Olympic gold medalists at the Summer Games
|Period||1896-1912||1924-1936||1948-1956||1960-1972||1976-1992 (1984 excluded)||1996-2008|
|# of Olympics||5||4||3||4||4||4|
|Hungarian Individual Gold||9||17||26||22||27||16|
|Hungarian Jewish Individual||5||3||6||4||0||0|
|Jewish/total individual Hungarian||55.56%||17.65%||23.08%||18.18%||0%||0%|
|Jews in Gold Teams||57.14% = 8/14||28.21%= 11/39|
|Jews in population||5.0% (1910)||5.12% (1930)||1.45% (1949)||0.13% (2001)|
Before the Holocaust
Hungarian Jews, while comprising some 5% of the population of Hungary, won 8 individual gold medals for Hungary out of 26 (30.8%) in the Olympic sports events between 1896 and 1936. In each of the 7 gold winning teams, there were Hungarian Jews making up 35.8% of the teams (19 out of 53 team members).
- Alfred Hajós-Guttman (2) swimming, 100-meter freestyle, 1,500-meter freestyle
- Henrik Hajós-Guttman, swimming, 800-meter freestyle relay
- Dezső Földes, fencing, team saber
- Dr.Jenő Fuchs (2), fencing, individual saber, team saber
- Dr. Oszkár Gerde, fencing, team saber
- Lajos Werkner, fencing, team saber
- Richard Weisz, Greco-Roman wrestling, heavyweight
- Dezső Földes, fencing, team saber
- Dr. Jenő Fuchs (2), fencing, individual saber, team saber
- Dr. Oszkár Gerde, fencing, team saber
- Lajos Werkner, fencing, team saber
- Alfred Hajós, Olympic art competition, architecture
- János Garay, fencing, team saber
- Dr. Sándor Gombos, fencing, team saber
- Attila Petschauer, fencing, team saber
- Dr. Ferenc Mező, Olympic art competition, epic works
- István Barta, water polo
- György Brody, water polo
- Miklós Sárkány, water polo
- Endre Kabos, fencing, team saber
- Attila Petschauer, fencing, team saber
- György Bródy, water polo
- Miklos Sárkány, water polo
- Endre Kabos (2), fencing, individual saber, team saber
- Ilona Elek, individual foil
- Károly Kárpáti, freestyle wrestling, lightweight
After the Holocaust, 1948-1972
After the Holocaust, less than 1% of the population of Hungary remained of Jewish heritage. In individual sports events, Hungary won 48 gold medals between 1948 and 1972. Sportsmen and mainly sportswomen of Jewish extraction won 10 gold medals (20.8%). Hungarian Jewish women won 7 gold medals out of the 15 individual gold medals won by Hungarian women. In the 19 gold medal winning teams for Hungary, 9 had Jewish members.
There are no known Hungarian Jewish gold medalist since 1976. Overall, Hungarian Jews won 15.4% of the 117 individual gold medals of Hungary, and had part in at least 16 out of the 42 gold medals in team events.
- Ilona Elek, individual foil
- Robert Antal, water polo
- Sándor Gellér, soccer
- Ágnes Keleti, gymnastics, floor exercises
- Éva Székely, swimming, 200-meter breaststroke
- Ágnes Keleti (4)
- gymnastics, asymmetrical bars, floor exercises, balance beam,
- team exercise with portable apparatus
- Aliz Kertész, gymnastics, team exercise with portable apparatus
- László Fábián, kayak pairs, 10,000-meters
- Gyula Török, boxing, flyweight
- Tamás Gábor, fencing, team épée
- Ildikó Rejtő (2), fencing, individual and team foil
- Árpád Orbán, soccer
- Mihály Hesz, kayak, K1 1000m
- Gyorgy Gedó, boxing, light flyweight
- Manó Beke
- Raoul Bott  (half Jewish through mother)
- Arthur Erdélyi
- Paul Erdős
- Lipót Fejér
- Michael Fekete
- László Fuchs
- Tibor Gallai
- Géza Grünwald 
- Alfréd Haar
- Paul Halmos
- László Kalmár
- John Kemeny
- Dénes Kőnig
- Gyula Kőnig
- Imre Lakatos
- Beáta Nyári
- Kornél Lőwy (Cornelius Lanczos) 
- Peter Lax
- John von Neumann (Roman Catholic convert)
- Paul Nevai
- Rózsa Péter
- George Pólya
- Tibor Radó
- Gusztáv Rados
- Alfréd Rényi
- Mór Réthy
- Frigyes Riesz 
- Marcel Riesz 
- Lajos Schlesinger
- Otto Szász
- Gábor Szegő
- Peter Szüsz 
- Pál Turán
- Abraham Wald 
- Eugene Wigner
Films and stage
- Adrien Brody's mother was born in Budapest.
