List of Interstate Highways in Michigan

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Interstate Highways of the State Trunkline Highway System

Interstate 69 markerBusiness Loop Interstate 75 marker

Interstate 94 markerBusiness Spur Interstate 96 markerCapitol Loop marker
Highway markers in different years for Interstate 69 (1957), Business Loop Interstate 75 (1957), Interstate 94 (1971), Business Spur Interstate 96 (1971) and the Capitol Loop (1989)
Michigan has 13 total Interstate highways, all but one of which on the Lower Peninsula
Michigan's Interstates highlighted in red
System information
Maintained by MDOT and MBA
Formed: June 29, 1956 (1956-06-29)[1]
Length: 1,238.709 mi[2] (1,993.509 km)
Highway names
Interstates: Interstate nn (I‑nn)
Business Loops: Business Loop Interstate nn (BL I‑nn)
Business Spurs: Business Spur Interstate nn (BS I‑nn)
System links

The Interstate Highways in Michigan are the segments of the national Dwight D. Eisenhower System of Interstate and Defense Highways[3] that are owned and maintained by the U.S. state of Michigan,[4] totaling about 1,239 miles (1,994 km).[2] On a national level, the standards and numbering for the system are handled by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), while the highways in Michigan are maintained by the Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT) and the Mackinac Bridge Authority (MBA). The Interstates in Michigan have their origins in World War II-era expressways built in the Detroit area. After the system was created in 1956, the state highway department completed its first border-to-border Interstate in 1960. The last highway was completed in 1992, giving Michigan a total of 13 Interstate freeways. The original allotment of mileage to Michigan which would receive federal funding was expanded in 1968, and the United States Congress designated an additional highway in the 1990s that has not yet been built.

Description[edit]

MDOT is the agency responsible for the day-to-day maintenance and operations of the State Trunkline Highway System, which includes the Interstate Highways in Michigan. These highways are built to Interstate Highway standards,[5] meaning they are all freeways with minimum requirements for full control of access, design speeds of 50 to 70 miles per hour (80 to 113 km/h) depending on type of terrain, a minimum of two travel lanes in each direction, and specific widths of lanes or shoulders;[6] exceptions from these standards have to be approved by the FHWA.[7] The numbering scheme used to designate the Interstates was developed by AASHTO, an organization composed of the various state departments of transportation in the United States.[8]

The Interstate Highway System covers about 1,240 miles (2,000 km) in the state and consists of four primary routes and nine auxiliary routes. There are additional 29 business routes associated with the system in Michigan. The longest segment of Interstate Highway in the state is Interstate 75 (I-75) at just under 396 miles (637 km); the shortest is I-375 at 1.1 miles (1.8 km). The length of I-75 includes the Mackinac Bridge, which is maintained by the MBA, the only section of state highway not under MDOT jurisdiction.[a] The Mackinac Bridge is one of three monumental bridges in the state used by I-75; the others are the Zilwaukee and International bridges. A fourth, the privately owned Ambassador Bridge connects I-75 and I-96 in Detroit to Canada.[10]

History[edit]

Construction of the first expressways in Michigan predates the Interstate Highway System. During World War II, the Michigan State Highway Department (MSHD)[b] built the Willow Run and Detroit Industrial expressways (now part of I-94) to carry workers from Detroit to the defense plants at Willow Run Airport.[13] The state created the Michigan Turnpike Authority (MTA) in 1951,[14] which proposed the construction of a toll freeway to run north–south in the state. The original termini for the Michigan Turnpike were Bridgeport and Rockwood.[15] Interagency politics stalled progress on any proposed turnpikes[16] while MSHD had three freeways under planning or construction.[17]

Map
1958 planning map for Michigan's Interstate Highways

The Interstate Highway System was authorized by the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956,[1] and the state had already designed several freeways for its portion of that system. Seizing the opportunity brought by a 1957 state law, the department sold $700 million in bonds (equivalent to $13 billion in 2011[18]) in the late 1950s and early 1960s to finance land purchases and construction of the new freeways. The goal was to connect every city with a population over 50,000 with four-lane freeways that could accommodate rural traffic traveling at 70 mph (110 km/h).[17] The MSHD delayed numbering these freeways as part of the Interstate Highway System until the federal government had finalized the designations to be assigned to Michigan's freeways.[19] The first highway to be signed as an Interstate in Michigan was I-75, which received signage in late 1959, along a section near the Ohio state line that opened to traffic in October 1957.[20][21] I-94 was the first of the Interstates to be completed border to border in a US state.[22] In 1974, the state implemented mileage-based exit numbers along the Interstates in Michigan.[23]

The MSHD asked for 600 miles (970 km) in additions to the state's Interstate mileage in 1968. Included in these requests were the extension of the Davison Freeway (now M-8), the extension of I-69 from Marshall to Port Huron, and the conversion of the northern sections of US Highway 23 (US 23) and US 131.[24] Of these, the I-69 proposal was approved when the United States Congress extended it to terminate in at I-75 in Flint. The highway was lengthened twice more: to I-475 in 1973 and to Port Huron on February 10, 1987.[25] These last two extensions were classified non-chargeable mileage, or segments not financed through the Interstate Highway fund.[26] The federal government paid 90 percent of the cost of the chargeable mileage originally approved.[17]

