List of Internet top-level domains

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This is a list of Internet top-level domains (TLDs). A top-level domain is a domain name in the Domain Name System that is a direct subdomain of the DNS root zone.

The official list of all top-level domains is maintained by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA).[1]

In an initiative to expand the domain name space, IANA is considering approval of several proposed top-level domains.

Original top-level domains[edit]

Seven generic top-level domains were created early in the development of the Internet, and pre-date the creation of ICANN in 1998.[2]

Name Entity Administrator[3] Notes IDN DNSSEC
.com commercial Verisign This is an open TLD; any person or entity is permitted to register. Though originally intended for use by for-profit business entities, for a number of reasons it became the "main" TLD for domain names and is currently used by all types of entities including nonprofits, schools and private individuals. Domain name registrations may be successfully challenged if the holder cannot prove an outside relation justifying reservation of the name, to prevent "squatting". It was originally administered by the United States Department of Defense. Yes Yes
.org organization Public Interest Registry This is an open TLD; any person or entity is permitted to register. Originally intended for use by non-profit organizations, and still primarily used by some. Yes Yes
.net network Verisign This is an open TLD; any person or entity is permitted to register. Originally intended for use by domains pointing to a distributed network of computers, or "umbrella" sites that act as the portal to a set of smaller websites. Yes Yes
.int international organizations Internet Assigned Numbers Authority The .int TLD is strictly limited to organizations, offices, and programs which are endorsed by a treaty between two or more nations. However, there are a few grandfathered domain names that do not meet these criteria. No No
.edu U.S. higher education Educause (via Verisign) The .edu TLD is limited to specific educational institutions such as, but not limited to, primary schools, middle schools, secondary schools, colleges, and universities. In the US, its usability was limited in 2001 to post-secondary institutions accredited by an agency on the list of nationally recognized accrediting agencies maintained by the United States Department of Education. This domain is therefore almost exclusively used by American colleges and universities. Some institutions that do not meet the current registration criteria have grandfathered domain names. No Yes
.gov U.S. national and state government agencies General Services Administration (via Verisign) The .gov TLD is limited to governmental entities and agencies in the U.S. No Yes
.mil U.S. military United States Department of Defense The .mil TLD is limited to use by the United States military. No Yes

Infrastructure top-level domain[edit]

Infrastructure Entity Notes IDN DNSSEC
.arpa Address and Routing Parameter Area Originally assigned to the Advanced Research Projects Agency in the early days on the Internet, .arpa is now exclusively used as an Internet infrastructure TLD. "Address and Routing Parameter Area" is an example of a backronym. No Yes

Country code top-level domains[edit]

Note: the country code domain system was created in the early days of the Domain Name System, and pre-dates ICANN.

