List of Indian inventions and discoveries
This list of Indian inventions and discoveries details the inventions, scientific discoveries and contributions of India, including both the ancient and medieval nations in the subcontinent historically referred to as India and the modern Indian state. It draws from the whole cultural and technological history of India, during which architecture, astronomy, cartography, metallurgy, logic, mathematics, metrology and mineralogy were among the branches of study pursued by its scholars. During recent times science and technology in the Republic of India has also focused on automobile engineering, information technology, communications as well as research into space and polar technology.
||This article duplicates, in whole or part, the scope of other article(s) or section(s). (June 2013)|
- Button, ornamental: Buttons—made from seashell—were used in the Indus Valley Civilization for ornamental purposes by 2000 BCE. Some buttons were carved into geometric shapes and had holes pierced into them so that they could be attached to clothing by using a thread. Ian McNeil (1990) holds that: "The button, in fact, was originally used more as an ornament than as a fastening, the earliest known being found at Mohenjo-daro in the Indus Valley. It is made of a curved shell and about 5000 years old."
- Calico: Calico had originated in the subcontinent by the 11th century and found mention in Indian literature, by the 12th century writer Hemachandra. He has mentioned calico fabric prints done in a lotus design. The Indian textile merchants traded in calico with the Africans by the 15th century and calico fabrics from Gujarat appeared in Egypt. Trade with Europe followed from the 17th century onwards. Within India, calico originated in Kozhikode.
- Carding, devices for: Historian of science Joseph Needham ascribes the invention of bow-instruments used in textile technology to India. The earliest evidence for using bow-instruments for carding comes from India (2nd century CE). These carding devices, called kaman and dhunaki would loosen the texture of the fiber by the means of a vibrating string.
- Chaturanga and Shatranj: The precursors of chess originated in India during the Gupta dynasty (c. 280 - 550 CE). Both the Persians and Arabs ascribe the origins of the game of Chess to the Indians. The words for "chess" in Old Persian and Arabic are chatrang and shatranj respectively — terms derived from caturaṅga in Sanskrit, which literally means an army of four divisions or four corps. Chess spread throughout the world and many variants of the game soon began taking shape. This game was introduced to the Near East from India and became a part of the princely or courtly education of Persian nobility. Buddhist pilgrims, Silk Road traders and others carried it to the Far East where it was transformed and assimilated into a game often played on the intersection of the lines of the board rather than within the squares. Chaturanga reached Europe through Persia, the Byzantine empire and the expanding Arabian empire. Muslims carried Shatranj to North Africa, Sicily, and Spain by the 10th century where it took its final modern form of chess.
- Chintz: The origin of Chintz is from the printed all cotton fabric of calico in India. The origin of the word chintz itself is from the Hindi language word चित्र् (chitr), which means a spot.
- Coherer, iron and mercury: In 1899, the Bengali physicist Sir Jagdish Chandra Bose announced the development of an "iron-mercury-iron coherer with telephone detector" in a paper presented at the Royal Society, London. He also later received U.S. Patent 755,840, "Detector for electrical disturbances" (1904), for a specific electromagnetic receiver.
- Cotton gin, single-roller: The Ajanta caves of India yield evidence of a single roller cotton gin in use by the 5th century. This cotton gin was used in India until innovations were made in form of foot powered gins. The cotton gin was invented in India as a mechanical device known as charkhi, more technically the "wooden-worm-worked roller". This mechanical device was, in some parts of India, driven by water power.
- Crescograph: The crescograph, a device for measuring growth in plants, was invented in the early 20th century by the Bengali scientist Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose.
- Crucible steel: Perhaps as early as 300 BCE—although certainly by 200 CE—high quality steel was being produced in southern India also by what Europeans would later call the crucible technique. In this system, high-purity wrought iron, charcoal, and glass were mixed in a crucible and heated until the iron melted and absorbed the carbon. The first crucible steel was the wootz steel that originated in India before the beginning of the common era. Archaeological evidence suggests that this manufacturing process was already in existence in South India well before the Christian era.
- Dock (maritime): The earliest known docks were those discovered in Wadi al-Jarf, an ancient Egyptian habor dating from 4500 BCE located on the Red Sea coast. A dock at Lothal (2400 BCE) was located away from the main current to avoid deposition of silt. Modern oceanographers have observed that the Harappans must have possessed knowledge relating to tides in order to build such a dock on the ever-shifting course of the Sabarmati, as well as exemplary hydrography and maritime engineering. This was the earliest known dock found in the world, equipped to berth and service ships. It is speculated that Lothal engineers studied tidal movements, and their effects on brick-built structures, since the walls are of kiln-burnt bricks. This knowledge also enabled them to select Lothal's location in the first place, as the Gulf of Khambhat has the highest tidal amplitude and ships can be sluiced through flow tides in the river estuary.
- Incense clock: Although popularly associated with China the incense clock is believed to have originated in India, at least in its fundamental form if not function. Early incense clocks found in China between the 6th and 8th century CE—the period it appeared in China all seem to have Devanāgarī carvings on them instead of Chinese seal characters. Incense itself was introduced to China from India in the early centuries CE, along with the spread of Buddhism by travelling monks. Edward Schafer asserts that incense clocks were probably an Indian invention, transmitted to China, which explains the Devanāgarī inscriptions on early incense clocks found in China. Silvio Bedini on the other hand asserts that incense clocks were derived in part from incense seals mentioned in Tantric Buddhist scriptures, which first came to light in China after those scriptures from India were translated into Chinese, but holds that the time-telling function of the seal was incorporated by the Chinese.
- India ink, carbonaceous pigment: The source of the carbon pigment used in India ink was India. In India, the carbon black from which India ink is produced is obtained by burning bones, tar, pitch, and other substances. Ink itself has been used in India since at least the 4th century BCE. Masi, an early ink in India was an admixture of several chemical components. Indian documents written in Kharosthi with ink have been unearthed in Xinjiang. The practice of writing with ink and a sharp pointed needle was common in ancient South India. Several Jain sutras in India were compiled in ink.
- Indian clubs: The Indian club—which appeared in Europe during the 18th century—was used long by India's native soldiery before its introduction to Europe. During the British Raj the British officers in India performed calisthenic exercises with clubs to keep in for physical conditioning. From Britain the use of club swinging spread to the rest of the world.
- Kabaddi: The game of kabaddi originated in India during prehistory. Suggestions on how it evolved into the modern form range from wrestling exercises, military drills, and collective self-defense but most authorities agree that the game existed in some form or the other in India during the period between 1500 and 400 BCE.
- Ludo: Pachisi originated in India by the 6th century. The earliest evidence of this game in India is the depiction of boards on the caves of Ajanta. This game was played by the Mughal emperors of India; a notable example being that of Akbar, who played living Pachisi using girls from his harem. A variant of this game, called Ludo, made its way to England during the British Raj.
- Muslin: The fabric was named after the city where Europeans first encountered it, Mosul, in what is now Iraq, but the fabric actually originated from Dhaka in what is now Bangladesh. In the 9th century, an Arab merchant named Sulaiman makes note of the material's origin in Bengal (known as Ruhml in Arabic).
- Mysorean rockets: The first iron-cased and metal-cylinder rockets were developed by Tipu Sultan, ruler of the South Indian Kingdom of Mysore, and his father Hyder Ali, in the 1780s. He successfully used these iron-cased rockets against the larger forces of the British East India Company during the Anglo-Mysore Wars. The Mysore rockets of this period were much more advanced than what the British had seen, chiefly because of the use of iron tubes for holding the propellant; this enabled higher thrust and longer range for the missile (up to 2 km range). After Tipu's eventual defeat in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War and the capture of the Mysore iron rockets, they were influential in British rocket development, inspiring the Congreve rocket, and were soon put into use in the Napoleonic Wars.
- Palampore: पालमपुर् (Hindi language) of Indian origin was imported to the western world—notable England and Colonial america—from India. In 17th century England these hand painted cotton fabrics influenced native crewel work design. Shipping vessels from India also took palampore to colonial America, where it was used in quilting.
- Prayer flags: The Buddhist sūtras, written on cloth in India, were transmitted to other regions of the world. These sutras, written on banners, were the origin of prayer flags. Legend ascribes the origin of the prayer flag to the Shakyamuni Buddha, whose prayers were written on battle flags used by the devas against their adversaries, the asuras. The legend may have given the Indian bhikku a reason for carrying the 'heavenly' banner as a way of signyfying his commitment to ahimsa. This knowledge was carried into Tibet by 800 CE, and the actual flags were introduced no later than 1040 CE, where they were further modified. The Indian monk Atisha (980-1054 CE) introduced the Indian practice of printing on cloth prayer flags to Tibet.