- George Cukor film director
- Tony Curtis; his parents were born in Mátészalka.
- Michael Curtiz, born Manó Kertész Kaminer, film director
- Judit Elek, film director and screenwriter
- William Fox, founded Fox Film Corporation
- Béla Gaál film director
- Zsa Zsa Gabor
- Viktor Gertler film editor and director
- Harry Houdini
- Leslie Howard's father was born in Hungary
- Alexander Korda, born Sándor László Kellner, brother of Vincent and Zoltan Korda, film producer and director
- Vincent Korda, born Vincent Kellner, brother of Alexander and Zoltan Korda, art director
- Zoltán Korda, born Zoltán Kellner, brother of Alexander and Vincent Korda, film screenwriter, director, and producer
- Peter Lorre
- Paul Newman's father was born in Hungary, as was his Catholic mother.
- Joe Pasternak
- Emeric Pressburger
- S. Z. Sakall
- István Szabó, film director, screenwriter, and opera director
- István Székely film director
- Alexandre Trauner
- Rachel Weisz's father was born in Hungary.
- Adolph Zukor, founder of Paramount Pictures
- Alfonzó (József Markos)
- Os zkár Ascher
- Eva Bartok (father Jewish, born Szöke)
- Lajos Básti
- Adrian Brody (Hungarian mother half Jewish)
- Miklós Gábor
- Dezső Garas
- Gyula Gózon
- Gyula Kabos
- László Kabos
- György Kálmán
- Kálmán Latabár (mother Jewish)
- László Márkus
- Imre Ráday
- Márton Rátkai
- Kálmán Rózsahegyi
- Éva Ruttkai
- Eva Six (father Jewish)
- Mária Mezey
- Paul Newman (father Jewish)
- Béla Salamon
- Zoltán Várkonyi
- Johnny Weissmüller (Roman Catholic-Jewish mother)
- Adam Fischer
- Ivan Fischer
- Ferenc Fricsay (half Jewish through mother)
- István Kertész
- Jenő Ormándy (Eugene Ormandy)
- Fritz Reiner
- Sir Georg Solti
- György Széll (George Szell)
- Pál Ábrahám (Paul Abraham)
- Károly Goldmark
- Imre Kálmán (Imre Koppstein)
- György Kurtág (half Jewish)
- György Ligeti
- Rezső Seress
- Leó Weiner
- Béla Zerkovitz
Performers of music
- Gitta Alpár - voice, soprano & actress
- Geza Anda- pianist (half Jewish)
- Ilona Fehér - violin
- Annie Fischer - piano
- Karl Flesch - violin
- Joseph Joachim - violin
- Endre Granat - violin
- Bálint Hamvas - bass
- György Pauk - violin
- László Polgár (bass) - voice, bass
- Ede Reményi - violin
- Márk Rózsavölgyi - violin
- András Schiff - piano
- János Starker - violoncello
- Mihály Székely - voice, bass
- Joseph Szigeti - violin
- Pál Budai, pianist, composer
- Jenő Deutsch, pianist, composer
- Ádám Fischer, conductor
- Peter Frankl, pianist
- Endre Granat, violinist
- György Justus, composer, musicologist, choir master
- István Kertész, conductor
- Sándor Kuti, composer
- Walter Lajthai-Lazarus, conductor, composer
- Ervin Nyíregyházi, pianist  (half Jewish through mother)
- Tommy Ramone, drummer for The Ramones (born Erdélyi Tamás)
- Georg Solti, conductor
- Sándor Vándor, composer, educator
- László Weiner, composer
- Varnus Xavér, organist
- Bernát Alexander
- Béla Balázs, poet & film critic[full citation needed]
- Tibor Déry
- György Faludy
- Milán Füst
- Andor Endre Gelléri
- Oszkár Gellért
- Lajos Hatvany
- Jenő Heltai
- Ágnes Heller.