Name Entity Explanation Notes IDN DNSSEC SLD IPv6
.ac  Ascension Island   Commonly used for academic websites, such as universities. However, .ac is not to be confused with the official British academic domain .ac.uk. Yes Yes Yes Yes
.ad  Andorra   Local trademark, trade name or citizenship required [4][5]   Yes Yes
.ae  United Arab Emirates       No Yes
.af  Afghanistan       Yes Yes
.ag  Antigua and Barbuda   Also unofficially used by German businesses (where AG is an abbreviation of Aktiengesellschaft, a legal entity form similar to a corporation limited by shares)   Yes Yes
.ai  Anguilla       No Yes
.al  Albania   Citizenship no longer required   No No
.am  Armenia   Also unofficially used by AM radio stations or related business   Yes Yes
.an  Netherlands Antilles Local presence required; Netherlands Antilles were dissolved on October 10, 2010;   No Yes
.ao  Angola       No Unknown
.aq  Antarctica Antarctique Defined by the Antarctic Treaty as everything south of latitude 60°S. AQ domain names are available to government organizations who are signatories to the Antarctic Treaty and to other registrants who have a physical presence in Antarctica.   No Yes
.ar  Argentina     Spanish[a 1] No No
.as  American Samoa       No Yes
.at  Austria       Yes Yes
.au  Australia   Restrictions apply. In general, registrants must be Australian, and most have a minimum 2 year registration period.[6] Includes Ashmore and Cartier Islands and Coral Sea Islands.   No No
.aw  Aruba Aruba, West Indies Restricted to registered Aruban companies, organisations and citizens   No Yes
.ax  Åland       No Yes
.az  Azerbaijan       No Yes
.ba  Bosnia and Herzegovina     No Yes
.bb  Barbados       No Yes
.bd  Bangladesh       No No
.be  Belgium   Also unofficially used in the canton of Berne, Switzerland Yes Yes Yes
.bf  Burkina Faso       No Yes
.bg  Bulgaria     Yes[a 2] Yes Yes
.bh  Bahrain       No Yes
.bi  Burundi       No Yes
.bj  Benin       No Yes
.bm  Bermuda   Local corporate registration required   No Yes
.bn  Brunei       No No
.bo  Bolivia       No Yes
.br  Brazil   Restricted. Registration is done under several categories (i.e.: .edu.br for higher education institutions, .gov.br for government agencies, etc.)[7] Yes[8] Yes No[a 3]
.bs  Bahamas       No Yes
.bt  Bhutan       No No
.bv  Bouvet Island   Not in use (Norwegian dependency; see .no). No No No
.bw  Botswana       No Yes
.by  Belarus Byelorussia also unofficially used to denote Bayern (Bavaria), Germany   Yes Yes
.bz  Belize       Yes Yes
.ca  Canada   Subject to Canadian Presence Requirements. Yes[a 4] Yes Yes
.cc  Cocos (Keeling) Islands   Australian territory: not to be confused with Cocos islands in Guam. Also used as a free domain service to the public as cc.cc, cu.cc or cz.cc domain.   Yes Yes
.cd  Democratic Republic of the Congo       No Yes
.cf  Central African Republic       No Yes
.cg  Republic of the Congo       No Yes
.ch   Switzerland Confoederatio Helvetica (Latin)   Yes[a 5] Yes Yes
.ci  Côte d'Ivoire       No Yes
.ck  Cook Islands       No Yes
.cl  Chile     Yes Yes Yes
.cm  Cameroon   A local entity/company in Cameroon is required to register a domain name.   No Yes
.cn  People's Republic of China   A local company in China is required to register a domain name, or for personal registrations a valid ID copy of PRC. Hong Kong and Macau also maintain TLDs.   Yes Yes
.co  Colombia   Marketed as a global domain – recognized as a gccTLD by Google. Anyone can register.   Yes Yes
.cr  Costa Rica       Yes Yes
.cs  Czechoslovakia
 Serbia and Montenegro
This ccTLD was deleted around January 1995.
The ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code CS was later assigned to Serbia and Montenegro but that country continued to use the ccTLD .yu instead.
Serbia and Montenegro split in 2006, with Serbia assigned .rs and Montenegro .me
  No No
.cu  Cuba       No Yes
.cv  Cape Verde       No Yes
.cw  Curaçao Curaçao, West Indies     No Unknown
.cx  Christmas Island       Yes Yes
.cy  Cyprus       No No
.cz  Czech Republic     No[a 6] Yes Yes
.dd  East Germany Deutsche Demokratische Republik Was proposed, but never implemented due to German re-unification.   No No
.de  Germany Deutschland German postal address for administrative contact (admin-c) required. Proxy registrations are allowed. Yes[a 7] Yes Yes
.dj  Djibouti       No Yes
.dk  Denmark     Yes[a 8] Yes Yes
.dm  Dominica       No Yes
.do  Dominican Republic       No Yes
.dz  Algeria al-Djaza'er     No Yes
.ec  Ecuador       No Yes
.ee  Estonia Eesti Anyone can register but local administrative contact is required. Yes[a 9] Yes Yes
.eg  Egypt       No Yes
.eh  Western Sahara   .eh is reserved for Western Sahara, but does not exist in the root.   No  
.er  Eritrea   Inactive – The domain registrar Eritrea Telecommunication Services Corporation offers no services to register domains.   No No
.es  Spain España     No Yes
.et  Ethiopia       No No
.eu  European Union   Restricted to legal and natural persons in European Union member states. Previously unofficially used for sites in the Basque language, but now .eus is in official use. Yes[a 10] Yes Yes
.fi  Finland   Restricted to legal and natural persons residing in Finland. Yes[a 11] Yes Yes
.fj  Fiji       No Yes
.fk  Falkland Islands       No No
.fm  Federated States of Micronesia   Also unofficially used by FM radio stations or related business   No Yes
.fo  Faroe Islands Føroyar     Yes Yes
.fr  France   Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[a 12] Yes[a 13] Yes Yes
.ga  Gabon       No Yes
.gb  United Kingdom Great Britain Deprecated.[10] The primary ccTLD used for the United Kingdom is .uk.   No No
.gd  Grenada       No Yes
.ge  Georgia   Available for registration for residents of Georgia (unlimited) or for foreign companies via representation of any local legal person (one domain name per registrant)[11] No No Yes
.gf  French Guiana Guyane française   No  
.gg  Guernsey       No Yes
.gh  Ghana       No No
.gi  Gibraltar       Yes Yes
.gl  Greenland   Previously also unofficially used in Galicia, Spain, but now .gal has been approved for such use, to be implemented in 2014   Yes Yes
.gm  The Gambia       No Yes
.gn  Guinea   A local contact is required   Yes No
.gp  Guadeloupe   Still used for Saint-Barthélemy and Saint-Martin   No Yes
.gq  Equatorial Guinea Guinée équatoriale     No  
.gr  Greece     Yes[a 14] Yes Yes
.gs  South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands       Yes Yes
.gt  Guatemala     Yes No Yes
.gu  Guam       No No
.gw  Guinea-Bissau       No Yes
.gy  Guyana       No Yes
.hk  Hong Kong   Special administrative region of the People's Republic of China. Yes No Yes
.hm  Heard Island and McDonald Islands       No Yes
.hn  Honduras       Yes Yes
.hr  Croatia Hrvatska     No Yes
.ht  Haiti     Yes No Yes
.hu  Hungary   Restricted to Hungarian companies, organisations and citizens   No Yes
.id  Indonesia   Restricted to Indonesian companies (co.id), organisations (or.id), academic (ac.id & sch.id) and citizens (biz.id, my.id & web.id). Second-level domains are becoming available now and will be open to general registration on August 17, 2014.[12] Yes Partial[13] Yes
.ie  Ireland   In 2002, registration was expanded to include persons or businesses with a "real and substantive" connection with the island of Ireland (including Northern Ireland).[14][15] No No Yes
.il  Israel     Yes No No
.im  Isle of Man       No Yes
.in  India   Under INRegistry since April 2005 (except: gov.in, nic.in, mil.in, ac.in, edu.in, res.in).   Yes Yes
.io  British Indian Ocean Territory   Used unofficially by technology companies/startups/web applications because IO can be an acronym for input/output which is useful for domain hacks.   Yes Yes
.iq  Iraq       Partial[13] Yes
.ir  Iran     Yes No Yes
.is  Iceland Ísland   Yes Yes Yes
.it  Italy   Restricted to companies and individuals in the European Union. Yes[a 15] No Yes
.je  Jersey       No Yes
.jm  Jamaica       No No
.jo  Jordan       No Yes
.jp  Japan   Restricted to individuals or companies with a physical address in Japan.   Yes Yes
.ke  Kenya       Yes No
.kg  Kyrgyzstan       Yes Yes
.kh  Cambodia Khmer, former Kâmpŭchea     No No
.ki  Kiribati       Yes Yes
.km  Comoros Komori     No Yes
.kn  Saint Kitts and Nevis       No Yes
