List of Indian monarchs

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The following list of Indian monarchs is one of several lists of incumbents.[1]

Early mythical and later documented rulers and dynasties who are deemed to have ruled a portion of the Indian subcontinent are included in this list.

Contents

Magadha dynasties (c. 1700 BC – 550 AD)[1][edit]

Brihadratha Dynasty (c. 1700–799 BC)[edit]

  • Trigarta Dynasty
  • Susharma Chand
  • Porus
  • Brihadratha
  • Jarasandha
  • Sahadeva
  • Somapi (1678–1618 BC)
  • Srutasravas (1618–1551 BC)
  • Ayutayus (1551–1515 BC)
  • Niramitra (1515–1415 BC)
  • Sukshatra (1415–1407 BC)
  • Brihatkarman (1407–1384 BC)
  • Senajit (1384–1361 BC)
  • Srutanjaya (1361–1321 BC)
  • Vipra (1321–1296 BC)
  • Suchi (1296–1238 BC)
  • Kshemya (1238–1210 BC)
  • Subrata (1210–1150 BC)
  • Dharma (1150–1145 BC)
  • Susuma (1145–1107 BC)
  • Dridhasena (1107–1059 BC)
  • Sumati (1059–1026 BC)
  • Subhala (1026–1004 BC)
  • Sunita (1004–964 BC)
  • Satyajit (964–884 BC)
  • Biswajit (884–849 BC)
  • Ripunjaya (849–799 BC)

Trigarta (Trigart Raje) Dynasty (? BC–present)[edit]

  • Katoch Clan Kings & Emperors
  • Jaswal Clan Kings & Emperors
  • Guleria Clan Kings & Emperors
  • Sibaia Clan Kings & Emperors
  • Dadwal Clan rulers

Pradyota dynasty (799–684 BC)[edit]

  • Pradyota
  • Palaka
  • Visakhayupa
  • Ajaka
  • Varttivarddhana

Haryanka dynasty/Shishunaga dynasty (684–424 BC)[edit]

  • Bimbisara (544–491 BC), founder of the first Magadhan empire
  • Ajatashatru (491–461 BC)
  • Udayin
  • Anirudha
  • Mund
  • Darshaka (from 461 BC)
  • Nagdashak (last ruler of the Haryanka dynasty)
  • Shishunaga (412–344 BC), established the Magadha Kingdom
  • Kakavarna
  • Kshemadharman
  • Kshatraujas
  • Nandivardhana
  • Mahanandin (until 424 BC), his empire was inherited by his illegitimate son Mahapadma Nanda

Nanda Dynasty (424–321 BC)[edit]

  • Mahapadma Nanda (from 424 BC), illegitimate son of Mahanandin, founded the Nanda Empire after inheriting Mahanandin's empire
  • Pandhukananda
  • Panghupatinanda
  • Bhutapalananda
  • Rashtrapalananada
  • Govishanakananda
  • Dashasidkhakananda
  • Kaivartananda
  • Dhananand (Agrammes, Xandrammes) (until 321 BC), lost his empire to Chandragupta Maurya after being defeated by him.
  • Karvinatha Nand (Illegitimate son of Mahapadna Nanda)

The nine kings were contemporary and brothers, called the Nava Nandas (nine Nandas), ruling at different parts of Magadh (present Bihar state of India) headed by the strongest ruler of all the then 14 Janpads (Kingdoms) of India; Dhananand.

Maurya Dynasty (324–184 BC)[edit]

Shunga Dynasty (185–73 BC)[edit]

  • Pusyamitra Shunga (185–149 BC), founded the dynasty after assassinating Brhadratha
  • Agnimitra (149–141 BC), son and successor of Pusyamitra
  • Vasujyeshtha (141–131 BC)
  • Vasumitra (131–124 BC)
  • Andhraka (124–122 BC)
  • Pulindaka (122–119 BC)
  • Ghosha
  • Vajramitra
  • Bhagabhadra (c. 110 BC), mentioned by the Puranas
  • Devabhuti (83–73 BC), the last Sunga king

Kanva Dynasty (73–26 BC)[edit]

  • Vasudeva (c. 75 – c. 66 BCE)
  • Bhumimitra (c. 66 – c. 52 BCE)
  • Narayana (c. 52 – c. 40 BCE)
  • Susarman (c. 40 – c. 26 BCE)

Western Kshatrapas (35–405 AD)[edit]

Gupta Dynasty (c. 240–606 AD)[edit]

Pandya Dynasty (c. 550 BC – 1345)[edit]

Central Pandya Dynasty (c. 550 BC – 1311 AD)[edit]

  • Kadunkoen (c. 550–450 BC)
  • Pandion (c. 50 BC – 50 AD), known as Pandion to Greeks and Romans

Early Pandyas

  • Nedunj Cheliyan I (Aariyap Padai Kadantha Nedunj Cheliyan )
  • Pudappandiyan
  • Mudukudumi Paruvaludhi
  • Nedunj Cheliyan II (Pasumpun Pandiyan)
  • Nan Maran
  • Nedunj Cheliyan III (Talaiyaalanganathu Seruvendra Nedunj Cheliyan )
  • Maran Valudi
  • Musiri Mutriya Cheliyan
  • Ukkirap Peruvaluthi

First Empire

  • Kadungon (c. 600–700 AD), revived the dynasty
  • Maravarman Avani Culamani (590–620 AD)
  • Cezhiyan Cendan (620–640 AD)
  • Arikesari Maravarman Nindraseer Nedumaaran (640–674 AD)
  • Kochadaiyan Ranadhiran (675–730 AD)
  • Arikesari Parankusa Maravarman Rajasinga (730–765 AD)
  • Parantaka Nedunjadaiyan (765–790 AD)
  • Rasasingan II (790–800 AD)
  • Varagunan I (800–830 AD)
  • Sirmara Srivallabha (830–862 AD)
  • Varaguna II (862–880 AD)
  • Parantaka Viranarayana (862–905 AD)
  • Rajasima Pandian II (905–920 AD)

Pandyan Revival

  • Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan (1251–1268), revived Pandyan glory, considered one of the greatest conquerors of Southern India
  • Maravarman Sundara Pandyan
  • Maravarman Kulasekaran I (1268–1308)
  • Sundara Pandya (1308–1311), son of Maravarman Kulasekaran, fought with his brother Vira Pandya over the throne
  • Vira Pandya (1308–1311), son of Maravarman Kulasekaran, fought with his brother of Sundara Pandya over the throne, Madurai was conquered by the Khilji dynasty

Pandalam Dynasty (c. 1200)[edit]

Foreign Emperors in North-Western India (c. 538 BC – 750 AD)[edit]

These empires were vast, centered in Persia or the Mediterranean; their satrapies (provinces) in India were at their outskirts.