- Prefabricated home and movable structure: The first prefabricated homes and movable structures were invented in 16th century Mughal India by Akbar. These structures were reported by Arif Qandahari in 1579.
- Ruler: Rulers made from Ivory were in use by the Indus Valley Civilization in what today is Pakistan and some parts of Western India prior to 1500 BCE. Excavations at Lothal (2400 BCE) have yielded one such ruler calibrated to about 1/16 of an inch—less than 2 millimeters. Ian Whitelaw (2007) holds that 'The Mohenjo-Daro ruler is divided into units corresponding to 1.32 inches (33.5 mm) and these are marked out in decimal subdivisions with amazing accuracy—to within 0.005 of an inch. Ancient bricks found throughout the region have dimensions that correspond to these units.' Shigeo Iwata (2008) further writes 'The minimum division of graduation found in the segment of an ivory-made linear measure excavated in Lothal was 1.79 mm (that corresponds to 1/940 of a fathom), while that of the fragment of a shell-made one from Mohenjo-daro was 6.72 mm (1/250 of a fathom), and that of bronze-made one from Harapa was 9.33 mm (1/180 of a fathom).' The weights and measures of the Indus civilization also reached Persia and Central Asia, where they were further modified.
- Seamless celestial globe: Considered one of the most remarkable feats in metallurgy, it was invented in Kashmir by Ali Kashmiri ibn Luqman in between 1589 and 1590 CE, and twenty other such globes were later produced in Lahore and Kashmir during the Mughal Empire. Before they were rediscovered in the 1980s, it was believed by modern metallurgists to be technically impossible to produce metal globes without any seams, even with modern technology. These Mughal metallurgists pioneered the method of lost-wax casting in order to produce these globes.
- Snakes and ladders: Snakes and ladders originated in India as a game based on morality. During British rule of India, this game made its way to England, and was eventually introduced in the United States of America by game-pioneer Milton Bradley in 1943.
- Stepwell: Earliest clear evidence of the origins of the stepwell is found in the Indus Valley Civilization's archaeological site at Mohenjodaro in Pakistan. The three features of stepwells in the subcontinent are evident from one particular site, abandoned by 2500 BCE, which combines a bathing pool, steps leading down to water, and figures of some religious importance into one structure. The early centuries immediately before the common era saw the Buddhists and the Jains of India adapt the stepwells into their architecture. Both the wells and the form of ritual bathing reached other parts of the world with Buddhism. Rock-cut step wells in the subcontinent date from 200 to 400 CE. Subsequently the wells at Dhank (550-625 CE) and stepped ponds at Bhinmal (850-950 CE) were constructed.
- Stupa: The origin of the stupa can be traced to 3rd century BCE India. It was used as a commemorative monument associated with storing sacred relics. The stupa architecture was adopted in Southeast and East Asia, where it evolved into the pagoda, a Buddhist monument used for enshrining sacred relics.
- Toe stirrup: The earliest known manifestation of the stirrup, which was a toe loop that held the big toe was used in India in as early as 500 BCE or perhaps by 200 BCE according to other sources. This ancient stirrup consisted of a looped rope for the big toe which was at the bottom of a saddle made of fibre or leather. Such a configuration made it suitable for the warm climate of most of India where people used to ride horses barefoot. A pair of megalithic double bent iron bars with curvature at each end, excavated in Junapani in the central Indian state of Madhya Pradesh have been regarded as stirrups although they could as well be something else. Buddhist carvings in the temples of Sanchi, Mathura and the Bhaja caves dating back between the 1st and 2nd century BCE figure horsemen riding with elaborate saddles with feet slipped under girths. Sir John Marshall described the Sanchi relief as "the earliest example by some five centuries of the use of stirrups in any part of the world". In the 1st century CE horse riders in northern India, where winters are sometimes long and cold, were recorded to have their booted feet attached to hooked stirrups. However the form, the conception of the primitive Indian stirrup spread west and east, gradually evolving into the stirrup of today.
- Suits game: Kridapatram is an early suits game, made of painted rags, invented in Ancient India. The term kridapatram literally means "painted rags for playing." Paper playing cards first appeared in East Asia during the 9th century. The medieval Indian game of ganjifa, or playing cards, is first recorded in the 16th century.
- Wootz steel: Wootz originated in India before the beginning of the common era. Wootz steel was widely exported and traded throughout ancient Europe, China, the Arab world, and became particularly famous in the Middle East, where it became known as Damascus steel. Archaeological evidence suggests that this manufacturing process was already in existence in South India well before the Christian era.
- Cashmere wool: The fiber is also known as pashm or pashmina for its use in the handmade shawls of Kashmir, India. The woolen shawls made from wool in Kashmir region of India find written mention between 3rd century BCE and the 11th century CE. However, the founder of the cashmere wool industry is traditionally held to be the 15th century ruler of Kashmir, Zayn-ul-Abidin, who employed weavers from Central Asia.
- Cotton cultivation: Cotton was cultivated by the inhabitants of the Indus Valley Civilization by the 5th millennium BCE - 4th millennium BCE. The Indus cotton industry was well developed and some methods used in cotton spinning and fabrication continued to be practiced till the modern Industrialization of India. Well before the Common Era, the use of cotton textiles had spread from India to the Mediterranean and beyond.
- Indigo dye: Indigo, a blue pigment and a dye, was used in India, which was also the earliest major center for its production and processing. The Indigofera tinctoria variety of Indigo was domesticated in India. Indigo, used as a dye, made its way to the Greeks and the Romans via various trade routes, and was valued as a luxury product.
- Jute cultivation: Jute has been cultivated in India since ancient times. Raw jute was exported to the western world, where it was used to make ropes and cordage. The Indian jute industry, in turn, was modernized during the British Raj in India. The region of Bengal was the major center for Jute cultivation, and remained so before the modernization of India's jute industry in 1855, when Kolkata became a center for jute processing in India.
- Sugar refinement: Sugarcane was originally from tropical South Asia and Southeast Asia. Different species likely originated in different locations with S. barberi originating in India and S. edule and S. officinarum coming from New Guinea. The process of producing crystallized sugar from sugarcane was discovered by the time of the Imperial Guptas, and the earliest reference of candied sugar comes from India. The process was soon transmitted to China with traveling Buddhist monks. Chinese documents confirm at least two missions to India, initiated in 647 CE, for obtaining technology for sugar-refining. Each mission returned with results on refining sugar.
- AKS primality test: The AKS primality test is a deterministic primality-proving algorithm created and published by three Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur computer scientists, Manindra Agrawal, Neeraj Kayal, and Nitin Saxena on 6 August 2002 in a paper titled PRIMES is in P. Commenting on the impact of this discovery, Paul Leyland noted: "One reason for the excitement within the mathematical community is not only does this algorithm settle a long-standing problem, it also does so in a brilliantly simple manner. Everyone is now wondering what else has been similarly overlooked".
- Algebraic abbreviations: The mathematician Brahmagupta had begun using abbreviations for unknowns by the 7th century. He employed abbreviations for multiple unknowns occurring in one complex problem. Brahmagupta also used abbreviations for square roots and cube roots.
- Basu's theorem: The Basu's theorem, a result of Debabrata Basu (1955) states that any complete sufficient statistic is independent of any ancillary statistic.
- Brahmagupta–Fibonacci identity, Brahmagupta formula, Brahmagupta matrix, and Brahmagupta theorem: Discovered by the Indian mathematician, Brahmagupta (598–668 CE).
- Chakravala method: The Chakravala method, a cyclic algorithm to solve indeterminate quadratic equations is commonly attributed to Bhāskara II, (c. 1114–1185 CE) although some attribute it to Jayadeva (c. 950 ~ 1000 CE). Jayadeva pointed out that Brahmagupta’s approach to solving equations of this type would yield infinitely large number of solutions, to which he then described a general method of solving such equations. Jayadeva's method was later refined by Bhāskara II in his Bijaganita treatise to be known as the Chakravala method, chakra (derived from cakraṃ चक्रं) meaning 'wheel' in Sanskrit, relevant to the cyclic nature of the algorithm. With reference to the Chakravala method, E. O. Selenuis held that no European performances at the time of Bhāskara, nor much later, came up to its marvellous height of mathematical complexity.
