List of Indian timber trees

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There are over 150 species of timber which are produced in India. Following are the chief varieties of timber trees which are used for engineering purposes in India:

Common name Binomial nomenclature Colour Density ¹ Location Characteristics, Usage and Status
Aini or Aangili Artocarpus hirsutus Yellowish brown 595 kg/m³ Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Kerala Elastic, close-grained, and strong. It takes polish. It can be used underwater. It is used for ordinary building construction, structural work, paving, furniture and so forth.
Arjun Terminalia arjuna Terminalia elliptica Dark brown[1] 870 kg/m³ Central India It is heavy and strong. It has such uses as beams, rafters, and posts.
Axlewood Anogeissus latifolia 930 kg/m³ Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh It is very strong, hard and tough. It takes a smooth finish. It is subject to cracking.
Babul Acacia nilotica subsp. indica Whitish red 835 kg/m³ Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Bengal, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh It is strong, hard and tough and it takes up a good polish. It is used for such products as bodies and wheels of bullock cart, agricultural instruments, tool handles, and well curbs.
Bakul Mimusops elengi Mimusops parvifolia[2] Reddish brown 880 kg/m³ Some parts of North India It is close-grained and tough. It is used for making cabinets.
Bamboo Family Poaceae, tribe Bambuseae Throughout India, especially Assam and Bengal Not actually a tree, but a woody grass, it is flexible, very strong and durable. It is used for scaffoldings, thatched roofs, rafters, temporary bridges, and so forth.
Banyan Ficus benghalensis Brown 580 kg/m³ Throughout India It is strong and durable only under water. The aerial roots are utilized for such items as tent poles and well curbs.
Benteak Lagerstoemia parviflora 675 kg/m³ Kerala, Madras, Maharashtra, Karnataka It is strong and takes up a smooth surface. It may be used for building constructions, boat building and furniture.
Bijasal Pterocarpus marsupium Light brown 800 kg/m³ Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Kerala, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Orissa It is coarse-grained, durable and strong but difficult to work. Termites (also known as white ant) do not easily attack it. It is used for ordinary building construction and for cart wheels. Vulnerable[3]
Casuarina Casuarina spp. Reddish brown 765 kg/m³ Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu It grows straight. It is strong and fibrous. It is, however, badly twisted. It is often used for scaffolding and posts for temporary structures.
Coconut Cocos nucifera Reddish brown Throughout coastal India Takes polish. Requires preservative treatment. Used as poles, piles, furniture and as formwork in concrete construction.
Deodar Cedrus deodara Yellowish brown 560 kg/m³ Himalayas, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh Deodar is the most important timber tree providing soft wood. It can be easily worked and it is moderately strong. It possesses distinct annual rings. It is used for making cheap furniture, railway carriages, railway sleepers, packing boxes, structural work and so forth.
Gambar Gmelina arborea Pale yellow 580 kg/m³ Central India, South India It can be easily worked and is strong and durable especially when used under water. It is used for such products as furniture, carriage, well curbs, yokes, and door panels.
Hopea Hopea parviflora Light to deep brown 1010 kg/m³ Madras, Kerala Hopea is extremely strong and tough. It is difficult to work. However, it can be seasoned easily and it is durable and not likely to be damaged by white ants. It has been variously used for ordinary house construction, railway sleepers, piles, and boat building. Endangered[4]
Himalayan Elm, Indian Elm Ulmus wallichiana Red 960 kg/m³ Throughout India It is moderately hard and strong. It is used for door and window frames, carts, and so forth.
Ironwood, Penaga Lilin,
Bosneak, Gangaw, Mesua
Mesua ferrea Reddish brown[5] 960–1060 kg/m³[6] Ironwood is durable though it is very hard and is not easily worked. It even resists penetration of nails. It is used for ordinary house construction, bridges, piles, agricultural instruments, railway wagons, and railway sleepers.
Irul, Pyinkado Xylia xylocarpa 830–1060 kg/m³[7] Karnataka, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Tamil Nadu It is very hard, heavy and durable. Difficult to work, it also requires slow and careful seasoning. It is used for railway sleepers, agricultural instruments, paving blocks, and heavy construction. Least concern[8]
Jack Mangifera caesia. Yellow, darkens with age 595 kg/m³ Karnataka, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Kerala It is compact and even grained. It is moderately strong and easy to work. It takes a good finish and maintains its shape well. It has many uses including plain furniture, boat construction, well curbs, door panels, cabinet making and musical instruments.
Jarul Lagerstroemia flos-reginae Light reddish gray 640 kg/m³ Assam, Bengal, Maharashtra Hard and durable, it can be easily worked. It takes a good finish and is used for house construction, boat building, railway carriages, cart making and scaffolding.
Kathal, Keledang,[9] Jackfruit Artocarpus heterophyllus Yellow to deep brown 800 kg/m³[9] Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu It is heavy and hard. It is durable under water and in damp conditions, however, it cracks if exposed to direct sun. White ants do not attack it. It is used for piles, platforms of wooden bridges, door and window panels.