Persian Achaemenid Dynasty (c. 538–330 BC)[edit]

Argead Dynasty (326–323 BC)[edit]

Seleucid Diadochi (323–321 BC)[edit]

Arab Umayyad Caliphate (711–750 AD)[edit]

Chera dynasty (c. 400 BC – 1314 AD)[edit]

Note that years are still highly disputed among the scholars, the given is only a version.

Ancient Chera Kings (c. 400 BC – 397 AD)[edit]

  1. Udiyancheralatan
  2. Antuvancheral
  3. Imayavaramban Nedun-Cheralatan (56–115 AD)
  4. Cheran Chenkutuvan (from 115)
  5. Palyanai Sel-Kelu Kuttuvan (115–130)
  6. Poraiyan Kadungo (from 115)
  7. Kalankai-Kanni Narmudi Cheral (115–140)
  8. Vel-Kelu Kuttuvan (130–185)
  9. Selvak-Kadungo (131–155)
  10. Adukotpattu Cheralatan (140–178)
  11. Kuttuvan Irumporai (178–185)
  12. Tagadur Erinda Perumcheral (185–201)
  13. Yanaikat-sey Mantaran Cheral (201–241)
  14. Ilamcheral Irumporai (241–257)
  15. Perumkadungo (257–287)
  16. Ilamkadungo (287–317)
  17. Kanaikal Irumporai (367–397)

Kulashekhara Dynasty (1020–1314 AD)[edit]

  1. Kulashekhara Varman (800–820 AD), also called Kulashekhara Alwar
  2. Rajashekhara Varman (820–844 AD), also called Cheraman Perumal
  3. Sthanu ravi Varman (844–885 AD), contemporary of Aditya Chola
  4. Rama Varma Kulashekhara (885–917 AD)
  5. Goda Ravi Varma (917–944 AD)
  6. Indu Kotha Varma (944–962 AD)
  7. Bhaskara Ravi Varman I (962–1019 AD)
  8. Bhaskara Ravi Varman II (1019–1021 AD)
  9. Vira Kerala (1021–1028 AD)
  10. Rajasimha (1028–1043 AD)
  11. Bhaskara Ravi Varman III (1043–1082 AD)
  12. Rama Varman Kulashekhara (1090–1122 AD), also called Cheraman Perumal
  • Ravi Varman Kulashekhara (c. 1250–1314), last of the Cheras

Chola Dynasty (c. 301 BC – 1279 AD)[edit]

Sangam Cholas (c. 300 BC – 240 AD)[edit]

Chola Emperors (848–1279 AD)[edit]

Satavahana Dynasty (c. 230 BC – 199 AD)[edit]

  • Simuka (c. 230–207 BC)
  • Kanha (or Krishna) (207–189 BC)
  • Satakarni I
  • Hala (20–24 AD)
  • Gautamiputra Satakarni (106–130)
  • Vashishtiputra Pulumayi (130–158)
  • Vashishtiputra Satakarni (c. 158–170)
  • Sri Yajna Satakarni (c. 170–199)

Vakataka dynasty (250s–500s CE)[edit]

  • Vindhyasakti (250–270)
  • Pravarasena I (270–330)

The Pravarapura-Nandivardhana branch[edit]

  • Rudrasena I (330–355)
  • Prithvisena I (355–380)
  • Rudrasena II (380–385)
  • Divakarasena (385–400)
  • Prabhavatigupta (fem.), Regent (385–405)
  • Damodarasena (Pravarasena II) (400–440)
  • Narendrasena (440–460)
  • Prithvishena II (460–480)

The Vatsagulma branch[edit]

  • Sarvasena (330–355)
  • Vindhyasena (Vindhyashakti II) (355–400)
  • Pravarasena II (400–415)
  • Unknown (415–450)
  • Devasena (450–475)
  • Harishena (475–500)

Hellenistic Euthydemid Dynasty (c. 221–85 BC)[edit]

Unlike the far larger empires of Alexander the Great and his Seleukid diadoch, centered in the region

Indo-Scythian rulers (c. 90 BC – 45 AD)[edit]

North-western India (c. 90 BC – 10 AD)[edit]

Mathura area (c. 20 BC – 20 AD)[edit]

  • Hagamasha (satrap)
  • Hagana (satrap)
  • Rajuvula (Great Satrap) (c. 10 AD)
  • Sodasa, son of Rajuvula

Apracharaja rulers (12 BC – 45 AD)[edit]

  • Vijayamitra (12 BC – 15 AD)
  • Itravasu (c. 20 AD)
  • Aspavarma (15–45 AD)

Minor local rulers[edit]

  • Bhadrayasha Niggas
  • Mamvadi
  • Arsakes

Indo-Parthian rulers (c. 21–100 AD)[edit]

  • Gondophares I (c. 21–50)
  • Abdagases I (c. 50–65)
  • Satavastres (c. 60)
  • Sarpedones (c. 70)
  • Orthagnes (c. 70)
  • Ubouzanes (c. 77)
  • Sases or Gondophares II (c. 85)
  • Abdagases II (c. 90)
  • Pakores (c. 100)

Kushana Dynasty (80–225)[edit]

Pallava Dynasty (275–882)[edit]

Early Pallavas (275–355)[edit]

  • Simha Varman I (275–300 or 315–345)
  • Skanda Varman I (345–355)

Middle Pallavas (355–537)[edit]

  • Visnugopa (350–355)
  • Kumaravisnu I (355–370)
  • Skanda Varman II 370–385)
  • Vira Varman (385–400)
  • Skanda Varman III (400–438)
  • Simha Varman II (438–460)
  • Skanda Varman IV (460–480)
  • Nandi Varman I (480–500)
  • Kumaravisnu II (c. 500–510)
  • Buddha Varman (c. 510–520)
  • Kumaravisnu III (c. 520–530)
  • Simha Varman III (c. 530–537)

Later Pallavas (537–882)[edit]

Kadambas of Banavasi (345–525 AD)[edit]

  • Mayura Sharma (Varma) (345–365)
  • Kangavarma (365–390)
  • Bagitarha (390–415)
  • Raghu (415–435)
  • Kakusthavarma (435–455)
  • Santivarma (455–460)
  • Mrigeshavarma (460–480)
  • Shivamandhativarma (480–485)
  • Ravivarma (485–519)
  • Harivarma (519–525)

Western Ganga dynasty of Talakad (350–1024 AD)[edit]