.kp  Democratic People's Republic of Korea       No No
.kr  Republic of Korea     Yes Yes Yes
.kw  Kuwait       No No
.ky  Cayman Islands   Restricted to qualified Cayman entities[16]   No Yes
.kz  Kazakhstan       No Yes
.la  Laos   Currently being marketed as the unofficial domain for Los Angeles[17]   Yes Yes
.lb  Lebanon   Restricted to registration with a company in Lebanon   Yes No
.lc  Saint Lucia       Yes Yes
.li  Liechtenstein   Also used by Long Island Yes Yes Yes
.lk  Sri Lanka Lanka     Yes Yes
.lr  Liberia       Partial[13] No
.ls  Lesotho       No No
.lt  Lithuania     Yes Yes Yes
.lu  Luxembourg     Yes Yes Yes
.lv  Latvia     Yes Yes Yes
.ly  Libya       No Yes
.ma  Morocco Maroc Also used as a free domain service to the public as cu.ma   Partial[13] Yes
.mc  Monaco   Only for companies with a trademark registered in Monaco   No Yes
.md  Moldova   Restricted to individuals or companies with a physical address in Moldova.   No Yes
.me  Montenegro       Yes Yes
.mg  Madagascar       No Yes
.mh  Marshall Islands       No  
.mk  Macedonia Makedonija Restricted to registration with a company in Macedonia   No Yes
.ml  Mali       No Yes
.mm  Myanmar       Yes No
.mn  Mongolia   The second-level domains '.gov.mn', '.org.mn', and '.edu.mn' are reserved for special use. See .mn for more information.   Yes Yes
.mo  Macau Macao Special administrative region of the People's Republic of China. Registrants must have a registered business in Macau, with the same name as the domain they wish to register.[18]   No Yes
.mp  Northern Mariana Islands       No Yes
.mq  Martinique     No No
.mr  Mauritania       No Yes
.ms  Montserrat       No Yes
.mt  Malta       No No
.mu  Mauritius       No Yes
.mv  Maldives       No Yes
.mw  Malawi       No Yes
.mx  Mexico       No Yes
.my  Malaysia   Restricted to registration by an individual or company in Malaysia Yes[a 16] Yes Yes
.mz  Mozambique       No No
.na  Namibia       Yes Yes
.nc  New Caledonia       Yes Yes
.ne  Niger       No Yes
.nf  Norfolk Island       Yes Yes
.ng  Nigeria       No Yes
.ni  Nicaragua       No No
.nl  Netherlands Nederland First official country code TLD.[19] No Yes Yes
.no  Norway   Businesses and professionals must be registered as an approved type of organization in the Brønnøysund Register Centre. Individual applicants must be of age (18 years) and be registered in the Folkeregisteret. All applicants must have a Norwegian postal address. Yes No Yes
.np    Nepal       No No
.nr  Nauru   Also used as a free domain service to the public as co.nr.   No Yes
.nu  Niue   Commonly used by Danish, Dutch and Swedish websites, because in those languages "nu" means "now". Yes Yes Yes
.nz  New Zealand     Yes[a 17] Yes No
.om  Oman   Registrant must have company or trademark registered in Oman as well as a local administrative contact.   No No
.pa  Panama       No No
.pe  Peru     Yes[a 18] Yes Yes
.pf  French Polynesia Polynésie française With Clipperton Island   No Yes
.pg  Papua New Guinea       No No
.ph  Philippines       No Yes
.pk  Pakistan   Operated by PKNIC since 1992   No Yes
.pl  Poland     Yes[a 19] Yes Yes
.pm  Saint-Pierre and Miquelon   Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[a 12] Yes Yes
.pn  Pitcairn Islands       No Yes
.pr  Puerto Rico       Yes Yes
.ps  State of Palestine[20]   West Bank and Gaza Strip.   No Yes
.pt  Portugal     Yes[a 20] Yes Yes Yes[21]
.pw  Palau Pelew     Yes Yes
.py  Paraguay       No No
.qa  Qatar       No No
.re  Réunion   Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[a 12] Yes[a 13] Yes Yes
.ro  Romania       No Yes
.rs  Serbia Republika Srbija     No Yes
.ru  Russia   See also .su, still in use, and .рф.   Yes Yes
.rw  Rwanda       No Yes
.sa  Saudi Arabia   Registrant must have a registered trademark in Saudi Arabia matching the domain name to register or provide company incorporation documents of a company in Saudi Arabia or for personal registrations a copy of valid ID. A letter on the official letterhead of your organization addressed to SaudiNIC requesting the domain name registration is also required. Local administrative contact required. 2LD registrations rolled out in 2011.[22]   No Yes
.sb  Solomon Islands British Solomon Islands     Yes No
.sc  Seychelles       Yes Yes
.sd  Sudan       No Yes
.se  Sweden     Yes[a 21] Yes Yes
.sg  Singapore       No Yes
.sh  Saint Helena     Yes[a 22] Yes Yes
.si  Slovenia   Yes[a 23] Yes Yes
.sj  Svalbard and
 Jan Mayen Islands
  Not in use (Norwegian dependencies; see .no). No Yes[23] No
.sk  Slovakia Restricted to Slovak companies, organisations and citizens   No Yes
.sl  Sierra Leone       No Yes
.sm  San Marino   Domain name must be same as company name or trademark   No Yes
.sn  Senegal       No Yes
.so  Somalia   Relaunched on November 1, 2010 No No Yes
.sr  Suriname       No Yes
.ss  South Sudan   Removed from the root DNS zone in April 2013   No
.st  São Tomé and Príncipe       No Yes
.su  Soviet Union   Still in use. Yes[a 24] Yes Yes
.sv  El Salvador       No No
.sx  Sint Maarten       Yes No
.sy  Syria       No Yes
.sz  Swaziland   Registration is restricted to Swaziland organizations with Swaziland Trading Licenses.   No No
.tc  Turks and Caicos Islands   .TC domains are also marketed in Turkey. The official abbreviation of 'Türkiye Cumhuriyeti' is TC.   No Yes
.td  Chad Tchad Chadian (.td) domains are available for registration to entities connected with Chad only.   No Yes
.tf  French Southern and Antarctic Lands Terres australes et antarctiques françaises Seldom used. Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[a 12] Yes[a 13] Yes Yes
.tg  Togo       No Yes
.th  Thailand     Yes Yes No
.tj  Tajikistan       No Yes
.tk  Tokelau   Also used as a free domain service to the public. Used in the Netherlands because tk ('te koop') means 'for sale' in Dutch.   No Yes
.tl  East Timor Timor-Leste Old code .tp is still in use.   No Yes
.tm  Turkmenistan     Yes[a 25] Yes Yes
.tn  Tunisia       No Yes
.to  Tonga   Often used unofficially for Torrent, Turin, Toronto, Tokyo, or Tocantins Yes No Yes
.tp  East Timor Timor Português ISO code has changed to TL; .tl is now assigned but .tp is still in use.   No Yes
.tr  Turkey   .nc.tr used by Northern Cyprus Yes[a 26] No Yes
.tt  Trinidad and Tobago       Yes Yes
.tv  Tuvalu   Used as an abbreviation of television, the domain is currently operated by dotTV, a VeriSign company; the Tuvalu government owns twenty percent of the company.   Yes Yes
.tw  Taiwan   Registration allowed worldwide, local presence not required. In line with ISO 3166-1, IANA's official position is that “TW” is "designated for use to represent "Taiwan, Province of China."[24] Yes[a 27] Yes Yes
.tz  Tanzania   Must have a presence in Tanzania   Yes No
.ua  Ukraine Україна/Ukraina Ukrainian trademark required   Yes Yes
.ug  Uganda       Yes Yes
.uk  United Kingdom   The ISO 3166-1 code for the United Kingdom is GB. UK is a specially reserved ISO 3166-1 code for the UK. However, the creation of the .uk TLD predates the ISO 3166-1 list of ccTLD and is the primary TLD for the United Kingdom.[10]   Yes Yes
.us  United States of America Formerly commonly used by US State and local governments, see also .gov TLD   Yes Yes
.uy  Uruguay   2LD rollout began on 10 July 2012.[25]   No Yes
.uz  Uzbekistan       No Yes
.va   Vatican City Vaticano Limited to the official sites of the Holy See (including those of the Vatican City State)   No No
.vc  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines       Partial[13] Yes
.ve  Venezuela       No No
.vg  British Virgin Islands       No Yes
.vi  United States Virgin Islands       No Yes
.vn  Vietnam     Yes[a 28] No Yes
.vu  Vanuatu       No Yes
.wf  Wallis and Futuna   Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[a 12] Yes[a 13] Yes Yes
.ws  Samoa Formerly Western Samoa Marketed to be used in general WebSites Yes No Yes
.ye  Yemen       No No
.yt  Mayotte   Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[a 12] Yes[a 13] Yes Yes
.yu  SFR Yugoslavia
 FR Yugoslavia
  After dissolution of Yugoslavia used for Serbia and Montenegro.
Not used after 2010.
  No No
.za  South Africa Zuid-Afrika     No No
.zm  Zambia       No No
.zr  Zaire   Zaire renamed Democratic Republic of the Congo in 1997.
.zr was removed in 2001
  No Unknown
.zw  Zimbabwe       No No

