List of Roman imperial victory titles

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This document is a list of victory titles assumed by Roman Emperors, not including assumption of the title Imperator (originally itself a victory title); note that the Roman Emperors were not the only persons to assume victory titles (Maximinus Thrax acquired his victory title during the reign of a previous Emperor). In a sense, the Imperial victory titles give an interesting summary of which wars and which adversaries were considered significant by the senior leadership of the Roman Empire, but in some cases more opportunistic motifs play a role, even to the point of glorifying a victory that was by no means a real triumph (but celebrated as one for internal political prestige). For a more complete list of the Emperors themselves, see List of Roman Emperors.

  • Caligula, 37-41
    • Germanicus ("Victorious in Germania"), born with it
  • Claudius, 41-54
    • Germanicus ("Victorious in Germania"), born with it
    • Britannicus ("Victorious in Britain"), 44
  • Vitellius, 69
    • Germanicus ("Victorious in Germania"), 69
  • Domitian, 81 - 96
    • Germanicus ("Victorious in Germania"), late 83
  • Nerva, 96 98
    • Germanicus ("Victorious in Germania"), October 97
  • Trajan, 98 - 117
    • Germanicus ("Victorious in Germania"), October 97
    • Dacicus ("Victorious in Dacia"), 102
    • Parthicus ("Victorious in Parthia") and Optimus ("the Best"), 114
  • Marcus Aurelius, 161 - 180
    • Armeniacus ("Victorious in Armenia"), 164
    • Medicus ("Victorious in Media") and Parthicus Maximus ("The great victor in Parthia"), 166
    • Germanicus ("Victorious in Germania"), 172
    • Sarmaticus ("Victorious in Sarmatia"), 175
  • Lucius Verus, 161 - 169
    • Armeniacus ("Victorious in Armenia"), 164
    • Parthicus Maximus ("The great victor in Parthia"), 165
    • Medicus ("Victorious in Media"), 166
  • Commodus, 177 - 192
    • Germanicus ("Victorious in Germania"), 15 October 172
    • Sarmaticus ("Victorious in Sarmatia"), spring 175
    • Germanicus Maximus ("The great victor in Germania"), mid-182
    • Britannicus, late 184
  • Septimius Severus, 193 - 211
    • Arabicus ("Victorious in Arabia") and Adiabenicus ("the victor of Adiabene"), 195
    • Parthicus Maximus ("The great victor in Parthia"), 198
    • Britannicus Maximus ("The great victor in Britain"), 209 or 210
  • Caracalla, 198 - 217
    • Britannicus Maximus ("The great victor in Britain"), 209 or 210
    • Germanicus Maximus ("The great victor in Germania"), 213
  • Maximinus Thrax, 235 - 238
    • Germanicus Maximus ("The great victor in Germania"), 235 (awarded by Emperor Alexander Severus)
  • Claudius II, 268 - 270
    • Gothicus Maximus ("The great victor against the Goths"), 269
  • Aurelian, 270-275
    • Germanicus Maximus ("The great victor in Germania"), 270 and 271
    • Gothicus Maximus ("The great victor of the Goths"), 271
    • Parthicus Maximus ("The great victor in Parthia"), 273
  • Tacitus, 275 - 276
    • Gothicus Maximus ("The great victor of the Goths"), 276
  • Probus, 276 - 282
    • Gothicus ("the victor of the Goths"), 277
    • Gothicus Maximus, Germanicus Maximus ("The great victor in Germania"), and Persicus Maximus ("The great victor in Persia"), 279
  • Diocletian, 284 - 305
    • Germanicus Maximus ("The great victor in Germania") and Sarmaticus Maximus ("The great victor of the Sarmatians"), 285
      • Diocletian claimed the title Germanicus Maximus five more times (twice in 287, and in 288, 293, and 301) and the title Sarmaticus Maximus three more times (in 289, 294, and 300)
    • Persicus Maximus ("The great victor over the Persians"), 295
      • Diocletian claimed the title Persicus Maximus again in 298
    • Britannicus Maximus ("The great victor in Britain") and Carpicus Maximus ("The great victor over Carpians"), 297
    • Armenicus Maximus ("Victorious in Armenia"), Medicus Maximus ("The great victor in Media"), and Adiabenicus Maximus ("The great victor in Adiabene"), 298
  • Maximian, 286 - 305, 306 - 308
    • Maximian's victory titles are the same as those of Diocletian, except that he did not share Diocletian's first assumption of the titles
  • Galerius Maximianus, 305 - 311
    • Britannicus Maximus ("The great victory in Britain"), and Carpicus Maximus ("The great victor of the Carpians"), 297
      • Galerius claimed the title Carpicus Maximus five more times until the Carpicus Maximus VI ("The 6th great victor of the Carpians"), 308