  • Konganivarma Madhava (350–370)
  • Madhava II (370–390)
  • Harivarman (390–410)
  • Vishnugopa (410–430)
  • Tadangala Madhava (430–466)
  • Avinita (466–495)
  • Durvinita (495–535)
  • Mushkara (535–585)
  • Srivikrama (585–635
  • Bhuvikarma (635–679
  • Shivamara I (679–725
  • Sripurusha (725–788
  • Shivamara II (788–816
  • Rajamalla I (817–853
  • Nitimarga Ereganga (853–869
  • Rajamalla II (870–907)
  • Ereyappa Nitimarga II (907–919)
  • Narasimhadeva (919–925)
  • Rajamalla III (925–935)
  • Butuga II (935–960)
  • Takkolam in (949)
  • Maruladeva (960–963)
  • Marasimha III (963–974)
  • Rajamalla IV (974–985)
  • Rakkasa Ganga (985–1024)

Maitrakas of Vallabhi (470–776 CE)[edit]

  • Bhatarka (c. 470–c. 492)
  • Dharasena I (c. 493–c. 499)
  • Dronasinha (also known as Maharaja) (c. 500–c. 520)
  • Dhruvasena I (c. 520–c. 550)
  • Dharapatta (c. 550–c. 556)
  • Guhasena (c. 556–c. 570)
  • Dharasena II (c. 570–c. 595)
  • Siladitya I (also known as Dharmaditya) (c. 595–c. 615)
  • Kharagraha I (c. 615–c. 626)
  • Dharasena III (c. 626–c. 640)
  • Dhruvasena II (also known as Baladitya) (c. 640–c. 644)
  • Chkravarti king Dharasena IV (also known as Param Bhatarka, Maharajadhiraja, Parameshwara) (c. 644–c. 651)
  • Dhruvasena III (c. 651–c. 656)
  • Kharagraha II (c. 656–c. 662)
  • Siladitya II (c. 662–?)
  • Siladitya III
  • Siladitya IV
  • Siladitya V
  • Siladitya VI
  • Siladitya VII (c. 766–c. 776)[3]

Chalukya Dynasty (543–1200)[edit]

Western and Eastern Chalukyas[edit]

Western Chalukyas of Badami (543–757)[edit]

Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi (624-1189)[edit]

Western Chalukyas of Kalyani (973–1200)[edit]

Shashanka dynasty (600–626)[edit]

  • Shashanka (600–625), first recorded independent king of Bengal, created the first unified political entity in Bengal
  • Manava (625–626), ruled for 8 months before being conquered by Harshavardana and Bhaskarvarmana

Harsha dynasty (606–647)[edit]

  • Harsha Vardhana (606–647), unified Northern India and ruled it for over 40 years, he was the last non-Muslim emperor to rule a unified Northern India

Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty (650–1036 CE)[edit]

Rashtrakutas of Manyaketha (735–982)[edit]

Tomar's or Tuar's of Sthaneshwar and Indraprastha (736–1192 AD)[edit]

From Kshemak (last Tomar king of Indraprastha and direct descendant of Parikshit) to Anangpal I -

  1. Kshemak
  2. Shunkh (Kshemak's seat was usurped by his minister)
  3. Tunga (took refuge in Southern India established small kingdom - River Tungbhadra named after him)
  4. Abhanga
  5. Javal
  6. Gawal
  7. Lorepind
  8. Adangal
  9. Ganmel
  10. Nabhang
  11. Chukkar
  12. Tome
  13. Dravidan Tomar
  14. Drugya Tomar
  15. Manbha Tomar
  16. Karwal Tomar
  17. Kalang Tomar, he was a local chieftain in Kurudesh (modern Haryana)
  18. Anangpal I - re-established Tomar rule at what is now Delhi, the ancient capital of his ancestors. 736 AD – March- xx, ruled 18 years
  19. Vasudev - 754–March - xx, ruled 19Y-1M-18D
  20. Gangeya Tuar - 773–Apr.-18, ruled 21Y-3M-28D
  21. Prithvimal - 794–Aug.-16, ruled 19Y-6M-19D
  22. Jagdev or Jaydev - 814–Mar.-05, ruled 20Y-7M-28D
  23. Narpal - 834–Nov.-03, ruled 14Y-4M-09D
  24. Udaysangh - 849–Mar.-12, ruled 26Y-7M-11D
  25. Jaidas - 875–Oct.-23, ruled 21Y-2M-13D
  26. Vachhal/VrikshPal - 897–Jan.-01, ruled 22Y-3M-16D. There were many brothers / uncles of Vacchal Tuar[9]
    1. Bacchdev, founded Bagor near Narnol and Bachera and Baghera near Thoda Ajmer
    2. Nagdeo[9] s/o Karnpal Tuar and brother of Vachhal dev, founded Nagor and Nagda near Ajmer. Karndeo Tuar himself established Bahadurgarh near Alwar
    3. Krishnray[9] s/o Karnpal Tuar, founded Kishangarh near Ajmer and Khas Ganj between Etah and Soron
    4. Nihal Ray[9] s/o Karnpal Tuar, founded Narayanpur near Alwar
    5. Somasi[9] s/o Karnpal Tuar, founded Ajabpur between present day Alwar and Jaipur
    6. Harpal[9] s/o Karnpal Tuar, founded Harsola and Harsoli near Alwar
  27. Pavak - 919–Apr.-22, ruled 21Y-6M-05D
  28. Vihangpal - 940–Oct.-27, ruled 24Y-4M-04D
  29. Tolpal - 961–Mar.-01, ruled 18Y-3M-15D
    1. Gopal - either another name of Gopal or ruled on his behalf for a while
  30. Sulakshanpal - 979–Jun.-16, ruled 25Y-10M-10D
  31. Jaipal Tuar - 1005–Apr.-26, ruled 25Y-10M-10D. - Fought with Raja Rangatdhwaj Rathore and lost sovereignty of Kannauj
    1. His younger brother Jhetpal Tuar captured Paithan and his descendants are called Pathania Rajputs
  32. Kanvarpal/Kumara Pal Tuar - 1021–Aug.-29, ruled 29Y-9M-18D (Masud, grandson of Md. Gazni, captured Hansi briefly in 1038), ruled from Bari[10] in Awadh, which was 3 days south of Kannauj
    1. His Rajya Purohit, the chief priest, was Indrachandra whose descendant was Ramchandra 'Rammya', Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya Hemu's nephew and General in his army[11]
  33. Anangpal II or AnekPal or Anaypal - 1051–Jun.-17, ruled 29Y-6M-18D (1052 inscription on the Iron pillar at Mahrauli), populated Delhi and built Lalkot[12] or Old Fort of Delhi.[10][13] A few known sons of Anangpal are given here, which tell us the extent of his dominions. From Hansi in north to Agra in south and from Ajmer in west to the Ganges in east, beyond which were the Katheria Rajputs rulers[14]
    1. Bhumpal Tomar, younger son - 1081, Settled in Narwar area (Near Gwalior)
    2. Indrapal,[15] founded Indra Garh
    3. Rangraj,[15] founded two palaces by the name of Taragarh, one near Ajmer
    4. Achal Raj, founded Achner between Bharatpur and Agra
    5. Draupad, lived in Hansi
    6. Sisupal, founded Sirsa, Siswal (also called Sirsa Patan)
    7. Surajpal, Suraj Kund in Mehrauli Delhi was built by him
  34. Tejpal - 1081–Jan.-05, ruled 24Y-1M-06D, founded Tejora between Gurgaon and Alwar
  35. Mahipal/Junpal - 1105–Feb.-11, ruled 25Y-2M-23D
  36. Dakatpal (Arkpal or Anangpal III) - 1151–Jul.-19, ruled until 1192 AD until the Capture of Delhi by Md. Ghori, titular head only, lost to Someshwar dev Chauhan of Ajmer in 1152 AD and married daughter to Chauhan king and thus became a feudatory of his Chauhan son in law and later his grandson Rai Pithora of Ajmer. Prithviraj Chauhan was proclaimed the heir of Tomar Kingdom in 1170 AD and his rule was 22Y-2M-16D
    1. Govindraj Tanwar fought for Prithviraj Chauhan and was killed in battle with Md Ghori