- Hindu number system: The Hindu numeral system was developed in India between the 2000–1500 BC during the Indus Valley Civilization.
- Zero: Indians were the first to use the zero as a symbol and in arithmetic operations, although Babylonians used zero to signify the 'absent'. In those earlier times a blank space was used to denote zero, later when it created confusion a dot was used to denote zero(could be found in Bakhshali manuscript). In 500 AD circa Aryabhata again gave a new symbol for zero(0) with some new rules.
- Infinite series for Sine, Cosine, and arctangent: Madhava of Sangamagrama and his successors at the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics used geometric methods to derive large sum approximations for sine, cosin, and arttangent. They found a number of special cases of series later derived by Brook Taylor series. They also found the second-order Taylor approximations for these functions, and the third-order Taylor approximation for sine.
- Law of signs in multiplication: The earliest use of notation for negative numbers, as subtrahend, is credited by scholars to the Chinese, dating back to the 2nd century BC. Like the Chinese, the Indians used negative numbers as subtrahend, but were the first to establish the "law of signs" with regards to the multiplication of positive and negative numbers, which did not appear in Chinese texts until 1299. Indian mathematicians were aware of negative numbers by the 7th century, and their role in mathematical problems of debt was understood. Mostly consistent and correct rules for working with negative numbers were formulated, and the diffusion of these rules led the Arab intermediaries to pass it on to Europe.
- Pell's equation, integral solution for: About a thousand years before Pell's time, Indian scholar Brahmagupta (598–668 CE) was able to find integral solutions to vargaprakṛiti (Pell's equation): where N is a nonsquare integer, in his Brâhma-sphuṭa-siddhânta treatise.
- Pi, infinite series: The infinite series for π is now attributed to Madhava of Sangamagrama (c. 1340–1425) and his Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics. He made use of the series expansion of to obtain an infinite series expression for π. Their rational approximation of the error for the finite sum of their series are of particular interest. They manipulated the error term to derive a faster converging series for π. They used the improved series to derive a rational expression, for π correct up to eleven decimal places, i.e. .
- Ramanujan theta function, Ramanujan prime, Ramanujan summation, Ramanujan graph and Ramanujan's sum: Discovered by the Indian mathematician Srinivasa Ramanujan in the early 20th century.
- Sign convention: Symbols, signs and mathematical notation were employed in an early form in India by the 6th century when the mathematician-astronomer Aryabhata recommended the use of letters to represent unknown quantities. By the 7th century Brahmagupta had already begun using abbreviations for unknowns, even for multiple unknowns occurring in one complex problem. Brahmagupta also managed to use abbreviations for square roots and cube roots. By the 7th century fractions were written in a manner similar to the modern times, except for the bar separating the numerator and the denominator. A dot symbol for negative numbers was also employed. The Bakhshali Manuscript displays a cross, much like the modern '+' sign, except that it symbolized subtraction when written just after the number affected. The '=' sign for equality did not exist. Indian mathematics was transmitted to the Islamic world where this notation was seldom accepted initially and the scribes continued to write mathematics in full and without symbols.
- Trigonometric functions, adapted from Greek: The trigonometric functions sine and versine were adapted from the full-chord Greek version (to the modern half-chord versions) by the Indian mathematician, Aryabhata, in the late 5th century.
- Ayurvedic and Siddha medicine: Ayurveda and Siddha are ancient and traditional systems of medicine. Ayurveda dates back to Iron Age India (1st millennium BC) and still practiced today as a form of complementary and alternative medicine. It means "knowledge for longevity". Siddha medicine is mostly prevalent in South India. Herbs and minerals are basic raw materials of the Siddha system.
- Cataract surgery: Cataract surgery was known to the Indian physician Sushruta (6th century BCE). In India, cataract surgery was performed with a special tool called the Jabamukhi Salaka, a curved needle used to loosen the lens and push the cataract out of the field of vision. The eye would later be soaked with warm butter and then bandaged. Though this method was successful, Susruta cautioned that cataract surgery should only be performed when absolutely necessary. Greek philosophers and scientists traveled to India where these surgeries were performed by physicians. The removal of cataract by surgery was also introduced into China from India.
- Leprosy: Kearns & Nash (2008) state that the first mention of leprosy is described in the Indian medical treatise Sushruta Samhita (6th century BCE). However, The Oxford Illustrated Companion to Medicine holds that the mention of leprosy, as well as ritualistic cures for it, were described in the Atharva-veda (1500–1200 BCE), written before the Sushruta Samhita.
- Plastic surgery: Plastic surgery was being carried out in India by 2000 BCE. The system of punishment by deforming a miscreant's body may have led to an increase in demand for this practice. The surgeon Sushruta contributed mainly to the field of Plastic and Cataract surgery. The medical works of both Sushruta and Charak were translated into Arabic language during the Abbasid Caliphate (750 CE). These translated Arabic works made their way into Europe via intermediaries. In Italy the Branca family of Sicily and Gaspare Tagliacozzi of Bologna became familiar with the techniques of Sushruta.
- Lithiasis treatment: The earliest operation for treating lithiasis, or the formations of stones in the body, is also given in the Sushruta Samhita (6th century BCE). The operation involved exposure and going up through the floor of the bladder.
- Visceral leishmaniasis, treatment of: The Indian (Bengali) medical practitioner Upendra Nath Brahmachari (19 December 1873 – 6 February 1946) was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1929 for his discovery of 'ureastibamine (antimonial compound for treatment of kala azar) and a new disease, post-kalaazar dermal leishmanoid.' Brahmachari's cure for Visceral leishmaniasis was the urea salt of para-amino-phenyl stibnic acid which he called Urea Stibamine. Following the discovery of Urea Stibamine, Visceral leishmaniasis was largely eradicated from the world, except for some underdeveloped regions.
- Diamond, mining, engraving, and use as tool: Diamonds were first recognized and mined in central India, where significant alluvial deposits of the stone could then be found along the rivers Penner, Krishna and Godavari. It is unclear when diamonds were first mined in India, although estimated to be at least 5,000 years ago. India remained the world's only source of diamonds until the discovery of diamonds in Brazil in 18th century. Golconda served as an important centre for diamonds in central India. Diamonds then were exported to other parts of the world, including Europe. Early references to diamonds in India come from Sanskrit texts. The Arthashastra of Kautilya mentions diamond trade in India. Buddhist works dating from the 4th century BCE mention it as a well-known and precious stone but don't mention the details of diamond cutting. Another Indian description written at the beginning of the 3rd century describes strength, regularity, brilliance, ability to scratch metals, and good refractive properties as the desirable qualities of a diamond. A Chinese work from the 3rd century BCE mentions: "Foreigners wear it [diamond] in the belief that it can ward off evil influences". The Chinese, who did not find diamonds in their country, initially used diamonds as a "jade cutting knife" instead of as a jewel.
- Zinc, mining and medicinal use: Zinc was first smelted from zinc ore in India. Zinc mines of Zawar, near Udaipur, Rajasthan, were active during early Christian era. There are references of medicinal uses of zinc in the Charaka Samhita (300 BCE). The Rasaratna Samuccaya which dates back to the Tantric period (c. 5th - 13th century CE) explains the existence of two types of ores for zinc metal, one of which is ideal for metal extraction while the other is used for medicinal purpose.
- Ammonium nitrite, synthesis in pure form: Prafulla Chandra Roy synthesized NH4NO2 in its pure form, and became the first scientist to have done so. Prior to Ray’s synthesis of Ammonium nitrite it was thought that the compound undergoes rapid thermal decomposition releasing nitrogen and water in the process.
- Ashtekar variables: In theoretical physics, Ashtekar (new) variables, named after Abhay Ashtekar who invented them, represent an unusual way to rewrite the metric on the three-dimensional spatial slices in terms of a SU(2) gauge field and its complementary variable. Ashtekar variables are the key building block of loop quantum gravity.
- Bhatnagar-Mathur Magnetic Interference Balance: Invented jointly by Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar and K.N. Mathur in 1928, the so-called 'Bhatnagar-Mathur Magnetic Interference Balance' was a modern instrument used for measuring various magnetic properties. The first appearance of this instrument in Europe was at a Royal Society exhibition in London, where it was later marketed by British firm Messers Adam Hilger and Co, London.