Lauraceae, Saj Lauraceae Dark brown[10] 880 kg/m³ Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Kerala, Tamil Nadu It is strong, hard and tough. It is subject to cracking and attack by dry rot. White ants do not attack it. It takes a smooth finish. It is used for such purposes as house construction, boat construction, railway sleepers and structural work.
Mahogany Swietenia spp. Reddish brown 720 kg/m³ It takes a good polish and is easily worked. It is durable under water. It is most commonly used for furniture, pattern making and cabinet work.
Mango Mangifera spp Deep gray 560–720 kg/m³[11] Throughout India The mango tree is well known for its fruits. It is easy to work and it maintains its shape well. It is moderately strong. It is most often used for cheap furniture, toys, packing boxes, cabinet work, panels for doors and for windows.
Mulberry Morus spp. Brown 650 kg/m³ Punjab It is strong, tough and elastic. It takes up a clean finish. It can be well seasoned. It is turned and carved easily. Mulberry is typically used for baskets and sports goods like hockey sticks, tennis rackets and cricket bats.
Oak Quercus spp. Yellowish brown 865 kg/m³ Oak is strong and durable, with straight silvery grain. It is used for preparing sporting goods.
Palm Arecaceae Dark brown 1040 kg/m³ Throughout India It contains ripe wood in the outer crust. The colour of this ripened wood is dark brown. It is strong, durable and fibrous. Palm is used for furniture, roof covering, rafters and joists.
Pine Pinus spp. Pine wood is hard and tough except white pine which is soft. It decays easily if it comes into contact with soil. It is heavy and coarse grained. It is used for pattern making, frames for doors and windows, and for paving material. White pine is light and straight grained and is used in the manufacture of matches.
Red cedar Red[1] 480 kg/m³ Assam, Nagpur It is soft and even grained. It is used for furniture, door panels and well curbs.
Rosewood Dalbergia latifolia Dark[1] 850 kg/m³[12] Kerala, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Orrissa It is strong, tough and close-grained. It is a handsome wood that takes up a high polish. It maintains its shape well and is available in large sizes. It is used for furniture of superior quality, cabinet work, ornamental carvings and so forth. Vulnerable[13]
Sal Shorea robusta Brown[1] 880–1050 kg/m³[14] Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa It is hard, fibrous and close-grained. It does not take up a good polish. It requires slow and careful seasoning. It is durable under ground and water. It is used for railway sleepers, shipbuilding, and bridges.
Sandalwood Santalum spp. White or Red 930 kg/m³ Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Assam, Nagpur, Bengal It has a pleasant smell. It is commonly used for agricultural instruments, well curbs, wheels, and mallets. Vulnerable[15]
Satinwood Chloroxylon swietenia Yellow[16] 960 kg/m³ Central and Southern India It is very hard and durable. It is close grained. It is used for furniture and other ornamental works. Vulnerable[17]
Simul Bombax spp. White 450 kg/m³ All over India It is a loose grained, inferior quality wood. Light in weight, it is used for packing cases, the match industry, well curbs, and for cheap furniture.
Siris Albizia spp. Dark brown North India Hard and durable, Siris wood is difficult to work. It is used for well curbs in salty water, beams, posts, and furniture.
Sissoo Dalbergia sissoo Dark brown[1] 770 kg/m³ Mysore, Maharashtra, Assam, Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Orissa Also known as shisham or tali, this wood is strong and tough. It is durable and handsome and it maintains its shape well. It can be easily seasoned. It is difficult to work but it takes a fine polish. It is used for high quality furniture, plywoods, bridge piles, sport goods, railway sleepers and so forth. It is a very good material for decorative works and carvings.
Spruce Picea spp. 480 kg/m³ Spruce wood resists decay and is not affected by the attack of marine borers. It is however liable to shrink, twist and warp. It is used for piles under water and (formerly) for aeroplane construction.
Sundri Heritiera fomes Dark red 960 kg/m³ Bengal It is hard and tough. It is difficult to season and work. It is elastic and close grained. It is strong and durable. These qualities make it suited for such uses as boat building, piles, poles, tool handles, and carriage shafts.
Tamarind Tamarindus indica Dark brown 1280 kg/m³[citation needed] All over India Tamarind is knotty and durable. It is a beautiful tree for avenue and gardens. Its development is very slow but it ultimately forms a massive appearance. Its fruit is also very useful. It is used for agricultural instruments, well curbs, sugar mills, carts and brick burning.
Teak Tectona grandis Deep yellow to dark brown[18] 639 kg/m³[19] Central India and Southern India Moderately hard, teak is durable and fire-resistant. It can be easily seasoned and worked. It takes up a good polish and is not attacked by white ants and dry rot. It does not corrode iron fastenings and it shrinks little. It is among the most valuable timber trees of the world and its use is limited to superior work only.
Toon, Red Cedar[20] Toona ciliata Reddish brown or dull red[1] 450 kg/m³[20] Assam It can be easily worked. It is light in weight. It is used for such products as furniture, packing boxes, cabinet making and door panels.