Pala dynasty (c. 750–1174)[edit]

Based on their different interpretations of the various epigraphs and historical records, the various historians estimate the Pala chronology as follows:[16]:32-37

RC Majumdar (1971)[17] AM Chowdhury (1967)[18] BP Sinha (1977)[19] DC Sircar (1975-76)[20]
Gopala I 750–770 756-781 755-783 750-775
Dharmapala 770-810 781-821 783-820 775-812
Devapala 810-c. 850 821-861 820-860 812-850
Mahendrapala NA (Mahendrapala's existence was conclusively established through a copper-plate charter discovered later.)
Shurapala I 850-853 861-866 860-865 850-858
Vigrahapala I 858-60
Narayanapala 854-908 866-920 865-920 860-917
Rajyapala 908-940 920-952 920-952 917-952
Gopala II 940-957 952-969 952-967 952-972
Vigrahapala II 960-c. 986 969-995 967-980 972-977
Mahipala I 988-c. 1036 995-1043 980-1035 977-1027
Nayapala 1038-1053 1043-1058 1035-1050 1027-1043
Vigrahapala III 1054-1072 1058-1075 1050-1076 1043-1070
Mahipala II 1072-1075 1075-1080 1076-1078/9 1070-1071
Shurapala 1075-1077 1080-1082 1071-1072
Ramapala 1077-1130 1082-1124 1078/9-1132 1072-1126
Kumarapala 1130-1125 1124-1129 1132-1136 1126-1128
Gopala III 1140-1144 1129-1143 1136-1144 1128-1143
Madanapala 1144-1162 1143-1162 1144-1161/62 1143-1161
Govindapala 1155-1159 NA 1162-1176 or 1158-1162 1161-1165
Palapala NA NA NA 1165-1199

Note:[16]

  • Earlier historians believed that Vigrahapala I and Shurapala I were the two names of the same person. Now, it is known that these two were cousins; they either ruled simultaneously (perhaps over different territories) or in rapid succession.
  • AM Chowdhury rejects Govindapala and his successor Palapala as the members of the imperial Pala dynasty.
  • According to BP Sinha, the Gaya inscription can be read as either the "14th year of Govindapala's reign" or "14th year after Govindapala's reign". Thus, two sets of dates are possible.

Paramara dynasty of Malwa (c. 800–c. 1305)[edit]

Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri (850–1334 AD)[edit]

  • Dridhaprahara
  • Seunachandra (850–874)
  • Dhadiyappa (874–900)
  • Bhillama I (900–925)
  • Vadugi (Vaddiga) (950–974)
  • Dhadiyappa II (974–975)
  • Bhillama II (975–1005)
  • Vesugi I (1005–1020)
  • Bhillama III (1020–1055)
  • Vesugi II (1055–1068)
  • Bhillama III (1068)
  • Seunachandra II (1068–1085)
  • Airamadeva (1085–1115)
  • Singhana I (1115–1145)
  • Mallugi I (1145–1150)
  • Amaragangeyya (1150–1160)
  • Govindaraja (1160)
  • Amara Mallugi II (1160–1165)
  • Kaliya Ballala (1165–1173)
  • Bhillama V (1173–1192), proclaimed independence from Kalyani Chalukya
  • Jaitugi I (1192–1200)
  • Singhana II (1200–1247)
  • Kannara (1247–1261)
  • Mahadeva (1261–1271)
  • Amana (1271)
  • Ramachandra (1271–1312)
  • Singhana III (1312–1313)
  • Harapaladeva (1313–1318)
  • Mallugi III (1318–1334)

Roopak Dynasty (c. 890–895)[edit]

Brahmin Shahi Dynasty (c. 890–964)[edit]

  • Lalliya (c. 890–895)
  • Kamaluka (895–921)
  • Bhima (921–964), son of Kamaluka

Janjua Shahi Dynasty (964–1026 AD)[edit]

  • Jayapala (964–1001)
  • Anandapala (1001–1011)
  • Roopak (1011–1022)
  • Bhímapála (1022–1026)

Hoysala Dynasty (1000–1346)[edit]

  • Nripa Kama (1000–1045)
  • Vinayaditya I (1045–1098)
  • Ereyanga (1098–1100)
  • Ballala (1100–1108)
  • Vishnuvardhana (1108–1142)
  • Narasimha I (1142–1173), proclaimed independence from Kalyani Chalukya
  • Ballala II (1173–1220)
  • Narasimha II (1220–1235)
  • Vira Someshwara (1235–1253)
  • Narasimha III and Ramanatha (1253–1295)
  • Ballala III (1295–1342)

Sena Empire Dynasty rule over Bengal (1070–1230 CE)[edit]

  • Hemanta Sen (1070–1096)
  • Vijay Sen (1096–1159)
  • Ballal Sen (1159–1179)
  • Lakshman Sen (1179–1206)
  • Vishwarup Sen (1206–1225)
  • Keshab Sen (1225–1230)

Eastern Ganga dynasty (1078–1434)[edit]

  • Anantavarman Codaganga (1078–1147)
  • Ananga Bhima Deva II (1170–1198)
  • Anangabhima Deva III (1211–1238)
  • Narasimha Deva I (1238–1264)
  • Bhanu Deva I (1264–1279)
  • Narasimha Deva II (1279–1306)
  • Bhanu Deva II (1306–1328)
  • Narasimha Deva III (1328–1352)
  • Bhanu Deva III (1352–1378)
  • Narasimha Deva IV (1378–1414)
  • Bhanu Deva IV (1414–1434)