- Bhabha scattering: In 1935, Indian nuclear physicist Homi J. Bhabha published a paper in the Proceedings of the Royal Society, Series A, in which he performed the first calculation to determine the cross section of electron-positron scattering. Electron-positron scattering was later named Bhabha scattering, in honor of his contributions in the field.
- Bose–Einstein statistics, condensate and Boson: On 4 June 1924 the Bengali professor of Physics Satyendra Nath Bose mailed a short manuscript to Albert Einstein entitled Planck's Law and the Light Quantum Hypothesis seeking Einstein's influence to get it published after it was rejected by the prestigious journal Philosophical Magazine. The paper introduced what is today called Bose statistics, which showed how it could be used to derive the Planck blackbody spectrum from the assumption that light was made of photons. Einstein, recognizing the importance of the paper translated it into German himself and submitted it on Bose's behalf to the prestigious Zeitschrift für Physik. Einstein later applied Bose's principles on particles with mass and quickly predicted the Bose-Einstein condensate.
- Chandrasekhar limit and Chandrasekhar number: Discovered by and named after Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, who received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1983 for his work on stellar structure and stellar evolution.
- Galena, applied use in electronics of: Bengali scientist Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose effectively used Galena crystals for constructing radio receivers. The Galena receivers of Bose were used to receive signals consisting of shortwave, white light and ultraviolet light. In 1904 Bose patented the use of Galena Detector which he called Point Contact Diode using Galena.
- Mahalanobis distance: Introduced in 1936 by the Indian (Bengali) statistician Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis (29 June 1893–June 28, 1972), this distance measure, based upon the correlation between variables, is used to identify and analyze differing pattern with respect to one base.
- Mercurous Nitrite: The compound mercurous nitrite was discovered in 1896 by the Bengali chemist Prafulla Chandra Roy, who published his findings in the Journal of Asiatic Society of Bengal. The discovery contributed as a base for significant future research in the field of chemistry.
- Ramachandran plot, Ramachandran map, and Ramachandran angles: The Ramachandran plot and Ramachandran map were developed by Gopalasamudram Narayana Iyer Ramachandran, who published his results in the Journal of Molecular Biology in 1963. He also developed the Ramachandran angles, which serve as a convenient tool for communication, representation, and various kinds of data analysis.
- Raman effect: The Encyclopædia Britannica (2008) reports: "change in the wavelength of light that occurs when a light beam is deflected by molecules. The phenomenon is named for Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman, who discovered it in 1928. When a beam of light traverses a dust-free, transparent sample of a chemical compound, a small fraction of the light emerges in directions other than that of the incident (incoming) beam. Most of this scattered light is of unchanged wavelength. A small part, however, has wavelengths different from that of the incident light; its presence is a result of the Raman effect."
- Raychaudhuri equation: Discovered by the Bengali physicist Amal Kumar Raychaudhuri in 1954. This was a key ingredient of the Penrose-Hawking singularity theorems of general relativity.
- Saha ionization equation: The Saha equation, derived by the Bengali scientist Meghnad Saha (6 October 1893 – 16 February 1956) in 1920, conceptualizes ionizations in context of stellar atmospheres.
- Iron working: Iron works were developed in the Vedic period of India, around the same time as, but independently of, Anatolia and the Caucasus. Archaeological sites in India, such as Malhar, Dadupur, Raja Nala Ka Tila and Lahuradewa in present day Uttar Pradesh show iron implements in the period between 1800 BCE—1200 BCE. Early iron objects found in India can be dated to 1400 BCE by employing the method of radiocarbon dating. Spikes, knives, daggers, arrow-heads, bowls, spoons, saucepans, axes, chisels, tongs, door fittings etc. ranging from 600 BCE to 200 BCE have been discovered from several archaeological sites of India. Some scholars believe that by the early 13th century BC, iron smelting was practiced on a bigger scale in India, suggesting that the date the technology's inception may be placed earlier. In Southern India (present day Mysore) iron appeared as early as 11th to 12th centuries BC; these developments were too early for any significant close contact with the northwest of the country. In the time of Chandragupta II Vikramaditya (375–413 CE), corrosion-resistant iron was used to erect the Iron pillar of Delhi, which has withstood corrosion for over 1,600 years.
- Hesse, Rayner W. & Hesse (Jr.), Rayner W. (2007). Jewelrymaking Through History: An Encyclopedia. Greenwood Publishing Group. 35. ISBN 0-313-33507-9.
- McNeil, Ian (1990). An encyclopaedia of the history of technology. Taylor & Francis. 852. ISBN 0-415-01306-2.
- Encyclopædia Britannica (2008). calico
- Baber (1996), page 57
- Murray (1913)
- Forbes (1860)
- Jones, William (1807). "On the Indian Game of Chess". pages 323-333
- Linde, Antonius (1981)
- Wilkinson, Charles K (May 1943)
- Bird (1893), page 63
- Hooper & Whyld (1992), page 74
- Sapra, Rahul (2000). "Sports in India". Students' Britannica India (Vol. 6). Mumbai: Popular Prakashan. p. 106. ISBN 0-85229-762-9.
- Meri (2005), page 148
- Basham (2001), page 208
- Encyclopædia Britannica (2002). Chess: Ancient precursors and related games.
- Encyclopædia Britannica (2007). Chess: Introduction to Europe.
- Encyclopædia Britannica (2008). chintz
- Hāṇḍā (1998), page 133
- Bondyopadhyay (1988)
- Angela Lakwete: Inventing the Cotton Gin: Machine and Myth in Antebellum America, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003, ISBN 0-8018-7394-0, p. 5
- Baber (1996), page 56
- "Jagadis Bose Research on Measurement of Plant Growth". Retrieved 2008-08-05.
- Geddes, pages 173-176
- G. Juleff, "An ancient wind powered iron smelting technology in Sri Lanka", Nature 379 (3), 60–63 (January, 1996)
- Srinivasan & Ranganathan
- Srinivasan 1994
- Srinivasan & Griffiths
- Indian Journal of History & Science,34(4),1999 (through "Digital Library of India")
- "A great past in bright colours". Frontline (India). 8 October 2010.
- Boyle, Alan (15 April 2013). "4,500-year-old harbor structures and papyrus texts unearthed in Egypt". NBC.
- Marouard, Gregory; Tallet, Pierre (2012). "Wadi al-Jarf - An early pharaonic harbour on the Red Sea coast". Egyptian Archaeology 40: 40–43. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
- Rao, pages 27–28
- "Gujarat built world's first naval dockyard". Times of India (Ahmedabad,India). 25 February 2010.
- Rao, pages 28–29
- Schafer (1963), pages 160-161
- Bedini (1994), pages 69–80
- Bedini (1994), page 25
- Seiwert (2003), page 96
- Kumar, Yukteshwar (2005), page 65
- Gottsegen, page 30.
- Smith, J. A. (1992), page 23
- "India ink", Encyclopædia Britannica, 2008
- Banerji, page 673
- Sircar, page 206
- Sircar, page 62
- Sircar, page 67
- Todd, Jan (1995). From Milo to Milo: A History of Barbells, Dumbells, and Indian Clubs. Accessed in September 2008. Hosted on the LA84 Foundation Sports Library.
- Alter, page 88
- MSN Encarta (2008). Pachisi.
- Stephen M. Edwardes and Herbert Garrett; Mughal rule in India, Atlantic Publishers & Distributors, 1995, 374 pages ISBN 81-7156-551-4, ISBN 978-81-7156-551-1 From p.288: Pachisi, an ancient Hindu game represented in the caves of Ajanta, is said to have been played by Akbar on the marble squares of a quadrangle in [[Agra fort]] and in the Khas Mahal at Fatehpur Sikri, with young slave girls in place of the coloured pieces.
- Muslin, Banglapedia. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh (2008)
- Ahmad, S. (July–September 2005). "Rise and Decline of the Economy of Bengal". Asian Affairs 27 (3): 5–26.
- Roddam Narasimha (1985), Rockets in Mysore and Britain, 1750–1850 A.D., National Aeronautical Laboratory and Indian Institute of Science
- "Hyder Ali, prince of Mysore, developed war rockets with an important change: the use of metal cylinders to contain the combustion powder. Although the hammered soft iron he used was crude, the bursting strength of the container of black powder was much higher than the earlier paper construction. Thus a greater internal pressure was possible, with a resultant greater thrust of the propulsive jet. The rocket body was lashed with leather thongs to a long bamboo stick. Range was perhaps up to three-quarters of a mile (more than a kilometre). Although individually these rockets were not accurate, dispersion error became less important when large numbers were fired rapidly in mass attacks. They were particularly effective against cavalry and were hurled into the air, after lighting, or skimmed along the hard dry ground. Hyder Ali's son, Tippu Sultan, continued to develop and expand the use of rocket weapons, reportedly increasing the number of rocket troops from 1,200 to a corps of 5,000. In battles at Seringapatam in 1792 and 1799 these rockets were used with considerable effect against the British." - Encyclopædia Britannica (2008). rocket and missile.