- Hugó Ignotus
- Ferenc Karinthy 
- Ákos Kertész
- Imre Kertész, winner, Nobel Prize in Literature (2002)
- József Kiss, poet
- Arthur Koestler, novelist & critic 
- Aladár Komlós
- György Konrád
- József Lengyel, survivor and writer of the Gulag
- Anna Lesznai
- Rudolf Lothar, dramatist
- György Lukács, Marxist literary critic and philosopher.
- Rodion Marovits
- Kati Marton
- György Moldova
- Ferenc Molnár
- Péter Nádas
- István Örkény
- Károly Pap
- Giorgio Pressburger
- Miklós Radnóti, poet
- Endre, Nagy, creator of Hungarian cabaret
- Jenő Rejtő
- Zoltán Somlyó
- György Spiró
- Gábor T. Szántó
- Ernő Szép
- Antal Szerb
- Dezső Szomory
- József Vészi
- Elie Wiesel, writer, Nobel Peace Prize (1986)
- Zoltán Zelk
- Béla Zsolt writer of Kilenc Koffer
- Béla Czóbel
- André François, painter and graphic artist (Jewish father)
- André Kertész, born Andor Kertész, photographer, photo-essayist
- Robert Capa, photographer
- Adolf Fényes 
- György Goldmann, sculptor 
- Béla Iványi-Grünwald 
- László Moholy-Nagy
- Izsák Perlmutter 
- Miksa Róth glass mosaic paintings
- Kermit (Wayne) Weinberger - artist, designer,famous for his Las Vegas neon creations. Born to Jewish Hungarian parents
- Lucien Hervé, born Laszlo Elkan, photographer, known best for his architectural photographs, particularly those associated with Le Corboisier.
- Leo Castelli, Trieste-born American art dealer of note.
- Paul Reichmann's parents were born in Hungary
- George Soros, broke the British pound
- Robert Maxwell, British media proprietor
- Laszlo Tauber, surgeon & real estate mogul
Industrialists and bankers
- Lipót Aschner, Tungsram - incandescent lamps
- Móricz Fischer, china-factory in Herend in 1839
- Leó Goldberger, textile
- Manfred Weisz, heavy industry
- Leó Lánczy
- Jenő Vida
- Ferenc Chorin
- Fülöp Weisz
Families ennobled between 1874 and 1918 (mainly industrialists)
- Biedermann – 1902
- Dirsztay – 1905
- Groedl – 1900
- Gutmann – 1905
- Harkányi – 1904
- Hatvany – 1917
- Hatvany-Deutsch – 1895
- Hazai – 1912
- Herczel – 1912
- Herzog – 1904
- Kohner – 1904
- Korányi – 1912
- Kornfeld – 1908
- Königswarter – 1897
- Kuffner – 1904
- Lévay – 1897
- Madarassy-Beck – 1906
- Nauman – 1906
- Ohrenstein – 1913
- Orosdy – 1905
- Posner Karl
- Schosberger – 1890
- Tornyai-Schosberger – 1905
- Ulmann – 1918
- Weiss – 1918
- Wodianer – 1874
- Wolfner – 1918
- László Fábián, sprint canoer, Olympic champion (K-2 10,000 meter), 4x world champion (3x K-2 10,000 meter and 1x K-4 10,000 meter) and one silver (K-4 10,000 meter)
- Imre Farkas, sprint canoer, 2x Olympic bronze (C-2 1,000 and 10,000 meter)
- Klára Fried-Bánfalvi, sprint canoer, Olympic bronze (K-2 500 m), world champion (K-2 500 m)
- Anna Pfeffer, sprint canoer, Olympic 2x silver (K-2 500 m), bronze (K-1 500 m); world champion (K-2 500 m), silver (K-4 500 m), 2x bronze (K-2 500)
- Péter Bakonyi, saber, Olympic 3x bronze
- Ilona Elek, saber, 2x Olympic champion (Roman Catholic, father Jewish)
- Dr. Dezsö Földes, saber, 2x Olympic champion
- Dr. Jenö Fuchs, saber, 4x Olympic champion
- Támas Gábor, épée, Olympic champion
- János Garay, saber, Olympic champion, silver, bronze, killed by the Nazis
- Dr. Oskar Gerde, saber, 2x Olympic champion, killed by the Nazis
- Dr. Sándor Gombos, saber, Olympic champion
- Endre Kabos, saber, 3x Olympic champion, bronze
- Attila Petschauer, saber, 2x team Olympic champion, silver, killed by the Nazis
- Ildikó Újlaky-Rejtő, foil, 2x Olympic champion (half Jewish)
- Lajos Werkner, saber, 2x Olympic champion
- Lily Kronberger, World Championship 4x gold, 2x bronze, World Figure Skating Hall of Fame