Kakatiya dynasty (1083–1323 CE)[edit]

  • Beta I (1000–1030)
  • Prola I (1030–1075)
  • Beta II (1075–1110)
  • Prola II (1110–1158)
  • Prataparudra I/Rudradeva I (1158–1195)
  • Mahadeva (1195–1198). Brother of King Rudradeva
  • Ganapathi deva (1199–1261)
  • Rudrama devi (1262–1296)
  • Prataparudra II/ Rudradeva II (1296–1323). Son of Queen Rudramba

Kalachuri (Southern) Dynasty (1130–1184)[edit]

  • Bijjala II (1130–1167), proclaimed independence from Kalyani Chalukyas in 1162 AD
  • Sovideva (1168–1176)
  • Mallugi → overthrown by his brother Sankama
  • Sankama (1176–1180)
  • Ahavamalla (1180–83)
  • Singhana (1183–84)

Bana Dynasty rule over Magadaimandalam (c. 1190–1260 AD)[edit]

Kadava Dynasty (c. 1216–1279 AD)[edit]

  • Kopperunchinga I (c. 1216 – 1242)
  • Kopperunchinga II (c. 1243 – 1279)

The Muslim Rule (1206–1526)[edit]

Delhi Sultanate (1206–1526)[edit]

Despite the name, the capital was repeatedly elsewhere than Delhi city, and not always near.

Royal dynasty of Delhi (1206–1290)[edit]

Khilji Dynasty (1290–1320)[edit]

Tughlaq Dynasty (1321–1414)[edit]

Invasion of Timur in 1398 and the end of the Tughluq Dynasty as known earlier.

Sayyid Dynasty (1414–1451)[edit]

  • Khizr (1414–1421)
  • Mubarik II (1421–1434)
  • Muhamed IV (1434–1445)
  • Alem I (1445–1451)

Lodi Dynasty (1451–1526)[edit]

Bahmani Sultanate (1347–1527)[edit]

  • Ala ud din Bahman Shah (1347–1358), established his capital at Gulbarga
  • Muhammad Shah I (1358–1375)
  • Ala ud din Mujahid Shah (1375–1378)
  • Daud Shah I (1378)
  • Muhammad Shah II (1378–1397)
  • Ghiyas ud din Tahmatan Shah (1397)
  • Shams ud din Daud Shah II (1397)
  • Taj ud din Feroz Shah (1397–1422)
  • Shahab ud din Ahmad Shah I (1422–1435), established his capital at Bidar
  • Ala ud din Ahmad Shah II (1436–1458)
  • Ala ud din Humayun Shah (1458–1461)
  • Nizam ud din Ahmad Shah III (1461–1463)
  • Shams ud din Muhammad Shah III (1463–1482)
  • Mahmud Shah (1482–1518)
  • Ahmad Shah IV (1518–1521)
  • Ala ud din Shah (1521–1522)
  • Waliullah Shah (1522–1524)
  • Kalimullah Shah (1524–1527)

Malwa Sultanate (1392–1562)[edit]

Ghoris (1390–1436)[edit]

Khiljis (1436–1535)[edit]

Under Gujarat (1530–1534)

Qadirid (1535–1555)[edit]

Under the Mughal Empire (1542–1555)

Shaja'atid (1555–1562)[edit]

Ahom Dynasty ruled over Assam (1228–1826)[edit]

Reddy dynasty (1325–1448 CE)[edit]

  • Prolaya Vema Reddy (1325–1335)
  • Anavota Reddy (1335–1364)
  • Anavema Reddy (1364–1386)
  • Kumaragiri Reddy (1386–1402)
  • Kataya Vema Reddy (1395–1414)
  • Allada Reddy (1414–1423)
  • Veerabhadra Reddy (1423–1448)

Vijayanagara Empire (1336–1660)[edit]

Sangama Dynasty (1336–1487)[edit]

Saluva Dynasty (1490–1567)[edit]

  • Narasimha (1490–1503)
  • Narasa (Vira Narasimha) (1503–1509)
  • Krishnadevaraya (1509–1530)
  • Achyuta (1530–1542)
  • Sadasiva (1542–1567)

Tuluva Dynasty (1542–1614)[edit]

  • Rama (1542–1565)
  • Tirumala (1565–1567)
  • Tirumala (1567–1575)
  • Ranga II (1575–1586)
  • Venkata I (1586–1614)

Rulers of Mysore/Khudadad (1399–1950)[edit]

Wodeyar Dynasty (first rule, 1399–1761)[edit]

  • Yaduraya (1399–1423)
  • Hiriya Bettada Chamaraja Wodeyar I (1423–1459)
  • Thimmaraja Wodeyar I (1459–1478)
  • Hiriya Chamaraja Wodeyar II (1478–1513)
  • Hiriya bettada Chamaraja Wodeyar III (1513–1553)
  • Thimmaraja Wodeyar II (1553–1572)
  • Bola Chamaraja Wodeyar IV (1572–1576)
  • Bettada Devaraja Wodeyar (1576–1578)
  • Raja Wodeyar I (1578–1617)
  • Chamaraja Wodeyar V (1617–1637)
  • Raja Wodeyar II (1637–1638)
  • (Ranadhira) Kantheerava Narasaraja Wodeyar I (1638–1659)
  • Dodda Devaraja Wodeyar (1659–1673)
  • Chikka Devaraja Wodeyar (1673–1704)
  • Kantheerava Narasaraja Wodeyar II (1704–1714)
  • Dodda Krishnaraja Wodeyar I (1714–1732)
  • Chamaraja Wodeyar VI (1732–1734)
  • (Immadi) Krishnaraja Wodeyar II (1734–1766), ruled under Hyder Ali from 1761
  • Nanajaraja Wodeyar (1766–1772), ruled under Hyder Ali
  • Bettada Chamaraja Wodeyar VII (1772–1776), ruled under Hyder Ali
  • Khasa Chamaraja Wodeyar VIII (1776–1796), ruled under Hyder Ali until 1782, then under Tipu Sultan until his deposition in 1796

The reign of the Kings of Mysore (Wodeyar line) was interrupted from 1796 to 1799.

Muslim rulers of Mysore (1761–1799)[edit]

Wodeyar Dynasty (second rule, 1799–1950)[edit]

Gajapati Kingdom (1434–1541 CE)[edit]

  • Kapilendra Deva (1434–67)
  • Purushottama Deva (1467–97)
  • Prataparudra Deva (1497–1540)
  • Kalua Deva (1540–41)
  • Kakharua Deva (1541)

Maharajas of Cochin (Perumpadapu Swaroopam, 1503–1964)[edit]

Veerakerala Varma, nephew of Cheraman Perumal, is supposed to have been the first king of Cochin around the 7th century AD. But the records we have start in 1503.