Germanicus Maximus and Sarmaticus Maximus in 285

  • Constantine I, 307 - 337
    • Germanicus Maximus ("The great victor in Germania"), 307
      • Constantine claimed the title Germanicus Maximus three more times (in 308, 314, and 328)
    • Sarmaticus Maximus ("The great victor over the Sarmatians"), 323
      • Constantine claimed the title Sarmaticus Maximus one more time (in 334)
    • Gothicus Maximus ("The great victor over the Goths"), 328
      • Constantine claimed the title Gothicus Maximus one more time (in 332)
    • Dacicus Maximus ("The great Victor over the Dacian"), (336)
  • Constans, 337-350
    • Sarmaticus ("Victorious over the Sarmatians"). The title was awarded twice, and later critics wrote that proper form required that Constans be called "Sarmaticus Sarmaticus".
  • Justinian I, 527 - 565
    • Alamannicus ("Victorious over the Alamanni"), on accession
    • Gothicus ("Victorious over the Goths"), on accession
    • Francicus ("Victorious over the Franks"), on accession
    • Anticus ("Victorious over the Antae"), on accession
    • Alanicus ("Victorious over the Alans"), on accession
    • Vandalicus ("Victorious over the Vandals"), after the Vandalic War, 534
    • Africanus ("Victorious in Africa"), after the Vandalic War, 534

1st century[edit]

2nd century[edit]

ROMAN IMPERIAL VICTORY-TITLES (COGNOMINA EX VIRTUTE). Table B: Antonines and Severi (AD 96 - 235)
Emperor
(reign-dates)
Adiabenicus Arabicus Armeniacus Britannicus Carpicus Dacicus Germanicus Gothicus Medicus Parthicus Persicus Sarmaticus Inscription
evidence
Nerva
(96-8)
Trajan
(98-117)
AE (1987) 499 [1]
Hadrian
(117-38)
AE (1896) 121 [2]
Antoninus Pius
(138-61)
CIL VIII.20424 [3]
Marcus Aurelius
(161-80)
CIL III.13 [4]
Commodus
(180-92)
AE (1977) 772 [5]
Septimius Severus
(193-211)
AE (1999) 1861 [6]
Caracalla
(211-7)
Elagabalus
(217-22)
Severus Alexander
(222-35)

3rd century[edit]

ROMAN IMPERIAL VICTORY-TITLES (COGNOMINA EX VIRTUTE). Table C: Military emperors (AD 235 - 305)
Emperor
(reign-dates)
Adiabenicus Arabicus Armeniacus Britannicus Carpicus Dacicus Germanicus Gothicus Medicus Parthicus Persicus Sarmaticus Inscription
evidence
Maximinus Thrax
(235-8)
Gordian III
(238-44)
Philip the Arab
(244-9)
247 244 CIL III.4634 [7]; RIC IV.66
Decius
(249-51)
250 250 CIL II.6345 [8]; AE (1942/3) 55 [9]
Valerian
(253-60)
254 CIL VIII.2380 [10]
Gallienus
(253-68)
256 254 263 264/5 CIL X.4784 [11]; AE (2006) 1762 [12]
Claudius II
(268-70)
268 269 270 CIL XII.5511 [13]; CIL VIII.4876 [14]
Aurelian
(270-5)
272 date? 272 275 271 272 273 270? CIL XIII.8973 [15]; CIL III.13715 [16]; CIL II.4506 [17]
Tacitus
(275-6)
276 CIL XII.5563 [18]
Probus
(276-82)
278 277 CIL XII.5472 [19]
Carus
(282-3)
283 283 CIL VIII.12522 [20]
Diocletian and Tetrarchs
(284-305)

4th century[edit]

See also[edit]