- Emília Rotter, pair skater, World Championship 4x gold, silver, 2x Olympic bronze
- László Szollás, pair skater, World Championship gold, silver, 2x Olympic bronze
- Samu Fóti, Olympic silver (team combined exercises)
- Imre Gellért, Olympic silver (team combined exercises)
- Ágnes Keleti, 5x Olympic champion (2x floor exercises, asymmetrical bars, floor exercises, balance beam, team exercise with portable apparatus), 3x silver (2x team combined exercises, individual combined exercises), 2x bronze (asymmetrical bars, team exercises with portable apparatus), International Gymnastics Hall of Fame
- Alice Kertész, Olympic champion (team, portable apparatus), silver (team); world silver (team)
Soccer (association football)
- Gyula Bíró, midfielder/forward (national team)
- Alfréd Brüll first owner of MTK Budapest FC
- Sándor Geller, goalkeeper, Olympic champion
- Béla Guttmann, midfielder, national team player & international coach
- Gyula Mándi, half back (player & coach of Hungarian and Israeli national teams) and manager
- Árpád Orbán, Olympic champion
- Peter Fuzes, Born in Hungary. Soccer goalkeeper for Sydney Hakoah club and Australia, Maccabi Hall of Fame 2003. Played 1st grade 1964 till 1976; International career From 1966 to 1972, against Scotland 1967, Greece 1969, Israel 1969 & 1972. Played against various European club sides including AS ROMA 1966, Manchester United at the time of Bobby Charlton & Dennis Law.
- Andrea Gyarmati, Olympic silver (100-m backstroke) and bronze (100-m butterfly); world championships bronze (200-m backstroke), International Swimming Hall of Fame (both parents half-Jewish)
- Alfréd Hajós (born "Arnold Guttmann"), 3x Olympic champion (100-m freestyle, 800-m freestyle relay, 1,500-m freestyle), International Swimming Hall of Fame
- Michael "Miki" Halika, Israel, 200-m butterfly, 200- and 400-m individual medley
- József Munk, Olympic silver (4x200-m freestyle relay)
- Rebecca Soni, her grandfather was born in Nagyvárad (now Oradea)
- Mark Spitz, his great grandfather (Nathan) was born in Hungary
- László Szabados, Olympic bronze (4x200-m freestyle relay)
- András Székely, Olympic silver (200-m breaststroke) and bronze (4x200-m freestyle relay); died in a Nazi concentration camp
- Éva Székely, Olympic champion & silver (200-m breaststroke); International Swimming Hall of Fame; mother of Andrea Gyarmati (mother Jewish, father Roman Catholic szekler)
- Judit Temes, Olympic champion (4×100-m freestyle), bronze (100-m freestyle)
- Imre Zachár, Olympic silver (4x200-m freestyle relay)
- Viktor Barna (born "Győző Braun"), 22x world champion, International Table Tennis Foundation Hall of Fame ("ITTFHoF")
- Laszlo Bellak, 7x world champion, ITTFHoF
- Anna Sipos, 11x world champion, ITTFHoF
- Miklós Szabados, 15x world champion
- Zsuzsa Körmöczy, won 1958 French Singles
Track and field
- Ödön Bodor, Olympic bronze (medley relay)
- Ibolya Csák, Olympic champion & European champion high jumper
- Mór Kóczán, javelin, Olympic bronze (Calvinist priest)
- Robert Antal, Olympic champion
- István Barta, Olympic champion, gold
- György Bródy, (3g1b & 2g & 2g), goalkeeper, 2x Olympic champion
- Dezső Gyarmati, Olympic water polo player & captain (3g1s1b) (half Jewish)
- György Kárpáti, 3x Olympic champion, 1x bronze (half Jewish)
- Béla Komjádi water polo player and coach, International Swimming Hall of Fame
- Mihály Mayer, 2x Olympic champion, 2x bronze
- Miklós Sárkány, 2x Olympic champion
- Károly Kárpáti (also "Károly Kellner"), Olympic champion (freestyle lightweight), silver
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