  1. Unniraman Koyikal I (?–1503)
  2. Unniraman Koyikal II (1503–1537)
  3. Veera Kerala Varma (1537–1565)
  4. Keshava Rama Varma (1565–1601)
  5. Veera Kerala Varma (1601–1615)
  6. Ravi Varma I (1615–1624)
  7. Veera Kerala Varma (1624–1637)
  8. Godavarma (1637–1645)
  9. Veerarayira Varma (1645–1646)
  10. Veera Kerala Varma (1646–1650)
  11. Rama Varma I (1650–1656)
  12. Rani Gangadharalakshmi (1656–1658)
  13. Rama Varma II (1658–1662)
  14. Goda Varma (1662–1663)
  15. Veera Kerala Varma (1663–1687)
  16. Rama Varma III (1687–1693)
  17. Ravi Varma II (1693–1697)
  18. Rama Varma IV (1697–1701)
  19. Rama Varma V (1701–1721)
  20. Ravi Varma III (1721–1731)
  21. Rama Varma VI (1731–1746)
  22. Veera Kerala Varma I (1746–1749)
  23. Rama Varma VII (1749–1760)
  24. Veera Kerala Varma II (1760–1775)
  25. Rama Varma VIII (1775–1790)
  26. Shaktan Thampuran (Rama Varma IX) (1790–1805)
  27. Rama Varma X (1805–1809) - Vellarapalli-yil Theepetta Thampuran (King who died in "Vellarapali")
  28. Veera Kerala Varma III (1809–1828) - Karkidaka Maasathil Theepetta Thampuran (King who died in "karkidaka" month (Malayalam Era))
  29. Rama Varma XI (1828–1837) - Thulam-Maasathil Theepett1a Thampuran (King who died in "Thulam" month (ME))
  30. Rama Varma XII (1837–1844) - Edava-Maasathil Theepett1a Thampuran (King who died in "Edavam" month (ME))
  31. Rama Varma XIII (1844–1851) - Thrishur-il Theepetta Thampuran (King who died in "Thrishivaperoor" or Thrishur)
  32. Veera Kerala Varma IV (1851–1853) - Kashi-yil Theepetta Thampuran (King who died in "Kashi" or Varanasi)
  33. Ravi Varma IV (1853–1864) - Makara Maasathil Theepetta Thampuran (King who died in "Makaram" month (ME))
  34. Rama Varma XIV (1864–1888) - Mithuna Maasathil Theepetta Thampuran (King who died in "Mithunam" month (ME))
  35. Kerala Varma V (1888–1895) - Chingam Maasathil Theepetta Thampuran (King who died in "Chingam" month (ME))
  36. Rama Varma XV (1895–1914) - a.k.a. Rajarshi, abdicated (d. in 1932)
  37. Rama Varma XVI (1915–1932) - Madrasil Theepetta Thampuran (King who died in Madras or Chennai)
  38. Rama Varma XVII (1932–1941) - Dhaarmika Chakravarthi (King of Dharma), Chowara-yil Theepetta Thampuran (King who died in "Chowara")
  39. Kerala Varma VI (1941–1943) - Midukkan (syn: Smart, expert, great) Thampuran
  40. Ravi Varma V (1943–1946) - Kunjappan Thampuran (Brother of Midukkan Thampuran)
  41. Kerala Varma (1946–1948) - Ikya-Keralam (Unified Kerala) Thampuran
  42. Rama Varma (1948–1964) - Pareekshit Thampuran

Qutb Shahi Dynasty (1518–1687)[edit]

Mughal Empire (1526–1857)[edit]

Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Mughal Dynasty
Babur Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur Babur idealisiert.jpg Shah 14 February 1483 – 26 December 1530 30 April 1526 26 December 1530 Descendant of Mongol conqueror Timur Established the Mughal Empire (one of the 3 earliest gunpowder empires) after defeating the Delhi Sultanate
Humayun Nasir ud din Muhammad Humayun Painting of Humayun, c. 1700.jpg Shah 7 March 1508 – 17 January 1556 26 December 1530 17 May 1540 Son of Babur 1st rule. Temporarily lost his empire to the usurper Sher Shah after being defeated by him
Suri Dynasty
Sher Shah Suri Fahrid Khan Sher Shah Suri by Breshna.jpg Shah 1486 – 22 May 1545 17 May 1540 22 May 1545 Seized the Mughal Empire after defeating the second Mughal Emperor Humayun
Islam Shah Suri Jalal Khan 173 islam-11.jpg Shah  ?– 22 November 1554 26 May 1545 22 November 1554 Son of Sher Shah Suri
Firuz Shah Suri Shah  ?–1554 22 November 1554 1554 Son of Islam Shah Suri Assassinated a few days after assuming the throne, by Muhammad Adil Shah. Firuz was 12 years old.
Muhammad Adil Shah 187mhd adl-8.jpg Shah  ?–1557 1554 1555 Son of Nizam Khan, younger brother of Sher Shah Suri Became insane and handed over rule to Humayun
Mughal Dynasty
Humayun Nasir ud din Muhammad Humayun Painting of Humayun, c. 1700.jpg Shah 7 March 1508 – 17 January 1556 1555 17 January 1556 Son of Babur 2nd rule. Restored his empire after defeating Suri-ruler Adil Shah
Akbar I the Great Jalal ud din Muhammad Akbar Akbar1.jpg Shah 14 October 1542 – 27 October 1605 17 January 1556 27 October 1605 Son of Humayun Considered the greatest of all Mughals, unified India ('Hind') under the Mughal Empire
Jahangir Nur-ud-din Mohammad Salim Jahangircrop.jpeg Shah 30 August 1569 - 28 October 1627 27 October 1605 28 October 1627 Son of Akbar the Great Known in legends as Shehzada Salim
Jahan I Khurram Shah Jahan I of India.jpg Shah 5 January 1592 – 1 October 1666 19 January 1628 31 July 1658 Son of Jahangir Constructed the Taj Mahal, which is often regarded as one of the Seven Wonders of the World. Deposed by Aurangzeb.
Aurangzeb Alamgir I Abul Muzaffar Muhi-ud-Din Mohammad Aurangzeb Aurangzeb in old age 2.jpg Shah 4 November 1618 – 3 March 1707 31 July 1658 3 March 1707 Son of Shah Jahan Expanded the Mughal Empire to its greatest extent, ruling over most of South Asia and Afghanistan
Bahadur I Alam I Qutb ud-Din Muhammad Mu'azzam Bahadur Shah I of India.jpg Shah 14 October 1643 – 27 February 1712 3 March 1707 27 February 1712 Son of Aurangzeb
Jahandar Jahandar Shah, Mughal Emperor..jpg Shah 9 May 1661 – 12 February 1713 27 February 1712 11 January 1713 Son of Bahadur Shah I He was strangled, after being defeated in battle and deposed.
Farrukhsiyar Abu'l Muzaffar Muin ud-din Muhammad Shah Farrukh-siyar Alim Akbar Sani Wala Shan Padshah-i-bahr-u-bar Farrukhsiyar of India.jpg Shah 20 August 1685 – 19 April 1719 11 January 1713 28 February 1719 Son of Azim ush Shan, son of Bahadur Shah I Deposed
Rafi ud-Darajat Emperor Rafi Uddar Jat.jpg Shah 1 December 1699 – 13 June 1719 19 April 1719 13 June 1719 Nephew of Azim ush Shan, son of Bahadur Shah I
Jahan II Rafi ud-Daulah Shah Jahan II of India.jpg Shah June 1696 – 19 September 1719 13 June 1719 19 September 1719 Son of Rafi-ush-Shan, son of Bahadur Shah I
Muhammad Nasir-ud-Din Muhammad Shah Portrait of Muhammad Shah.jpg Shahanshah 17 August 1702 – 26 April 1748 19 September 1719 26 April 1748 Grandson of Bahadur Shah I
Ahmad Bahadur The Emperor Ahmad Shah, equestrian, in the hunting field 1750 San Diego Museum of Art.jpg Shahanshah 23 December 1725 – 1 January 1775 26 April 1748 2 June 1754 Son of Muhammad Shah
Alamgir II Aziz-ud-din Alamgir Brooklyn Museum - Emperor Alamgir II - Sukha Luhar.jpg Shahanshah 6 June 1699 – 29 November 1759 2 June 1754 29 November 1759 Son of Jahandar Shah
Jahan III Muhi-ul-millat Shahanshah  ?–1772 10 December 1759 10 October 1760 Great-grandson of Aurangzeb Deposed
Alam II Ali Gauhar Equestrian Portrait of Shah Alam II, 18th century.jpg Shahanshah 25 June 1728 – 19 November 1806 10 October 1760 19 November 1806 Son of Alamgir II
Akbar II Portrait of Akbar II.jpg Shahanshah, Anushiravan, The Just 22 April 1760– 28 September 1837 19 November 1806 28 September 1837 Son of Shah Alam II
Bahadur II Mirza Abu Zafar Sirajuddin Muhammad Bahadur Reminiscences of Imperial Delhi Portrait of the Emperor Bahadur Shah II.png Shahanshah 24 October 1775 – 7 November 1862 28 September 1837 14 September 1857 Son of Akbar II Defeated by the British. Died in exile.

Chogyal, monarchs of Sikkim and Ladakh (1642–1975)[edit]

Maratha Empire (1674–1818)[edit]

The Empire was divided between two branches of the family c. 1707–10; and the division was formalized in 1731.

Bhonsle Chhatrapatis at Kolhapur (1700–1947)[edit]

The state acceded unto the Dominion of India following the independence of India in 1947.[21]

  • Shahu II as titular Maharaja (1983–present) (adopted from Kadam family of Bande)

Bhonsle Chhatrapatis at Satara (1707–1839)[edit]

The Peshwas (1713–1858)[edit]

Technically they were not monarchs, but hereditary prime ministers, though in fact they ruled instead of the Maharaja, and were hegemon of the Maratha confederation.

Bhonsle Maharajas of Thanjavur (?–1799)[edit]

Descended from a brother of Shivaji; ruled independently and had no formal relationship with the Maratha Empire.

The state was annexed by the British in 1799.[23]

Bhonsle Maharajas of Nagpur (1799–1881)[edit]

Holkar rulers of Indore (1731–1948)[edit]

  • Malharrao Holkar (I) (r. 2 November 1731 – 19 May 1766)
  • Malerao Khanderao Holkar (r. 23 August 1766 – 5 April 1767)
  • Punyaslok Rajmata Ahilyadevi Holkar (r. 5 April 1767 – 13 August 1795)
  • Tukojirao Holkar (I) (r. 13 August 1795 – 29 January 1797)
  • Kashirao Tukojirao Holkar (r. 29 January 1797 – 1798)
  • Yashwantrao Holkar (I) (r. 1798 – 27 November 1811)
  • Malharrao Yashwantrao Holkar (III) (r. November 1811 – 27 October 1833)
  • Martandrao Malharrao Holkar (r. 17 January 1834 – 2 February 1834)
  • Harirao Vitthojirao Holkar (r. 17 April 1834 – 24 October 1843)
  • Khanderao Harirao Holkar (r. 13 November 1843 – 17 February 1844)
  • Tukojirao Gandharebhau Holkar (II) (r. 27 June 1844 – 17 June 1886)
  • Shivajirao Tukojirao Holkar (r. 17 June 1886 – 31 January 1903)
  • Tukojirao Shivajirao Holkar (III) (r. 31 January 1903 – 26 February 1926)
  • Yashwantrao Holkar (II) (r. 26 February 1926 – 1961)

Following the independence of India in 1947, the state acceded unto the Dominion of India. The monarchy was ended in 1948, but the title is still held by Usha Devi Maharaj Sahiba Holkar XV Bahadur, Maharani of Indore since 1961.

Scindia rulers of Gwalior (?–1947)[edit]

Following the independence of India in 1947, the state acceded unto the Dominion of India.

Gaekwad rulers of Baroda (Vadodara) (1721–present)[edit]

Following the independence of India in 1947, the state acceded unto the Dominion of India and the monarchy was abolished in 1948.