ICANN-era generic top-level domains[edit]

Full List of ICANN TLDs

Name Entity Notes IDN DNSSEC
.academy academic institutes Open TLD Yes Yes
.accountants accountants and accounting firms Open TLD Yes Yes
.actor actors Open TLD Yes Yes
.aero air-transport industry Must verify eligibility for registration; only those in various categories of air-travel-related entities may register. No No
.agency business associations Open TLD Yes Yes
.associates business associations Open TLD Yes Yes
.audio stereo/sound systems, music Open TLD Yes[26] Yes
.bar bars and pubs Open TLD Yes Yes
.bargains coupons and online sellers Open TLD Yes Yes
.beer beer Open TLD Unknown Yes
.bid auctions Open TLD Yes Yes
.bike bicycles Open TLD French, Spanish[27] Yes
.bio biodiversity, biographies Open TLD Unknown Yes
.biz business This is an open TLD; any person or entity is permitted to register; however, registrations may be challenged later if they are not held by commercial entities in accordance with the domain's charter. This TLD was created to provide relief for the .com TLD, where many names have already been taken. Yes[28] Yes
.black those who like black Open TLD Yes Yes
.blackfriday Black Friday, retail Open TLD Yes[26] Yes
.blue those who like blue[29] Open TLD Yes Yes
.boutique specialized businesses Open TLD Yes Yes
.build construction industry Open only to businesses within the construction industry[30] Yes Yes
.builders construction workers Open TLD Yes Yes
.buzz marketing and social networking Open TLD Yes Yes
.cab cabs and taxi companies Open TLD Yes Yes
.camera camera-related businesses Open TLD Yes Yes
.camp camps and camping Open TLD Yes Yes
.capital financial firms Open TLD Yes Yes
.cards general Open TLD Yes Yes
.care healthcare industry Open TLD Yes Yes
.careers Employment Open TLD Yes Yes
.cash financial Open TLD Yes Yes
.catering Food service Open TLD Yes Yes
.center general Open TLD Yes Yes
.ceo CEOs Business owners and leaders only[31] Unknown Yes
.cheap Resellers Open TLD Yes Yes
.christmas Christmas Open TLD Yes[26] Yes
.church churches Open TLD Yes Yes
.claims retail, auctions Open TLD Yes Yes
.cleaning Cleaning services Open TLD Yes Yes
.clinic healthcare clinics Open TLD Yes Yes
.clothing Apparel Open TLD Yes Yes
.club groups, organizations, assemblies Open TLD[32] Spanish[28] Yes
.codes computer and/or encryption code enthusiasts Open TLD Yes Yes
.coffee cafés and coffee aficionados Open TLD Yes Yes
.college Educational Open TLD Yes Yes
.community social groups, neighborhoods Open TLD Yes Yes
.company business associations Open TLD Yes Yes
.computer Technology Open TLD Yes Yes
.condos Real estate Open TLD Yes Yes
.construction Construction industry Open TLD Yes Yes
.consulting hired advisors Open TLD Yes Yes
.contractors Remodeling and independent businesses Open TLD Yes Yes
.cooking sharing recipes Open TLD Yes Yes
.cool General interests Open TLD Yes Yes
.coop Cooperatives The .coop TLD is limited to cooperatives as defined by the Rochdale Principles. No No
.country general Open TLD Yes Yes
.credit Financial institutions Open TLD Yes Yes
.creditcard Financial institutions Open TLD Yes Yes
.cruises Cruise businesses and travel Open TLD Yes Yes
.dance Dance studios and companies Open TLD Yes Yes
.date Online dating Open TLD Unknown Yes
.dating Online dating Open TLD Yes Yes
.democrat Democractic Party politics Open TLD Yes Yes
.dental dentists Open TLD Yes Yes
.diamonds diamond and jewelry industry Open TLD Yes Yes
.digital general Open TLD Yes Yes
.direct general Open TLD Unknown Yes
.directory general directory Open TLD Yes Yes
.discount general Open TLD Yes Yes
.domains domain registries Open TLD Yes Yes
.education educational institutes Open TLD Yes Yes
.email Email Open TLD Yes Yes
.engineering engineering firms Open TLD Yes Yes
.enterprises business associations Open TLD Yes Yes
.equipment equipment-related businesses Open TLD Yes Yes
.estate real estate businesses Open TLD Yes Yes
.events happenings Open TLD Yes Yes
.exchange generic trade Open TLD Yes Yes
.expert generic expertise Open TLD Yes Yes
.exposed general interest Open TLD Yes Yes
.fail general Open TLD Yes Yes
.farm farms and agriculture Open TLD Yes Yes
.finance financial Open TLD Yes Yes
.financial financial Open TLD Yes Yes
.fish fishing businesses, sports, and interests Open TLD Yes Yes
.fishing fishing businesses, sports, and interests Open TLD Yes Yes
.fitness Fitness and exercise Open TLD Yes Yes
.flights airline businesses and travel Open TLD Yes Yes
.florist florists Open TLD Yes Yes
.foo web development Open TLD[33] Unknown Yes
.foundation charitable organizations Open TLD Yes Yes
.fund financial Open TLD Yes Yes
.furniture furniture businesses Open TLD Yes Yes
.futbol soccer Open TLD Yes Yes
.gallery photo and art galleries Open TLD Yes Yes
.gift gift-giving Open TLD Yes[26] Yes
.glass Windows and pipes Open TLD Yes Yes
.global general Open TLD Yes Yes
.gop Republican Party politics Open TLD Spanish[34] Yes
.graphics Graphics Open TLD Yes Yes
.gratis Spanish for "free" Open TLD Yes Yes
.gripe Opinion sites Open TLD Yes Yes
.guide Help sites Open TLD Yes Yes
.guitars Guitars Open TLD Yes[26] Yes
.guru Generic expertise Open TLD French, Spanish[35] Yes
.haus German for "house" Open TLD Yes Yes
.hiphop Hip hop culture Open TLD Yes[26] Yes
.hiv AIDS and HIV Open TLD Unknown Yes
.holdings real estate or financial business Open TLD Yes Yes
.holiday holiday gift industry Open TLD Yes Yes
.horse horse-related businesses and interest Open TLD Yes Yes
.host network companies Open TLD Unknown Yes
.house real estate and construction businesses Open TLD Yes Yes
.immobilien German for "real estate" Open TLD German[28] Yes
.industries industrial businesses Open TLD Yes Yes
.info information This is an open TLD; any person or entity is permitted to register. Yes Yes
.ink creative printing or tattooing[36] Open TLD Yes Yes
.institute Established business associations Open TLD Yes Yes
.insure Insurance companies Open TLD Yes Yes
.international international entities Open TLD Yes Yes
.investments financial Open TLD Yes Yes
.jetzt German for "now" Open TLD Yes Yes
.jobs Employment For websites with job opportunities and job listings.[37] No No
.juegos Spanish for "games" Open TLD Yes[26] Yes
.kaufen German for "buy" Open TLD German[28] Yes
.kitchen food industry and remodeling Open TLD Yes Yes
.kim people named Kim Open TLD
Kim is a common first name in the US and is also the most common Korean surname.
Unknown Yes
.land real estate Open TLD Yes Yes
.lease financing Open TLD Yes Yes