- Encyclopædia Britannica (2008). interior design
- Encyclopædia Britannica (2008). crewel work
- Encyclopædia Britannica (2008). quilting
- Barker, page 13
- Beer, page 60
- Wise, page 11-12
- Irfan Habib (1992), "Akbar and Technology", Social Scientist 20 (9-10): 3-15 [3-4]
- Whitelaw, page 14
- Whitelaw, page 15
- Iwata, 2254
- Kamarustafa (1992), page 48
- Savage-Smith, Emilie (1985). Islamicate Celestial Globes: Their history, Construction, and Use. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
- Augustyn, pages 27–28
- Livingston & Beach, 20
- Livingston & Beach, page xxiii
- Encyclopædia Britannica (2008). Pagoda.
- Chamberlin (2007), page 80
- Hobson (2004), page 103
- Woods & Woods (2000), pages 52–53
- "16.17.4: Stirrups". Encyclopaedia of Indian Archaeology (Vol. 1). Edited by Amalananda Ghosh (1990). page 336
- Azzaroli (1985), page 156
- Addington (1990), page 45
- Barua (2005), pages 16–17
- James McManus (27 October 2009). Cowboys Full: The Story of Poker. Macmillan. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-374-29924-8.
- Carlisle, Rodney (2009), Encyclopedia of Play in Today's Society, SAGE Publications, p. 31, ISBN 978-1-4129-6670-2
- Quackenbos (2010), Illustrated History of Ancient Literature, Oriental and Classical, READ BOOKS, p. 60, ISBN 978-1-4455-7978-8
- Kapoor, Subodh (2002), The Indian encyclopaedia: biographical, historical, religious, administrative, ethnological, commercial and scientific - Vol 6, Genesis Publishing Pvt Ltd, p. 1786, ISBN 978-81-7755-257-7
- Townsend, George (1862), The manual of dates: a dictionary of reference to all the most important events in the history of mankind to be found in authentic records, Routledge, Warne, & Routledge, p. 184
- Needham, Joseph (2004). Science & Civilisation in China V:1. Cambridge University Press. pp. 131–132. ISBN 0-521-05802-3.
- David G. Schwartz (5 October 2006). Roll the bones: the history of gambling. Gotham Books. ISBN 978-1-59240-208-3.
- Encyclopædia Britannica (2008). cashmere.
- Encyclopædia Britannica (2008). kashmir shawl.
- Stein (1998), page 47
- Wisseman & Williams (1994), page 127
- The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. cotton.
- Kriger & Connah (2006), page 120
- Encyclopædia Britannica (2008). jute.
- Kenneth F.Kiple & Kriemhild Conee Ornelas. "World history of Food - Sugar". Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 9 January 2012.
- Adas (2001), page 311
- Kieschnick (2003)
- Kieschnick (2003), page 258
- Crandall & Pomerance (2005), pages 200-201
- Weisstein, Eric W., "AKS Primality Test", MathWorld.
- Crandall & Papadopoulos (2003), page 2
- Bell (1992), page 96
- Nitis (2000), page 325
- Boos & Oliver (1998)
- Plofker (2007), pages 419 - 436
- Joseph (2000), page 306
- Kala Fischbein, Tammy Brooks. "Brahmagupta's Formula". University of Georgia. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
- Weisstein, Eric W. "Brahmagupta Matrix". Mathworld. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
- "Bhaskaracharya II". Students’ Encyclopedia India (2000). (Volume 1: Adb Allah ibn al Abbas – Cypress). p. 200. ISBN 0-85229-760-2
- Kumar (2004), page 23
- Singh, Manpal (2005), page 385
- Plofker (2007), page 474
- Goonatilake (1998), page 127 – 128
- Baber (1996), page 34
- Rao K. A. (2000), page 252
- Nils-Bertil Wallin (19 November 2002). "The History of Zero". Yale Center for the Study of Globalization. Retrieved 26 December 2011.
- Dr. Hossein Arsham. "Zero in Four Dimensions". University of Baltimore. Retrieved 26 December 2011.
- Bressoud (2002)
- Plofker (2001)
- Katz (1995)
- Smith (1958), page 257
- Bourbaki (1998), page 49
- Britannica Concise Encyclopedia (2007). algebra
- Puttaswamy (2000), page 416
- Stillwell (2004), pages 72–73
- Goonatilake (1998), page 37
- Amma (1999), pages 182 - 183
- Roy (1990)
- Borwein (2004), page 107
- Plofker (2007), page 481
- Berndt & Rankin (2001)
- Bell (1992), page 97
- Pingree (2003):
"Geometry, and its branch trigonometry, was the mathematics Indian astronomers used most frequently. In fact, the Indian astronomers in the third or fourth century, using a pre-Ptolemaic Greek table of chords, produced tables of sines and versines, from which it was trivial to derive cosines. This new system of trigonometry, produced in India, was transmitted to the Arabs in the late eighth century and by them, in an expanded form, to the Latin West and the Byzantine East in the twelfth century."
- J. J. O'Connor and E.F. Robertson (1996). Trigonometric functions. MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive
- Chopra 2003, p. 75
- "Herbs used in Siddha medicine for arthritis - A review". Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge. October 2007. Retrieved 10 November 2011.
- "Siddha - Introduction and Origin". Department of Ayush, Government of India. Retrieved 10 November 2011.
- Finger (2001), page 66
- Lade & Svoboda (2000), page 85
- Kearns & Nash (2008)
- Lock; Last & Dunea (2001), page 420
- MSN Encarta (2008). Plastic Surgery.
- Dwivedi & Dwivedi 2007
- Lock etc., page 607
- Lock; Last & Dunea (2001), page 836
- Nobel Foundation (2008). The Nomination Database for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1901–1951
- Upendra Nath Brahmachari: A Pioneer of Modern Medicine in India. Vigyan Prasar: Government of India
- Dickinson, pages 1–3
- Hershey (2004), page 22
- Malkin (1996), page 12
- Hershey (2004), pages 3 & 23
- Thomas (2007), page 46
- Read (2005), page 17
- Lee, page 685
- Wenk, pages 535-539
- MSN Encarta (2007). Diamond. Archived 2009-11-01.
- "Zinc-Fact sheet". Australian mines. Retrieved 4 November 2011.
- Srinivasan, Ranganathan. "Mettalurgical heritage of India". Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel. Retrieved 4 November 2011.
- Rina Shrivastva (1999). "Smelting furnaces in Ancient India". Indian Journal of History & Science,34(1), Digital Library of India. Retrieved 4 November 2011.
- Craddock (1983)
- Biswas (1986), page 11
- "Acharya Prafulla Chandra Ray", Viyan Prasar, Department of Science and Technology, Government of India.
- Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar. Vigyan Prasar: Government of India.
- Penney (1967), page 39
- Rigden (2005), pages 143-144
- Fraser (2006), page 238
- Dauxois & Peyrard (2006), pages 297-298
- O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F. (February 2005), "Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews.
- "Indian Scientists" (November 2004), Science Popularisation and Public Outreach Committee, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research.
- Sarkar (2006), page 94
- Taguchi & Jugulum (2002), pages 6–7
- Ramakrishnan (2001)
- "Raman effect".Encyclopædia Britannica (2008)
- Naresh (2005)
- Narlikar (2002), page 188
- The origins of Iron Working in India: New evidence from the Central Ganga plain and the Eastern Vindhyas by Rakesh Tewari (Director, U.P. State Archaeological Department)
- Marco Ceccarelli (2000). International Symposium on History of Machines and Mechanisms: Proceedings HMM Symposium. Springer. ISBN 0-7923-6372-8. pp 218
- I. M. Drakonoff (1991). Early Antiquity. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-14465-8. pp 372
- R. Balasubramaniam (2000), On the Corrosion Resistance of the Delhi Iron Pillar, Corrosion Science 42: 2103-29
- Adas, Michael (January 2001). Agricultural and Pastoral Societies in Ancient and Classical History. Temple University Press. ISBN 1-56639-832-0.