The major Muslim vassals of the Mughal/British Paramountcy (1707–1856)[edit]

Nawabs of Bengal (1707–1770)[edit]

Nawabs of Awadh/Oudh (1719–1858)[edit]

Nizams of Hyderabad (1720–1948)[edit]

Kingdom of Travancore (1729–1947)[edit]

Sikh Empire (1801–1849)[edit]

The British Empire annexed the Punjab c. 1845–49; after the First and Second Anglo-Sikh Wars

British Emperors of India (1876–1947)[edit]

Dominion of India (1947–1950)[edit]

See also[edit]

Sources and External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Dayanand Saraswati, Satyartha Prakash
  2. ^ a b c Eastern Chalukyas (Vengi Chalukyas)
  3. ^ Mahajan V.D. (1960, reprint 2007). Ancient India, S.Chand & Company, New Delhi, ISBN 81-219-0887-6, pp.594–6
  4. ^ Eastern Chalukyas (Vengi Chalukyas), 1068 - 1072: The ruler of the Vengi kingdom is unknown during this period. It seems that Vijayaditya is deposed or otherwise forced from the throne, either through internal instability or external pressure. After four years, he manages to make some sort of recovery, and regains the throne.
  5. ^ Eastern Chalukyas (Vengi Chalukyas), Vijayaditya's death in 1075 sees the end of Chalukya resistance and the kingdom is extinguished. It seems that much of the Vengi territory is absorbed by the Cholas for a time.
  6. ^ Eastern Chalukyas (Vengi Chalukyas), 1088-1099:The Western Chalukyan king, Vikramaditya, conquers major portions of the former Vengi kingdom, attaching it to his own great empire until it is retaken by the Cholas in 1099.
  7. ^ a b Eastern Chalukyas (Vengi Chalukyas), 1118-1130:Vikramaditya manages to recapture the Vengi lands and hold onto them until his death. Shortly after the accession of his son, the territory is again absorbed by the Chola empire, although it seems that native Eastern Chalukyas may still govern the region under Chola protection and domination.
  8. ^ Eastern Chalukyas (Vengi Chalukyas), 1189: The Vengi territory is defeated by the Hoysalas and the Yadavas.
  9. ^ a b c d e f Asiatic Society of Bengal, Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Volume 33, Page xxi
  10. ^ a b Asiatic Society of Bengal, Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Volume 33
  11. ^ M. L. Bhargava, Hemu and his time, page 3
  12. ^ Alexander Cunnigham, Four reports made during the years, 1862-63-64-65, Volume 1
  13. ^ Hickey, William (1874). "The Tanjore Mahratta Principality in Southern India". Pg.xix (Google books). ISBN 81-206-0302-8. Retrieved 2009-05-26. 
  14. ^ Sir Alexander Cunningham, Archaeological Survey of India, Four reports made during the years, 1862-63-64-65, Volume 2, page v
  15. ^ a b Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Volume 33, Asiatic Society of Bengal
  16. ^ a b Susan L. Huntington (1 January 1984). The "Påala-Sena" Schools of Sculpture. Brill Archive. ISBN 90-04-06856-2. 
  17. ^ History of Ancient Bengal, pp. 161-162, 1971
  18. ^ Abdul Momin Chowdhury (1967). Dynastic history of Bengal, c. 750-1200 CE. Asiatic Society of Pakistan. pp. 272–273. 
  19. ^ Bindeshwari Prasad Sinha (1 January 1977). Dynastic History of Magadha, Cir. 450-1200 A.D.. Abhinav Publications. pp. 253–. GGKEY:KR1EJ2EGCTJ. 
  20. ^ Dineshchandra Sircar (1975–76). "Indological Notes - R.C. Majumdar's Chronology of the Pala Kings". Journal of Indian History IX: 209–10. 
  21. ^ http://www.royalark.net/India/kolhap2.htm
  22. ^ http://www.royalark.net/India4/satara2.htm
  23. ^ http://www.royalark.net/India4/tanjore2.htm
  24. ^ http://books.google.co.in/books?id=wEluAAAAMAAJ&q=bhonsle+of+nagpur&dq=bhonsle+of+nagpur&hl=en&sa=X&ei=WfCLUIObJoyErQe7xIHICA&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAA
Middle kingdoms of India
Timeline and

cultural period

Northwestern India

(Punjab-Sapta Sindhu)

Indo-Gangetic Plain Central India Southern India
Western Gangetic Plain

(Kuru-Panchala)

Northern India

(Central Gangetic Plain)

Northeastern India

(Northeast India)

IRON AGE
Culture Late Vedic Period Late Vedic Period

(Brahmin ideology)[a]

Painted Grey Ware culture

Late Vedic Period

(Kshatriya/Shramanic culture)[b]

Northern Black Polished Ware

Pre-history
 6th century BC Gandhara Kuru-Panchala Magadha Adivasi (tribes)
Culture Persian-Greek influences "Second Urbanisation"

Rise of Shramana movements
Jainism - Buddhism - Ājīvika - Yoga

Pre-history
 5th century BC (Persian rule) Shishunaga dynasty Adivasi (tribes)
 4th century BC (Greek conquests)

Nanda empire
Kalinga

HISTORICAL AGE
Culture Spread of Buddhism Pre-history Sangam period
(300 BC – AD 200)
 3rd century BC Maurya Empire Early Cholas

Early Pandyan Kingdom

Satavahana dynasty

Cheras

46 other small kingdoms in Ancient Thamizhagam

Culture Preclassical Hinduism[c] - "Hindu Synthesis"[d] (ca. 200 BC - AD300)[e][f]
Epics - Puranas - Ramayana - Mahabharata - Bhagavad Gita - Brahma Sutras - Smarta Tradition
Mahayana Buddhism
Sangam period

(continued)
(300 BC – AD 200)

 2nd century BC Indo-Greek Kingdom Sunga Empire Adivasi (tribes) Early Cholas

Early Pandyan Kingdom

Satavahana dynasty

Cheras

46 other small kingdoms in Ancient Thamizhagam

 1st century BC Yona Maha-Meghavahana Dynasty
 1st century AD

Indo-Scythians
Indo-Parthians

Kuninda Kingdom
 2nd century Pahlava Varman dynasty
 3rd century Kushan Empire Western Satraps Kamarupa kingdom Kalabhras dynasty

Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)

Culture "Golden Age of Hinduism"(ca. AD 320-650)[g]
Puranas
Co-existence of Hinduism and Buddhism
 4th century Gupta Empire Kalabhras dynasty

Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)

Kadamba Dynasty

Western Ganga Dynasty

 5th century Maitraka Adivasi (tribes) Kalabhras dynasty

Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)

Vishnukundina

 6th century Kalabhras dynasty

Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)

Culture Late-Classical Hinduism (ca. AD 650-1100)[h]
Advaita Vedanta - Tantra
Decline of Buddhism in India
 7th century Indo-Sassanids Vakataka dynasty, Harsha Mlechchha dynasty Adivasi (tribes) Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)

Pandyan Kingdom(Revival)

Pallava

 8th century Kidarite Kingdom Pandyan Kingdom

Kalachuri

 9th century Indo-Hephthalites (Huna) Gurjara-Pratihara Pandyan Kingdom

Medieval Cholas

Pandyan Kingdom(Under Cholas)

Chalukya

Chera Perumals of Makkotai

10th century Pala dynasty

Kamboja-Pala dynasty

Medieval Cholas

Pandyan Kingdom(Under Cholas)

Chera Perumals of Makkotai

Rashtrakuta