.life general Open TLD Yes Yes
.lighting lighting Open TLD Yes Yes
.limited general Open TLD Yes Yes
.limo limousine businesses Open TLD Yes Yes
.link connecting to information[38] Open TLD Yes[26] Yes
.loans Banks and lenders Open TLD Yes Yes
.luxury businesses catering to the wealthy Open TLD Yes Yes
.maison French for "house" Open TLD Yes Yes
.management business management Open TLD Yes Yes
.marketing marketing services Open TLD Yes Yes
.media general media interests Open TLD Yes Yes
.menu restaurants Open TLD Yes Yes
.mobi mobile devices Must be used for mobile-compatible sites in accordance with standards. Yes No
.moda Italian and Spanish for "fashion" Open TLD Spanish[28] Yes
.moe Japanese otaku culture The word “moe” (in Japanese: “萌え”; pronounced as “moh-ay”) is a slang word rooted deep in the Japanese Otaku culture. It has often been used to mean a particular type of “adorable” or “cute” towards fictional characters, people, animals, etc.[39] Yes Yes
.museum museums Must be verified as a legitimate museum. Latin script[28] Yes
.name individuals, by name This is an open TLD; any person or entity is permitted to register; however, registrations may be challenged later if they are not by individuals (or the owners of fictional characters) in accordance with the domain's charter. Yes[28] Yes
.ninja general expertise Open TLD Yes Yes
.onl online Open TLD Unknown Yes
.organic organic gardeners, farmers, foods, etc. Registrants must be verified as a member of the organic community.[40] Unknown Yes
.partners businesses Open TLD Yes Yes
.parts manufacturing and consumer auto Open TLD Yes Yes
.photo photography and photo-sharing Open TLD Yes[26] Yes
.photography photography and photo-sharing Open TLD Yes Yes
.photos photography and photo-sharing Open TLD Yes Yes
.pics photography and photo-sharing Open TLD Yes[26] Yes
.pictures photography and photo-sharing Open TLD Yes Yes
.pink those who like pink Open TLD Yes Yes
.place general Open TLD Unknown Yes
.plumbing plumbing businesses Open TLD Yes Yes
.post postal services The .post TLD is restricted to Postal Administrations as defined in the Universal Postal Union constitution, and their large customers who wish to provide "Trusted Postal Services".[41] No[42] Yes
.press publishing and journalism Open TLD Unknown Yes
.pro professions Currently, .pro is reserved for licensed or certified professionals worldwide. A professional seeking to register a .pro domain must provide their registrar with the appropriate credentials. No No
.productions studio/art businesses Open TLD Yes Yes
.products retail or whole-sale businesses Open TLD Unknown Yes
.properties real estate Open TLD Yes Yes
.pub bars and pubs Open TLD Yes Yes
.recipes recipes and cooking Open TLD Yes Yes
.red Spanish variant of .net Open TLD
Also likely to be attractive for domain hacks for words that end with '-red'.
Yes Yes
.reise German for "travel" Open TLD Latin script[28] Yes
.reisen German for "travel" Open TLD German[28] Yes
.ren Renren users Restricted TLD[43] Unknown Yes
.rentals short-term ownership Open TLD Yes Yes
.repair general repair/maintenance businesses Open TLD Yes Yes
.report business services Open TLD Yes Yes
.republican Republican Party politics Open TLD Unknown Yes
.rest restaurants Open TLD Yes[44] Yes
.reviews Public reviews Open TLD Yes Yes
.rich businesses catering to the wealthy Open TLD Unknown Yes
.rocks general Open TLD Yes Yes
.rodeo Rodeo interest Open TLD Yes Yes
.schule German for "school" Open TLD Unknown Yes
.services business services Open TLD Yes Yes
.sexy adult entertainment Open TLD Yes[26] Yes
.shiksha education entities in India "Shiksha" is Hindi for "education". Unknown Yes
.shoes shoes Open TLD Yes Yes
.singles online dating Open TLD Yes Yes
.social general interest Open TLD Yes Yes
.solar solar-power Open TLD Yes Yes
.solutions business services Open TLD Yes Yes
.space space Open TLD Unknown Yes
.supplies manufacturing industries Open TLD Yes Yes
.supply manufacturing industries Open TLD Yes Yes
.support help pages Open TLD French, Spanish[45] Yes
.surf Surfing Open TLD Unknown Yes
.surgery healthcare industry Open TLD Yes Yes
.systems technology Open TLD Yes Yes
.tattoo tattoo aficionados Open TLD Yes[26] Yes
.tax financial Open TLD Yes Yes
.technology technology Open TLD Yes Yes
.tel Internet communication services A contact directory housing all types of contact information directly in the Domain Name System. Yes[46] No
.tienda Spanish for "shop", "store" Open TLD Spanish Yes
.tips general help topics Open TLD Yes Yes
.today general Open TLD Yes Yes
.tools manufacturing industries Open TLD Yes Yes
.town generic geographic Open TLD Yes Yes
.toys toy businesses Open TLD Yes Yes
.trade businesses Open TLD Yes Yes
.training training and how-tos Open TLD Yes Yes
.travel travel and tourism industry related sites Must be verified as a legitimate travel-related entity. No No
.university young adults, university life Open TLD Yes Yes
.uno Spanish websites targeting Latino consumers Open TLD Spanish Yes
.vacations travel Open TLD Yes Yes
.versicherung German for "insurance" Open TLD Latin script[28] Yes
.ventures funding for start-ups Open TLD Yes Yes
.viajes Spanish for "travel" Open TLD Spanish Yes
.villas real estate and/or travel businesses Open TLD Yes Yes
.vision eye-care businesses Open TLD Yes Yes
.vodka Vodka-related businesses and interest Open TLD Yes Yes
.voting polling sites Open TLD Latin and Cyrillic scripts Yes
.voyage travel Open TLD Yes Yes
.wang general Open TLD
Wǎng is a pinyin of 网 (web).[47]
Wang is also a common surname in mainland China.
Unknown Yes
.watch Watches Open TLD Yes Yes
.webcam Web cam shows and video sharing Open TLD Yes Yes
.website generic Open TLD Unknown Yes
.wed engaged couples and wedding-oriented businesses This TLD is intended primarily for engaged couples on a short-term basis (two years with prohibitive third-year renewal fees for second-level domains).[48]
And although the registry is advertising for multiple world languages, all domains appear to need to be in Latin script.[49]
No Yes
.wiki wikis "An open TLD for anyone interested in community resource creation" Yes Yes
.works General interests Open TLD Yes Yes
.wtf general Open TLD Yes Yes
.xxx adult entertainment (pornography) For sites providing sexually explicit content, such as pornography. Yes No
.xyz general Open TLD Yes[50] Yes
.zone general Open TLD Yes Yes

Internationalized generic top-level domains[edit]

All of these TLDs are internationalized domain names (IDN) and will allow second-level IDNs.