- Addington, Larry H. (1990). The Patterns of War Through the Eighteenth Century (Illustrated edition). Indiana: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-20551-4.
- Alter, J. S. in "Kabaddi, a national sport of India". Dyck, Noel (2000). Games, Sports and Cultures. Berg Publishers: ISBN 1-85973-317-4.
- Amma, T. A. Sarasvati (1999) . Geometry in Ancient and Medieval India. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publication. ISBN 81-208-1344-8.
- Arensberg, Conrad M. & Niehoff, Arthur H. (1971). Introducing Social Change: A Manual for Community Development (second edition). New Jersey: Aldine Transaction. ISBN 0-202-01072-4
- Augustyn, Frederick J. (2004). Dictionary of toys and games in American popular culture. Haworth Press. ISBN 0-7890-1504-8.
- Azzaroli, Augusto (1985). An Early History of Horsemanship. Massachusetts: Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 90-04-07233-0.
- Baber, Zaheer (1996). The Science of Empire: Scientific Knowledge, Civilization, and Colonial Rule in India. State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-7914-2919-9.
- Bag, A. K. (2005). "Fathullah Shirazi: Cannon, Multi-barrel Gun and Yarghu", Indian Journal of History of Science 40 (3): 431-6.
- Balasubramaniam, R. (2002). Delhi Iron Pillar: New Insights. Delhi: Indian Institute of Advanced Studies [University of Michigan]. ISBN 81-7305-223-9.
- Banerji, Sures Chandra (1989). A Companion to Sanskrit Literature. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-0063-X.
- Barker, Dian (2003). Tibetan Prayer Flags. Connections Book Publishing. ISBN 1-85906-106-0.
- Barua, Pradeep (2005). The State at War in South Asia. Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-1344-1.
- Basham, A. L. (2001) . The Wonder That was India. Third revised edition. New Delhi: Rupa & co. ISBN 0-283-99257-3.
- Bedini, Silvio A. (1994). The Trail of Time : Time Measurement with Incense in East Asia. England: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-37482-0.
- Bell, Eric Temple (1992). The Development of Mathematics (originally published in 1945). Courier Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-27239-7.
- Bell, John (2000). Strings, Hands, Shadows: A Modern Puppet History. Wayne State University Press. ISBN 0-89558-156-6.
- Beer, Robert (2004). Encyclopedia of Tibetan Symbols and Motifs. Serindia Publications Inc. ISBN 1-932476-10-5.
- Bird, Henry Edward (1893). Chess History and Reminiscences. London. (Republished version by Forgotten Books). ISBN 1-60620-897-7.
- Berndt, Bruce C.; Rankin, Robert Alexander (2001). Ramanujan: Essays and Surveys. Rhode Island: American Mathematical Society. ISBN 0-8218-2624-7.
- Biswas, Arun Kumar (June 1986). "Rasa-Ratna-Samuccaya and Mineral Processing State-of-Art in the 13th Century A.D. India". Indian Journal of History of Science. 22 (1) (29-46, 1987). Retrieved 2009-01-09.
- Blechynden, Kathleen (1905). Calcutta, Past and Present. Los Angeles: University of California.
- Bondyopadhyay, Probir K (1988). "Sir J. C. Bose's Diode Detector Received Marconi's First Transatlantic Wireless Signal Of December 1901 (The "Italian Navy Coherer" Scandal Revisited)". Proc. IEEE, Vol. 86, No. 1, January 1988.
- Boga, Steven (1996). Badminton. Pennsylvania: Stackpole Books. ISBN 0-8117-2487-5
- Boos, Dennis D.; Oliver, Jacqueline M. Hughes (1998 Aug). "Applications of Basu's Theorem". The American Statistician (Boston: American Statistical Association) 52 (3): 218–221. doi:10.2307/2685927. JSTOR 2685927.
- Borwein, Jonathan M. & Bailey, David H. (2004) Mathematics by Experiment: Plausible Reasoning in the 21st Century Massachusetts: A K Peters, Ltd. ISBN 1-56881-211-6
- Bourbaki, Nicolas (1998). Elements of the History of Mathematics. Berlin, Heidelberg, and New York: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 3-540-64767-8.
- Bressoud, David (2002), "Was Calculus Invented in India?", The College Mathematics Journal (Mathematical Association of America) 33 (1): 2-13
- Broadbent, T. A. A. (October 1968). "Reviewed work(s): The History of Ancient Indian Mathematics by C. N. Srinivasiengar". The Mathematical Gazette 52 (381): 307–8. doi:10.2307/3614212.
- Brown, W. Norman (1964). "The Indian Games of Pachisi, Chaupar, and Chausar". Expedition, 32-35. University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. 32 (35).
- Chamberlin, J. Edward (2007). Horse: How the Horse Has Shaped Civilizations. Moscow: Olma Media Group. ISBN 1-904955-36-3.
- Chandra, Anjana Motihar (2007). India Condensed: 5000 Years of History & Culture Marshall Cavendish. ISBN 981-261-350-1
- Chopra, Ananda S. (2003). "Āyurveda". In Selin, Helaine. Medicine Across Cultures: History and Practice of Medicine in Non-Western Cultures. Norwell, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 75–83. ISBN 1-4020-1166-0.
- Dwivedi, Girish; Dwivedi, Shridhar (2007). "History of Medicine: Sushruta – the Clinician – Teacher par Excellence". Indian Journal of Chest Diseases and Allied Sciences (Delhi, India: Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Institute, U. of Delhi / National College of Chest Physicians) 49: 243–244. (Republished by National Informatics Centre, Government of India.)
- Cooke, Roger (2005). The History of Mathematics: A Brief Course. New York: Wiley-Interscience. ISBN 0-471-44459-6.
- Connors, Martin; Dupuis, Diane L. & Morgan, Brad (1992). The Olympics Factbook: A Spectator's Guide to the Winter and Summer Games. Michigan: Visible Ink Press. ISBN 0-8103-9417-0
- Coppa, A. et al. 2006. "Early Neolithic tradition of dentistry". Nature. Volume 440. 6 April 2006.
- Craddock, P.T. et al. (1983). Zinc production in medieval India, World Archaeology, vol. 15, no. 2, Industrial Archaeology.
- Crandall, R. & Papadopoulos, J. (18 March 2003). "On the Implementation of AKS-Class Primality Tests"
- Crandall, Richard E. & Pomerance, Carl (2005). Prime Numbers: A Computational Perspective (second edition). New York: Springer. ISBN 0-387-25282-7.
- Dadhich, Naresh (August 2005). "Amal Kumar Raychaudhuri (1923–2005)" (PDF). Current Science 89 (3): 569–570.</ref>
- Dales, George (1974). "Excavations at Balakot, Pakistan, 1973". Journal of Field Archaeology 1 (1-2): 3–22 . doi:10.2307/529703. JSTOR 529703.
- Daryaee, Touraj (2006) in "Backgammon" in Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia ed. Meri, Josef W. & Bacharach, Jere L, pp. 88–89. Taylor & Francis.
- Dauxois, Thierry & Peyrard, Michel (2006). Physics of Solitons. England: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-85421-0.
- Davreu, Robert (1978). "Cities of Mystery: The Lost Empire of the Indus Valley". The World’s Last Mysteries. (second edition). Sydney: Readers’ Digest. ISBN 0-909486-61-1
- Dickinson, Joan Y. (2001). The Book of Diamonds. Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-41816-2.
- Drewes, F. (2006). Grammatical Picture Generation: A Tree-based Approach. New York: Springer. ISBN 3-540-21304-X
- Durant, Will (1935). Our Oriental Heritage. New York: Simon and Schuster.
- Dutfield, Graham (2003). Intellectual Property Rights and the Life Science Industries: A Twentieth Century History. Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 0-7546-2111-1.
- Dwivedi, Girish & Dwivedi, Shridhar (2007). History of Medicine: Sushruta – the Clinician – Teacher par Excellence. National Informatics Centre (Government of India).
- Encyclopedia of Indian Archaeology (Volume 1). Edited by Amalananda Ghosh (1990). Massachusetts: Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 90-04-09264-1.
- Emerson, D.T. (1998).The Work of Jagdish Chandra Bose: 100 years of mm-wave research.National Radio Astronomy Observatory.
- Emsley, John (2003). Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. England: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-850340-7.
- Finger, Stanley (2001). Origins of Neuroscience: A History of Explorations Into Brain Function. England: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-514694-8.