¹ After seasoning at 12% moisture content

Indian Mangrove[edit]

  • Caucasian Maple
  • Himalayan Maple
  • Singkrang
  • Lobed-leaf Alangium
  • Sage Leaved Alangium
  • Wild Mango
  • Netted Custard Apple
  • Sugar Apple
  • Mango
  • Kakkar
  • Brazilian Pepper
  • Cashew
  • Chironji Tree
  • Indian Ash Tree
  • Ylang Ylang
  • Ashok
  • Batino
  • Crape Jasmine
  • Mexican Oleander
  • Woolly Dyeing Rosebay
  • Frangipani pink
  • Frangipani red
  • Nag Kuda
  • Madagascar Palm
  • White Frangipani
  • Common White Frangipani
  • Devil Tree
  • Sea Mango
  • Indrajao
  • Peacock Chaste Tree
  • Chaste Tree
  • Tree of Life
  • Asian Bushbeech
  • Parrot's Beak
  • Teak
  • West Indian Elm
  • East-Indian Screw Tree
  • Looking Glass Mangrove
  • Bothi
  • Scarlet Sterculia
  • Pale Sterculia
  • Buddha Coconut
  • Java Olive
  • Spotted Sterculia
  • Large Leaf Looking Glass Tree
  • Guest Tree
  • Kanak Champa
  • Fiddlewood
  • Arni
  • Gamhar
  • Wild Tamarind
  • Moulmein Rosewood
  • Pongam Tree
  • Badminton Ball Tree
  • Tree Bean
  • Jerusalem Thorn
  • Jhand
  • Algaroba
  • Prickly Padauk
  • White Locust Tree
  • Rain Tree
  • Agati
  • Common Sesban
  • Tipu Tree
  • Sweet Chestnut
  • Woolly Leaved Oak
  • Blackjack Oak
  • Governor's Plum
  • Coffee Plum
  • Mountain Sweet Thorn
  • Chhal Mogra
  • Fried Egg Tree
  • Dandal
  • Ginkgo
  • Himalayan Tree Hydrangea
  • Pisa
  • Nelthare
  • Indian Bay Leaf
  • Cinnamon
  • Meda

See also[edit]

References[edit]