List of state and union territory capitals in India

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India is a country located in southern Asia. With over 1.2 billion people, India is the most populous democracy in the world. It is a federal constitutional republic governed under a parliamentary system consisting of 29 states and 7 union territories.[1] All states, as well as the union territories of Puducherry and the National Capital Territory of Delhi, have elected legislatures and governments, both patterned on the Westminster model. The remaining five union territories are directly ruled by the centre through appointed administrators. In 1956, under the States Reorganisation Act, states were reorganised on a linguistic basis.[2] Since then, their structure has remained largely unchanged. Each state or union territory is further divided into administrative districts.

The state and union territory capitals are sorted according to the administrative, legislative and judicial capitals. The administrative capital is where the executive government offices are located, the legislative capital is where the state assembly convenes, and the judicial capital is the location of the state or territorial High Courts of India. Union territories are marked with a dagger (dagger).

State and union territory capitals[edit]

No. State/Union territory Administrative capitals Legislative capitals Judiciary capitals Year capital was established the Former capital
1 Andaman and Nicobar Islands union territory Port Blair Port Blair Kolkata (formerly Calcutta) 1956 Calcutta (1945–1956)
2 Andhra Pradesh Vijayawada Vijayawada Hyderabad 2 June 2014; (re-organised for 2nd time) Hyderabad (1956-2014)
3 Arunachal Pradesh Itanagar Itanagar Guwahati 1987
4 Assam Dispur Guwahati Guwahati 1975 Shillong[a] (1874–1972)
5 Bihar Patna Patna Patna 1912
6 Chandigarh union territory Chandigarh[b]  — Chandigarh 1966  —
7 Chhattisgarh Raipur[c] Raipur Bilaspur 2000  —
8 Dadra and Nagar Haveli union territory Silvasa  — Mumbai 1945 Mumbai (1954–1961)
Panaji (1961–1987)
9 Daman and Diu union territory Daman  — Mumbai 1987 Ahmedabad (1961–1963)
Panaji (1963–1987)
10 National Capital Territory of Delhi union territory Delhi Delhi 1952  —
11 Goa Panaji[d] Porvorim Mumbai 1961 Panaji (1961–1987)
12 Gujarat Gandhinagar Gandhinagar Ahmedabad 1960 Ahmedabad (1960–1970)
13 Haryana Chandigarh Chandigarh Chandigarh 1966  —
14 Himachal Pradesh Shimla  Shimla  Shimla  1971 Bilaspur (1950–1956)
15 Jammu and Kashmir Srinagar (S)
Jammu (W)
Srinagar (S)
Jammu (W)
Srinagar (S)
Jammu (W)
1948  —
16 Jharkhand Ranchi Ranchi Ranchi 2000
17 Karnataka Bengaluru Bengaluru Bengaluru 1956 (Mysore)
18 Kerala Thiruvananthapuram Thiruvananthapuram Kochi 1956
19 Lakshadweep union territory Kavaratti Kavaratti Kochi 1956
20 Madhya Pradesh Bhopal Bhopal Gwalior 1956 Nagpur[e] (1861–1956)
21 Maharashtra Mumbai[f]
Nagpur (W/2nd)[g]
Mumbai (S+B)
Nagpur (W)[h]
Mumbai 1818
1960
 —
22 Manipur Imphal Imphal Imphal 1947  —
23 Meghalaya Shillong Shillong Shillong 1970  —
24 Mizoram Aizawl Aizawl Guwahati 1972  —
25 Nagaland Kohima Kohima Guwahati 1963  —
26 Orissa Bhubaneshwar Bhubaneshwar Cuttack 1948 Cuttack (1936–1948)
27 Puducherry union territory Puducherry Puducherry Chennai 1954 Madras (1948–1954)
28 Punjab Chandigarh Chandigarh Chandigarh 1947 Lahore[i] (1936–1947)
Shimla (1947–1966)
29 Rajasthan Jaipur Jaipur Jodhpur 1948  —
30 Sikkim Gangtok[j] Gangtok Gangtok 1975  —
31 Tamil Nadu Chennai[k] Chennai Chennai 1956  
32 Telangana Hyderabad Hyderabad Hyderabad 2014  —
33 Tripura Agartala Agartala Agartala 1956  —
34 Uttar Pradesh Lucknow Lucknow Allahabad 1938  —
35 Uttarakhand Dehradun[l] Dehradun Nainital 2000  —
36 West Bengal Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata 1947  

Explanatory notes[edit]

  1. ^ Shilong was the joint capital of Assam and Meghalaya until 1971.[3]
  2. ^ Chandigarh is the capital of the states of Punjab and Haryana, and is a Union Territory, separate from the two states.[4]
  3. ^ Raipur is the provisional capital of Chhattisgarh. The town of Naya Raipur is envisaged as the state's new capital.
  4. ^ Panaji was the capital of Goa from 1843 when it was ruled by the Portuguese.[5]
  5. ^ Nagpur was the capital of Central Provinces and Berar which was a province from 1861 until 1950.[6] Central Province became the major constituent of Madhya Pradesh, after it was formed in 1950.[6] Nagpur remained the capital of the new state.[7] In 1956, Berar (Vidarbha) was separated from Madhya Pradesh, and merged with the Bombay State. Nagpur thus lost the status of a capital city. In 1960, under the Nagpur pact, Nagpur became the second capital of Maharashtra.[8]
  6. ^ Mumbai / Bombay was the capital of Bombay Presidency which was a province until 1950. After that Bombay became the capital of Bombay State. Subsequently, Bombay State was split into Gujarat and Maharashtra in 1960.
  7. ^ In 1960, under the Nagpur pact, Nagpur became the second capital of Maharashtra.[8] Although an official notification to this effect was only given in 1988. The India yearbook of the government of India still does not mention Nagpur, being either the second or winter capital of Maharashtra.
  8. ^ Under the Nagpur pact, one of the preconditions for Vidarbha joining the state of Maharastra was that, at least one of the legislative sessions every year should be held in Nagpur. The winter session is held in Nagpur.[9]
  9. ^ Lahore was the capital of Punjab province of British India.[10] It is now a part of Pakistan.
  10. ^ Gangtok has been the capital of Sikkim since 1890. Sikkim joined the Indian Union in 1975.[11]
  11. ^ Chennai (Madras) was the capital of the Madras Presidency since 1839, which was redrawn as Madras State in 1956. Madras State was renamed as Tamil Nadu in 1968.
  12. ^ Dehradun is the provisional capital of Uttarakhand. The town of Gairsen is envisaged as the state's new capital.[12]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Library of Congress 2004.
  2. ^ Sharma 2007, p. 49.
  3. ^ Baruah 1999, p. xiii.
  4. ^ Menon & Banerjea 2002, p. 5.
  5. ^ Ring 1996, p. 288.
  6. ^ a b Boland-Crewe & Lea 2002, p. 155.
  7. ^ Kumāra 1998, p. 136.
  8. ^ a b Kini 1974, pp. 34–35.
  9. ^ Khandewale 1989, p. 21.
  10. ^ Kippen 2006, p. 26.
  11. ^ Spate 1953, p. 200.
  12. ^ Sati & Kumar 2004, pp. 9–10.

References[edit]

External links[edit]