- Flegg, Graham (2002). Numbers: Their History and Meaning. Courier Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-42165-1.
- Forbes, Duncan (1860). The History of Chess: From the Time of the Early Invention of the Game in India Till the Period of Its Establishment in Western and Central Europe. London: W. H. Allen & co.
- Fowler, David (1996). Binomial Coefficient Function. The American Mathematical Monthly 103(1): 1-17.
- Fraser, Gordon (2006). The New Physics for the Twenty-first Century. England: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-81600-9.
- Gangopadhyaya, Mrinalkanti (1980). Indian Atomism: history and sources. New Jersey: Humanities Press. ISBN 0-391-02177-X.
- Geddes, Patrick (2000). The life and work of Sir Jagadis C. Bose. Asian Educational Services. ISBN 81-206-1457-7.
- Geyer, H. S. (2006), Global Regionalization: Core Peripheral Trends. England: Edward Elgar Publishing. ISBN 1-84376-905-0.
- Ghosh, Amalananda (1990). An Encyclopaedia of Indian Archaeology. Brill. ISBN 90-04-09264-1.
- Ghosh, S.; Massey, Reginald; and Banerjee, Utpal Kumar (2006). Indian Puppets: Past, Present and Future. Abhinav Publications. ISBN 81-7017-435-X.
- Gottsegen, Mark E. (2006). The Painter's Handbook: A Complete Reference. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications. ISBN 0-8230-3496-8.
- Goonatilake, Susantha (1998). Toward a Global Science: Mining Civilizational Knowledge. Indiana: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-33388-1.
- Guillain, Jean-Yves (2004). Badminton: An Illustrated History. Paris: Editions Publibook ISBN 2-7483-0572-8
- Hāṇḍā, Omacanda (1998). Textiles, Costumes, and Ornaments of the Western Himalaya. Indus Publishing. ISBN 81-7387-076-4.
- Hayashi, Takao (2005). Indian Mathematics in Flood, Gavin, The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism, Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 616 pages, pp. 360–375, 360-375, ISBN 978-1-4051-3251-0.
- Hershey, J. Willard (2004). The Book of Diamonds: Their Curious Lore, Properties, Tests and Synthetic Manufacture 1940 Montana: Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 1-4179-7715-9
- Hobson, John M. (2004). The Eastern Origins of Western Civilisation (Illustrated edition). England: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-54724-5.
- Hoiberg, Dale & Ramchandani, Indu (2000). Students' Britannica India. Mumbai: Popular Prakashan. ISBN 0-85229-760-2
- Hooper, David Vincent; Whyld, Kenneth (1992). The Oxford Companion to Chess. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-866164-9.
- Hoover, Herbert Clark (2003). Georgius Agricola De Re Metallica Montana: Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 0-7661-3197-1.
- Hopkins, Donald R. (2002). The Greatest Killer: Smallpox in history. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-35168-8.
- Ifrah, Georges (2000). A Universal History of Numbers: From Prehistory to Computers. New York: Wiley. ISBN 0-471-39340-1.
- Ingerman, P. Z. (1967). "Panini-Backus form suggested". Communications of the ACM. 10 (3): 137
- Iwata, Shigeo (2008), "Weights and Measures in the Indus Valley", Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures (2nd edition) edited by Helaine Selin, Springer, 2254–2255, ISBN 978-1-4020-4559-2.
- James, Jeffrey (2003). Bridging the Global Digital Divide. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing. ISBN 1-84376-206-4.
- Jones, William (1807). The Works of Sir William Jones (Volume 4). London.
- Joseph, George Gheverghese (2000). The Crest of the Peacock: The Non-European Roots of Mathematics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-00659-8.
- Jr., Lynn Townsend White (April 1960). "Tibet, India, and Malaya as Sources of Western Medieval Technology", The American Historical Review. 65 (3): 522-526.
- Juleff, G. (1996). An ancient wind powered iron smelting technology in Sri Lanka. Nature 379 (3): 60–63.
- Kamarustafa, Ahmet T. (1992). "Part 1 No. 1: Islamic Cartography 1". Cartography in the Traditional Islamic and South Asian Societies. Vol. 2 Book 1. New York: Oxford University Press US. ISBN 0-226-31635-1
- Katz, V. J. (1995), "Ideas of Calculus in Islam and India". Mathematics Magazine (Mathematical Association of America) 68 (3): 163-174.
- Kearns, Susannah C.J. & Nash, June E. (2008). leprosy. Encyclopædia Britannica.
- Kieschnick, John (2003). The Impact of Buddhism on Chinese Material Culture. New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-09676-7.
- Kipfer, Barbara Ann (2000). Encyclopedic Dictionary of Archaeology. (Illustrated edition). New York: Springer. ISBN 306461587.
- Koppel, Tom (2007). Ebb and Flow: Tides and Life on Our Once and Future Planet. Dundurn Press Ltd. ISBN 1-55002-726-3.
- Kriger, Colleen E. & Connah, Graham (2006). Cloth in West African History. Rowman Altamira. ISBN 0-7591-0422-0.
- Kumar, Narendra (2004). Science in Ancient India. Delhi: Anmol Publications Pvt Ltd. ISBN 81-261-2056-8
- Kumar, Yukteshwar (2005). A History of Sino-Indian Relations: 1st Century A.D. to 7th Century A.D. New Delhi: APH Publishing. ISBN 81-7648-798-8.
- Lade, Arnie & Svoboda, Robert (2000). Chinese Medicine and Ayurveda. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-1472-X.
- Lee, Sunggyu (2006). Encyclopedia of Chemical Processing. CRC Press. ISBN 0-8247-5563-4.
- Linde, Antonius van der (1981)  (in German). Geschichte und Literatur des Schachspiels. Zürich: Edition Olms. ISBN 3-283-00079-4
- Livingston, Morna & Beach, Milo (2002). Steps to Water: The Ancient Stepwells of India. Princeton Architectural Press. ISBN 1-56898-324-7.
- Lock, Stephen; Last, John M.; Dunea, George (2001). The Oxford Illustrated Companion to Medicine. USA: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-262950-6.
- Lowie, Robert H. (2007) . An Introduction To Cultural Anthropology. Masterson Press. ISBN 1-4067-1765-7.
- Malkin, Stephen (1996). Grinding Technology: Theory and Applications of Machining with Abrasives. Michigan: Society of Manufacturing Engineers. ISBN 0-87263-480-9.
- McEvilley, Thomas (2002). The Shape of Ancient Thought: Comparative Studies in Greek and Indian Philosophies. New York: Allworth Communications Inc. ISBN 1-58115-203-5.
- McIntosh, Jane (2007). The Ancient Indus Valley: New Perspectives. Illustrated edition. California: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1-57607-907-4.
- Meri, Josef W. (2005). Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-96690-6.
- Millar, Stuart (2004). "Using Technology: Handheld PC Bridges Digital Divide". World in Motion: Future, Science and Technology. Denmark: Systime. pp. 167–169. ISBN 87-616-0887-4
- Murray, Harold James R. (1913). A History of Chess. England: Oxford University Press.
- Narlikar, J. V. (2002). An Introduction to Cosmology. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-79376-9.
- Nejat, Karen Rhea Nemet. (1998). Daily Life in Ancient Mesopotamia. Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-313-29497-6.
- Nitis, Mukhopadhyay (2000). Probability and Statistical Inference. Statistics: A Series of Textbooks and Monographs. 162. Florida: CRC Press USA. ISBN 0-8247-0379-0.
- Pacey, Arnold (1991). Technology in World Civilization: A Thousand-year History. MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-66072-5.
- Penney, Lord (November 1967). "Homi Jehangir Bhabha. 1909–1966". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society (London: Royal Society) 13: 35–55. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1967.0002. JSTOR 769371.
- Piercey, W. Douglas & Scarborough, Harold (2008). hospital. Encyclopædia Britannica.
- Pingree, David (2003). "The logic of non-Western science: mathematical discoveries in medieval India". Daedalus 132 (4): 45–54. doi:10.1162/001152603771338779.
- Plofker, Kim (2001). "The "Error" in the Indian "Taylor Series Approximation" to the Sine". Historia Mathematica 28 (4): 283–295. doi:10.1006/hmat.2001.2331.
- Ploker, Kim (2007) "Mathematics in India". The Mathematics of Egypt, Mesopotamia, China, India, and Islam: A Sourcebook New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-11485-4
- Ponomarev, Leonid Ivanovich (1993). The Quantum Dice. CRC Press. ISBN 0-7503-0251-8.