DNS Name IDN Language Transliteration English Translation Notes DNSSEC
xn--ngbc5azd[51] شبكة. Arabic shabaka "network" Open TLD Yes
xn--q9jyb4c[51] .みんな Japanese minna "everyone" Open TLD [52] Yes
xn--3ds443g[51] .在线 Chinese zàixiàn "online" Open TLD.
The Chinese Government quickly bought 20,000 IDN for localities.[53]
Yes
xn--fiq228c5hs[51] .中文网 Chinese Zhōngwén wǎng "Chinese (language) network" Open TLD.
The Chinese Government quickly bought 20,000 IDN for localities.[53]
Yes
xn--6frz82g[51] .移动 Chinese yídòng "mobile" Open TLD Yes
xn--ses554g[51] .网址 Chinese wǎngzhǐ "website" or "network address" Open TLD Yes
xn--io0a7i[51] .网络 Chinese wǎngluò "network" Open TLD Yes
xn--55qx5d[51] .公司 Chinese gōngsī "business organizaion" Open TLD Yes
xn--d1acj3b[51] .дети Russian dyeti "kids" or "children" Open TLD Yes
xn--80asehdb[51] .онлайн Russian onlain "online" Open TLD Yes
xn--c1avg[51] .орг Russian org "organization" or "org" Open TLD Yes
xn--80aswg[51] .сайт Russian sait "site" Open TLD Yes

Geographic top-level domains[edit]

Name Entity Notes IDN DNSSEC
.asia Asia-Pacific region This is a TLD for companies, organizations, and individuals based in the region of Asia, Australia, and the Pacific. Chinese, Japanese, Korean[28] Yes
.bayern Bavaria, Germany [54] Yes Yes
.berlin Berlin, Germany [55] Latin and Cyrillic scripts[28] Yes
.brussels Brussels, Belgium [56] Latin script[28] Yes
.bzh Brittany, France Breizh in Breton.[57] French[28] Yes
.capetown Cape Town, South Africa [58] Unknown Yes
.cat Catalunya, Spain This is a TLD for Web sites in the Catalan language or related to Catalan culture.[59] Catalan[28] Yes
.cologne Cologne, Germany [60] Yes Yes
.durban Durban, South Africa [61] Unknown Yes
.eus Basque, Spain and France Euskal Herria in Basque. Web sites must be in the Basque language and are checked periodically.[62] Unknown Yes
.frl Friesland, Netherlands [63] Unknown Yes
.gal Galicia, Spain This is a TLD for Web sites in the Galician language or related to Galician culture.[64] Unknown Yes
.hamburg Hamburg, Germany Latin script[28] Yes
.joburg Johannesburg, South Africa [65] Unknown Yes
.kiwi New Zealanders
(aka kiwis)
[66] Latin script[28] Yes
.koeln Cologne, Germany [67] Yes Yes
.london London, United Kingdom [68] Yes Yes
.melbourne Melbourne, Australia [69] Unknown Yes
.moscow Moscow, Russia [70] Yes Yes
.nagoya Nagoya, Japan [71] Japanese[28] Yes
.nyc New York City, USA [72] Spanish[28] Yes
.paris Paris, France [73] French[28] Yes
.quebec Québec, Canada [74] Unknown Yes
.ruhr Ruhr, Germany [75] German[28] Yes
.scot Scotland [76] Unknown Yes
.tokyo Tokyo, Japan [77] Yes Yes
.vegas Las Vegas, NV, USA [78] Yes Yes
.vlaanderen Flanders, Belgium [79] Latin script[28] Yes
.wien Vienna, Austria [80] Latin script[28] Yes
.yokohama Yokohama, Japan [81] Unknown Yes
.москва
(xn--80adxhks)
Moscow, Russia [82] Russian[28] Yes

Brand top-level domains[edit]

Name Entity Notes IDN DNSSEC
.axa AXA [83] Yes[28] Yes
.bmw BMW [84] No Yes
.citic CITIC Group [85] No Yes
.frogans OP3FT Solely for use by the Frogans technology[86] Yes[28] Yes
.globo Grupo Globo [87] No Yes
.mango MANGO [88] Latin script[28] Yes
.mini Mini [89] No Yes
.monash Monash University [90][91] No Yes
.neustar Neustar [92] No Yes
.ovh OVH [93] French[28] Yes
.scb Siam Commercial Bank Thai[28] Yes
.yandex Yandex [94] Unknown Yes
.삼성
(xn--cg4bki)
Samsung [95] Yes Yes
.中信
(xn--fiq64b)
CITIC Group [96] Yes Yes

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ (November 17, 2009) Spanish-Portuguese specific characters (á, â, ã, à, é, ê, í, ó, ô, õ, ú, ü, ñ, ç) allowed, as approved by law
  2. ^ in addition to ASCII, only Cyrillic letters from the Bulgarian language are accepted
  3. ^ Currently not allowed, but some higher-learning institutions were grandfathered in.
  4. ^ French specific characters (â, à, æ, ç, é, ë, ê, è, î, ï, ô, œ, ù, û, ü, ÿ) allowed
  5. ^ Since March 2004, see details
  6. ^ IDN not adopted due to lack of public and corporate interest[9]
  7. ^ 93 non-ASCII characters, see details
  8. ^ (January 1, 2004), (æ, ø, å, ö, ä, ü, & é): see details
  9. ^ Estonian domain names to incorporate diacritics (IDN) Starting from June 13, 2011 [1]
  10. ^ Supported characters (latin, greek, cyrillic): see details
  11. ^ (September 2005) Supported characters (latin): see details
  12. ^ a b c d e f (6 December 2011) "Opening to Europe of the .fr, .wf, .re, .yt, .pm, and .tf TLDs". .
    Before restricted to residents of the corresponding French territory.
  13. ^ a b c d e Availability of IDN on the .fr, .yt, .pm, .wf, .tf, and .re TLDs
  14. ^ Support for Greek characters since July 2005, see details
  15. ^ [2], [3]
  16. ^ .my Domain Registry
  17. ^ (July 26, 2010) for Māori macrons ā, ē, ī, ō and ū. See details
  18. ^ (8 December 2007): see details
  19. ^ (11 September 2003): see details
  20. ^ (1 July 2005) for Portuguese characters
  21. ^ (October 2003), for Swedish characters, summer 2007 also for Finnish, Meänkieli, Romani, Sami, and Yiddish: see details
  22. ^ IDN Code Points Policy for the .SH Top Level Domain
  23. ^ Since October 2010, see details
  24. ^ (28 April 2008) see details
  25. ^ IDN Code Points Policy for the .TM Top Level Domain
  26. ^ (14 November 2006): see details
  27. ^ Traditional Chinese characters: see details
  28. ^ TRUNG TÂM INTERNET VIÊT NAM – Tên mien tieng viet