- Possehl, Gregory L. (2002). The Indus Civilization: A Contemporary Perspective. Maryland: Rowman Altamira. ISBN 0-7591-0172-8.
- Prathap, Gangan (March 2004). "Indian science slows down: The decline of open-ended research". Current Science 86 (6): 768–769.
- Pruthi, Raj (2004). Prehistory and Harappan Civilization. New Delhi: APH Publishing Corp. ISBN 81-7648-581-0.
- Purohit, Vinayak (1988). Arts of Transitional India Twentieth Century. Mumbai: Popular Prakashan. ISBN 0-86132-138-3
- Puttaswamy, T. K. (2000), "The Mathematical Accomplishments of Ancient Indian Mathematicians". Mathematics Across Cultures: The History of Non-western Mathematics. New York: Springer Publishing. ISBN 0-7923-6481-3
- Ramakrishnan, C. (October 2001). "In Memoriam: Professor G.N. Ramachandran (1922–2001)". Protein Science 81 (8): 1127–1128. Retrieved 2009-02-11.
- Rao, S. R. (1985). Lothal. Archaeological Survey of India.
- Rao, K. Anantharama (2000). Vision 21st Century. India: Vidya Publishing House [Michigan: University of Michigan]. ISBN 81-87699-00-0
- Read, Peter G. (2005) Gemmology'. England: Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0-7506-6449-5
- Reynolds, Terry S (1983). Stronger Than a Hundred Men: A History of the Vertical Water Wheel. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-7248-0.
- Rigden, John S. (2005). Einstein 1905: The Standard of Greatness. Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-01544-4.
- Robinson, Dindy & Estes, Rebecca (1996). World Cultures Through Art Activities. New Hampshire: Libraries Unlimited. ISBN 1-56308-271-3.
- Rodda & Ubertini (2004). The Basis of Civilization—water Science?. International Association of Hydrological Science. ISBN 1-901502-57-0.
- Rousselet, Louis (1875). India and Its Native Princes: Travels in Central India and in the Presidencies of Bombay and Bengal. London: Chapman and Hall.
- Roy, Ranjan (1990), "Discovery of the Series Formula for by Leibniz, Gregory, and Nilakantha", Mathematics Magazine (Mathematical Association of America) 63 (5): 291-306
- Saliba, George (1997). "Interfusion of Asian and Western Cultures: Islamic Civilization and Europe to 1500". Asia in Western and World History: A Guide for Teaching. Edited by Ainslie Thomas Embree & Carol Gluck. New York: M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 1-56324-265-6.
- Sanchez & Canton (2006). Microcontroller Programming: The Microchip PIC. CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-7189-9.
- Sarkar, Tapan K. etc. (2006), History of Wireless, Wiley-IEEE, ISBN 0-471-78301-3.
- Schafer, Edward H. (1963). The Golden Peaches of Samarkand: A Study of T'ang Exotics. California: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-05462-8.
- Schwartzberg, Joseph E. (1992). "Part 2: South Asian Cartography: 15. Introduction to South Asian Cartography". The History of Cartography - Cartography in the Traditional Islamic and South Asian Societies (Volume 2 Book 1). Edited by J.B. Harley and David Woodward. New York: Oxford University Press USA. ISBN 0-226-31635-1.
- Seiwert, Hubert Michael (2003). Popular Religious Movements and Heterodox Sects in Chinese History. Massachusetts: Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 90-04-13146-9.
- Shukla, R.P. in "Laser Interferometers for Measuring Refractive Index of Transparent Materials and Testing of Optical Components", Laser Applications in Material Science and Industry. 20-27. Allied Publishers. ISBN 81-7023-658-4.
- Singh, A. N. (1936). On the Use of Series in Hindu Mathematics. Osiris 1: 606-628.
- Singh, Manpal (2005). Modern Teaching of Mathematics. Delhi: Anmol Publications Pvt Ltd. ISBN 81-261-2105-X
- Singh, P. (1985). The So-called Fibonacci numbers in ancient and medieval India. Historia Mathematica 12(3), 229–44.
- Sircar, D.C. (1996).Indian epigraphy. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-1166-6.
- Sivaramakrishnan, V. M. (2001). Tobacco and Areca Nut. Hyderabad: Orient Blackswan. ISBN 81-250-2013-6
- Smith, Joseph A. (1992). The Pen and Ink Book: Materials and Techniques for Today's Artist. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications. ISBN 0-8230-3986-2.
- Smith, David E. (1958). History of Mathematics. Courier Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-20430-8.
- Sreekantan, B. V. (December 2005). "Homi Bhabha and Cosmic Ray Research in India" (PDF). Resonance (Bangalore: Indian Academy of Sciences) 10 (12): 42–51. doi:10.1007/BF02835127.
- Srinivasan, S. & Ranganathan, S. Wootz Steel: An Advanced Material of the Ancient World. Bangalore: Indian Institute of Science.
- Srinivasan,S. Wootz crucible steel: a newly discovered production site in South India. Institute of Archaeology, University College London, 5 (1994), pp. 49–61.
- Srinivasan, S. and Griffiths, D. South Indian wootz: evidence for high-carbon steel from crucibles from a newly identified site and preliminary comparisons with related finds. Material Issues in Art and Archaeology-V, Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings Series Vol. 462.
- Staal, Frits (1999). Greek and Vedic Geometry. Journal of Indian Philosophy, 27(1-2): 105-127.
- Stcherbatsky, Theodore (2003) . Buddhist Logic 1. Montana: Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 0-7661-7684-3.
- Stein, Burton (1998). A History of India. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0-631-20546-2.
- Stepanov, Serguei A. (1999). Codes on Algebraic Curves. Springer. ISBN 0-306-46144-7.
- Stillwell, John (2004). Mathematics and its History (2 ed.). Berlin and New York: Springer. ISBN 0-387-95336-1.
- Taguchi, Genichi & Jugulum, Rajesh (2002). The Mahalanobis-taguchi Strategy: A Pattern Technology System. John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 0-471-02333-7.
- Teresi, Dick; et al. (2002). Lost Discoveries: The Ancient Roots of Modern Science—from the Babylonians to the Maya. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-83718-8.
- Thomas, Arthur (2007) Gemstones: Properties, Identification and Use. London: New Holland Publishers. ISBN 1-84537-602-1
- Thrusfield, Michael (2007). Veterinary Epidemiology. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 1-4051-5627-9.
- Upadhyaya, Bhagwat Saran (1954). The Ancient World. Andhra Pradesh: The Institute of Ancient Studies Hyderabad.
- Varadpande, Manohar Laxman (2005). History of Indian Theatre. New Delhi: Abhinav Publications. ISBN 81-7017-430-9.
- Wenk, Hans-Rudolf; et al. (2003). Minerals: Their Constitution and Origin. England: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-52958-1.
- Whish, Charles (1835). "On the Hindu Quadrature of the Circle, and the infinite Series of the proportion of the circumference to the diameter exhibited in the four shastras: the Tantra Sangraham, Yukti-Bhasa, Carana Padhati, and Sadratnamala". Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland 3: 509–523. doi:10.1017/S0950473700001221.
- White, Lynn Townsend, Jr. (April 1960). "Tibet, India, and Malaya as Sources of Western Medieval Technology", The American Historical Review 65 (3), p. 522-526.
- Whitelaw, Ian (2007). A Measure of All Things: The Story of Man and Measurement. Macmillan. ISBN 0-312-37026-1.
- Wilkinson, Charles K (May 1943). Chessmen and Chess. The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin New Series 1 (9): 271–279. doi:10.2307/3257111.
- Wise, Tad (2002). Blessings on the Wind: The Mystery & Meaning of Tibetan Prayer Flags. Chronicle Books. ISBN 0-8118-3435-2.
- Wisseman, S. U. & Williams, W. S. (1994). Ancient Technologies and Archaeological Materials. London: Routledge. ISBN 2-88124-632-X.
- Woods, Michael & Woods, Mary B. (2000). Ancient Transportation: From Camels to Canals. Minnesota: Twenty-First Century Books. ISBN 0-8225-2993-9.
- Essays on Indian Science and Technology.
- P.K.Ray,SCIENCE,DEVELOPMENT—A CONNECTED PHENOMENA,Everyman’s Science Vol.XLVII No.4,Oct’12—Nov’12.