Internationalized country code top-level domains[edit]

DNS name IDN ccTLD Country Transliteration Script Comments Other ccTLD DNSSEC
xn--lgbbat1ad8j الجزائر.  Algeria al Jaza'ir Arabic .dz No
xn--54b7fta0cc .বাংলা  Bangladesh Bangla Bengali Not delegated .bd No
xn--fiqs8s .中国  China Zhōngguó Simplified Chinese .cn Yes
xn--fiqz9s .中國  China Zhōngguó Traditional Chinese .cn Yes
xn--wgbh1c مصر.  Egypt Masr [97] Arabic .eg No
xn--node .გე  Georgia GE Georgian Not delegated .ge No
xn--j6w193g .香港  Hong Kong Hoeng1 gong2 Both Traditional and Simplified Chinese .hk No
xn--h2brj9c .भारत  India Bhārat Devanagari Became available 27 Aug 2014 [98] .in Yes
xn--mgbbh1a71e بھارت.  India Bhārat Urdu Not in use .in No
xn--fpcrj9c3d .భారత్  India Bhārat Telugu Not in use .in No
xn--gecrj9c .ભારત  India Bhārat Gujarati Not in use .in No
xn--s9brj9c .ਭਾਰਤ  India Bhārat Gurmukhi Not in use .in No
xn--xkc2dl3a5ee0h .இந்தியா  India Inthiyaa Tamil Not in use .in No
xn--45brj9c .ভারত  India Bhārat Bengali Not in use .in No
xn--mgba3a4f16a ایران.  Iran Īrān Persian .ir No
xn--mgbayh7gpa الاردن.  Jordan al 'Urdun Arabic .jo No
xn--80ao21a .қаз  Kazakhstan qaz Cyrillic .kz No
xn--d1alf .мкд  Macedonia(F.Y.R.o.) mkd Cyrillic Not delegated .mk
xn--mgbx4cd0ab مليسيا.  Malaysia Malaysia Arabic Not in use .my Yes
xn--l1acc .мон  Mongolia mon Mongolian Cyrillic Not in use .mn Yes
xn--mgbc0a9azcg المغرب.  Morocco al Maghrib Arabic .ma No
xn--mgb9awbf عمان.  Oman Oman Arabic Not in use .om No
xn--mgbai9azgqp6j پاکستان.  Pakistan Pakistan Urdu Not delegated .pk No
xn--ygbi2ammx فلسطين.  State of Palestine Filastīn Arabic .ps No
xn--wgbl6a قطر.  Qatar Qatar Arabic .qa No
xn--p1ai .рф  Russia rf Cyrillic .ru Yes
xn--mgberp4a5d4ar السعودية.  Saudi Arabia as-Sa'ūdiyyah Arabic .sa No
xn--90a3ac .срб  Serbia srb Cyrillic .rs No
xn--yfro4i67o .新加坡  Singapore Xīnjiāpō Both Traditional and Simplified Chinese .sg No
xn--clchc0ea0b2g2a9gcd .சிங்கப்பூர்  Singapore Cinkappūr Tamil .sg No
xn--3e0b707e .한국  South Korea Han-guk Hangul .kr Yes
xn--fzc2c9e2c .ලංකා  Sri Lanka Lanka Sinhalese .lk Partial[13]
xn--xkc2al3hye2a .இலங்கை  Sri Lanka Ilangai Tamil .lk Partial[13]
xn--mgbpl2fh سودان.  Sudan Sudan Arabic Not delegated .sd No
xn--mgbtf8fl سوريا.  Syria Sūryā Arabic .sy No
xn--kprw13d .台湾  Taiwan Táiwān Simplified Chinese .tw Yes
xn--kpry57d .台灣  Taiwan Táiwān Traditional Chinese .tw Yes
xn--o3cw4h .ไทย  Thailand Thai Thai script .th Yes
xn--pgbs0dh تونس.  Tunisia Tūnis Arabic .tn No
xn--j1amh .укр  Ukraine ukr Cyrillic .ua No
xn--mgbaam7a8h امارات.  United Arab Emirates Imārāt Arabic .ae No
xn--mgb2ddes اليمن.  Yemen al Yemen Arabic Not delegated .ye No

Source:[99]

Proposed internationalized ccTLDs[edit]

Test TLDs[edit]

ICANN created a set of top-level Internationalized domain names in October 2007 for the purpose of testing the use of IDNA in the root zone and within those domains. These testing domains were abolished on 31 October 2013.[100] Each of these TLDs encoded a word meaning "test" in the respective language.[101][102]

Each of these domains contained only one site with the word "example" encoded in the respective script and language. These example.test sites were test wikis used by ICANN.

TLD Transliteration Language Script Link to test site
DNS name Script version
xn--kgbechtv إختبار ik͡htibār Arabic Arabic http://مثال.إختبار
xn--hgbk6aj7f53bba آزمایشی ậzmạy̰sẖy Persian Perso-Arabic http://مثال.آزمایشی
xn--0zwm56d 测试 cèshì Chinese Simplified Chinese http://例子.测试
xn--g6w251d 測試 cèshì Chinese Traditional Chinese http://例子.測試
xn--80akhbyknj4f испытание ispytánije Russian Cyrillic http://пример.испытание
xn--11b5bs3a9aj6g परीक्षा parīkṣā Hindi Devanagari http://उदाहरण.परीक्षा
xn--jxalpdlp δοκιμή dokimé Greek Greek http://παράδειγμα.δοκιμή
xn--9t4b11yi5a 테스트 teseuteu Korean Hangul http://실례.테스트
xn--deba0ad טעסט test Yiddish Hebrew http://בײַשפּיל.טעסט
xn--zckzah テスト tesuto Japanese Katakana[103] http://例え.テスト
xn--hlcj6aya9esc7a பரிட்சை pariṭcai Tamil Tamil http://உதாரணம்.பரிட்சை

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ IANA maintained list of top-level domains
  2. ^ Jon Postel (March 1994). "RFC 1591: Domain Name System Structure and Delegation". IETF. 
  3. ^ Root Zone Database
  4. ^ "Andorra Telecom trademark domain registration policy". 
  5. ^ "Andorra Telecom trade name registration policy". 
  6. ^ "Rules for .au Domains". 
  7. ^ "Domínios .br". Registro.br. 
  8. ^ (May 9, 2005) for Portuguese (Brazilian) names: see Anúncio 04/05/2005
  9. ^ IDN – Internationalized Domain Names at nic.cz
  10. ^ a b Milton Mueller (2002), Ruling the Root: Internet Governance and the Taming of Cyberspace, Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, p. 79, ISBN 9780262632980 
  11. ^ Article 1.9 of Rules and Conditions for GE Domain Names Registration (Recent Georgian version has some updates not causing this article)
  12. ^ Shorter .id domain will be available in Indonesia next year. Techinasia.com (2013-12-19). Retrieved on 2014-05-25.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g Delegation Signer (DS) record in a root zone is not yet published.
  14. ^ "Domain chaos spikes e-business ambitions". Silicon Republic. 17 December 2002. Retrieved 30 December 2012. 
  15. ^ Information Technology Law: Professional Practice Guide, Dublin: Law Society of Ireland, 2004, p. 23 
  16. ^ ICTA: ky Domain Policies
  17. ^ The Official .LA Registry
  18. ^ How can I get a .mo domain if I'm not in Macau?. Quora. Retrieved on 2014-05-25.
  19. ^ (Dutch) SIDN registreert 3.000.000ste .nl-domeinnaam (SIDN registers 3 millionth .nl domain name), Official website of SIDN
  20. ^ Delegation Record for .PS
  21. ^ Notícias. dns.pt (2013-02-21). Retrieved on 2014-05-25.
  22. ^ "Beginning of the Landrush phase of second level domain under (.sa)". 
  23. ^ "TLD DNSSEC Report". ICANN Research. Retrieved 9 Sep 2014. 
  24. ^ IANA Report – Delegation of the .台灣 and .台湾 (“Taiwan”) domains representing Taiwan, Province of China in Chinese to Taiwan Network Information Center).
  25. ^ "New rules for the registration of domain names under UY". 
  26. ^ http://www.gtld.com/UserFiles/bike-external.pdf
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac "IANA — Repository of IDN Practices". iana.org (in English). Retrieved 22 Sep 2014. 
  28. ^ http://dotblue.blue/why-blue
  29. ^ "Dotbuild.co". Retrieved 2014-05-25. 
  30. ^ YourName.CEO. Nic.ceo. Retrieved on 2014-05-25.
  31. ^ "DotClub FAQ - DotClub". Retrieved 2014-05-25. 
  32. ^ ICANN Wiki. ICANNwiki.com. Retrieved on 2014-07-24.
  33. ^ [4] ICANN .gop Registry Agreement
  34. ^ http://www.gtld.com/UserFiles/guru-external.pdf
  35. ^ http://nic.ink/the-tld/
  36. ^ http://nic.jobs/faq.asp
  37. ^ link Official - Uniregistry. Nic.link. Retrieved on 2014-05-25.
  38. ^ http://nic.moe/en/
  39. ^ ".ORGANIC Eligibility". Retrieved 18 Sep 2014. 
  40. ^ UPU. "Description of TLD Policies: Criteria for Registration". E17. Retrieved 2013-01-01. 
  41. ^ UPU. "Description of TLD Policies:TLD String". E2. Retrieved 2013-01-01. "Only ASCII characters will be used" 
  42. ^ http://domainnamewire.com/2014/09/08/new-tlds-dot-london-global/
  43. ^ https://manage.centralnic.com/support/idn_tables/rest
  44. ^ http://www.gtld.com/UserFiles/support-external.pdf
  45. ^ Telnic. "IDN.tel". Retrieved 2010-09-02. 
  46. ^ About Zodiac. Zodiac Holdings Limited. Retrieved on 2014-08-16.
  47. ^ Weirdest new gTLD launch yet? .wed launches with a single registrar | DomainIncite - Domain Name News & Opinion. DomainIncite. Retrieved on 2014-05-25.
  48. ^ WED Third Level Extensions - Atgron, Inc Introduces .WED. A New Top Level Domain for Your Wedding. Atgron.wed. Retrieved on 2014-05-25.
  49. ^ https://www.icann.org/resources/pages/rsep-2014-02-19-en
  50. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Delegated Strings | ICANN New gTLDs. Newgtlds.icann.org. Retrieved on 2014-08-14.
  51. ^ Google Registry – Google. Google.com. Retrieved on 2014-05-25.
  52. ^ a b Chinese government buys 20,000 new IDN domain names | Domain Name Wire | Domain Name News & Views. Domain Name Wire. Retrieved on 2014-05-25.
  53. ^ (German) [5]
  54. ^ (German) berlin Top-Level-Domain. Nic.berlin. Retrieved on 2014-05-25.
  55. ^ http://nic.brussels/index.html
  56. ^ (French) [6]
  57. ^ http://nic.capetown/
  58. ^ (Catalan) Fundació punt CAT | A Internet, el català és .cat. Registra ara un domini i identifica’t amb el teu .cat. Fundacio.cat. Retrieved on 2014-05-25.
  59. ^ http://www.dot.cologne/en
  60. ^ http://nic.durban/
  61. ^ http://nic.eus/
  62. ^ (Dutch) frl Top-Level-Domain. Nic.frl. Retrieved on 2014-09-05.
  63. ^ Dominio .gal. Dominio .gal. Retrieved on 2014-05-25.
  64. ^ http://nic.joburg/
  65. ^ About – Dot Kiwi (.kiwi). Hello.kiwi. Retrieved on 2014-05-25.
  66. ^ http://www.dot.koeln/en
  67. ^ http://nic.london
  68. ^ http://nic.melbourne/
  69. ^ http://nic.moscow/
  70. ^ http://hello.nagoya/
  71. ^ http://www.nic.nyc
  72. ^ http://www.mondomaine.paris
  73. ^ http://registre.quebec/
  74. ^ http://www.dot.ruhr/
  75. ^ http://calico.scot/
  76. ^ http://hello.tokyo. Retrieved 21 Jul 2014.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  77. ^ http://www.nic.vegas
  78. ^ http://nic.vlaanderen/index.html
  79. ^ [7]. Retrieved on 2014-07-21.
  80. ^ http://nic.yokohama/
  81. ^ http://nic.москва/
  82. ^ http://www.domains.axa/
  83. ^ http://www.nic.bmw/
  84. ^ http://www.nic.citic/
  85. ^ https://nic.frogans/en/main.html
  86. ^ http://nic.globo/
  87. ^ http://nic.mango/
  88. ^ http://www.nic.mini/
  89. ^ http://nic.monash/
  90. ^ http://newgtlds.icann.org/sites/default/files/ier/hu62oef5uc0u8riu78usp26r/ie-1-1153-75618-en.pdf
  91. ^ http://www.nic.neustar/
  92. ^ http://www.nic.ovh/en/index.xml
  93. ^ http://nic.yandex/
  94. ^ http://whois.nic.삼성
  95. ^ http://www.nic.中信
  96. ^ دوت مصر ::: الصفحة الرئيسية
  97. ^ https://registry.in/node/882
  98. ^ IDN ccTLD Fast Track String Evaluation Completion, ICANN
  99. ^ ICANN announcement
  100. ^ IDNwiki, IDN TLD evaluation gateway
  101. ^ My Name, My Language, My Internet: IDN Test Goes Live, 15 October 2007
  102. ^ http://例え.テスト, the domain of test page, contains also Kanji (Chinese character in Japanese () and Hiragana (). See also Japanese writing system.

External links[edit]