The last of Michigan's Interstates to be completed was I-69, the last segment of which opened in 1992.[27] Since then, the United States Congress has designated an additional primary Interstate, I-73 in the state. All studies by MDOT on that highway were cancelled in 2001 over funding concerns.[28] Press reports state there is a "lack of need" for the freeway in the state,[29] and the department has no plans to revive I-73 as of 2011.[30] If built as designated, I-73 would cross into Michigan near Toledo, Ohio, and connect Jackson, Lansing, and Clare to I-75 at Grayling.[31]

Primary Interstates[edit]

Number Length (mi)[2] Length (km) Southern or western terminus Northern or eastern terminus Formed Removed Notes
I‑69 202.317 325.598 I-69 at Kinderhook Township Hwy. 402 at Port Huron 1967[32] current Last Interstate completed in Michigan when finished in 1992;[27] segments named the Chevrolet (or Chevrolet-Buick) Freeway, or the Pearl Harbor or Purple Heart highways[33]
I‑75 395.916 637.165 I-75 at Erie Township International Bridge at Sault Ste. Marie 1959[20] current I-75 is the longest highway of any kind in Michigan and the only highway on both of the Upper & Lower peninsulas. It is the only freeway in the Upper Peninsula and was completed in 1973.[34] Segments are named the Detroit–Toledo,[21] Fisher, Chrysler, American Legion, Prentiss M. Brown and G. Mennon Williams freeways[35]
I‑94 275.398 443.210 I-94 at New Buffalo Township Hwy. 402 at Port Huron 1959[19] current First Interstate Highway completed between state borders in 1960;[22] sections named the Detroit Industrial or Edsel Ford freeways[36]
I‑96 192.032 309.046 US 31 in Norton Shores I-75 in Detroit 1959[19] current One section previously known as the Brighton–Farmington Freeway,[11] other sections named the Jeffries[37] and Rosa Parks freeways;[38] completed in 1977[39]

Auxiliary Interstates[edit]

Number Length (mi)[2] Length (km) Southern or western terminus Northern or eastern terminus Formed Removed Notes
I‑194 3.374 5.430 I-94 and M-66 in Battle Creek M-66 in Battle Creek 1961[40][41] current Called the Sojourner Truth Downtown Parkway,[42] or The Penetrator,[43][c] I-194 serves as a spur into downtown Battle Creek and was completed in 1966.[45][46]
I‑196 30.073 48.398 US 31 in Norton Shores I-96 in Grand Rapids 1959[19] 1963[47] Now the western end of I-96, I-196 was a spur from Grand Rapids to Muskegon completed in 1962.[48]
I‑196 80.629 129.760 I-94/US 31 in Benton Township I-96 in Grand Rapids 1963[47] current The Gerald R. Ford Freeway[49] was completed in 1974[50] as a connector from Grand Rapids to I-94 in the Benton HarborSt. Joseph area.
I‑275 35.026 56.369 I-75 in Frenchtown Township I-96, I-696 and M-5 in Novi 1974[51][52] current Completed in 1977[53] as a partial western bypass of Detroit.
I‑296 3.189 5.132 I-196 and US 131 in Grand Rapids I-96 in Walker 1962[54] current Michigan was granted approval to remove signage referring to I-296 on December 3, 1979.[55] The freeway is signed as US 131 and connects I-96 and I-196 near downtown Grand Rapids.
I‑375 1.147 1.846 BS I-375 in Detroit I-75 in Detroit 1964[56] current I-375 is the southern end of the Walter P. Chrysler Freeway,[57] and as of 2007 it was the shortest signed Interstate in the country,[56] but I-110 in Texas has been signed since then.[58] I-375 is a spur connecting the Detroit Riverfront area to I-75.
I‑475 16.866 27.143 I-75 in Grand Blanc Township I-75/US 23 in Mount Morris Township 1973[59] current Called the David Dunbar Buick Freeway,[59] or the UAW Freeway,[60] I-475 is a loop into Downtown Flint completed in 1981.[61][62]
I‑496 11.481 18.477 I-96/I-69 in Delta Township I-96 in Delhi Township 1963[63] current I-496 is the R. E. Olds Freeway,[64] a loop into Downtown Lansing completed in 1970[65]
I‑675 7.929 12.760 I-75/US 23 in Buena Vista Township I-75/US 23 in Zilwaukee Township 1971[66][67] current I-675 is a loop into downtown Saginaw.
I‑696 28.368 45.654 I-96/I-275 and M-5 in Novi I-94 in St. Clair Shores 1963[68] current Walter P. Reuther Freeway;[69] completed in 1989[70]
  •       Former

Proposed Interstates[edit]

Number Southern or western terminus Northern or eastern terminus Notes
I-67 South Bend, IN Kalamazoo Proposed designation in 1957 for what was shifted to become I-69[71][72]
Benton Harbor Grand Rapids Later proposed in 1958 and 1963 for what became I-196[48][72]
I-73 Newport Novi Proposed in 1958 for what became I-275[72]
Ottawa Lake Grayling[d] Designated by Congress in 1991 and 1995, but all future study halted by MDOT; essentially removed from consideration[28][31][73]
I-77 Erie Port Huron Proposed designation in 1957 for what became I-94 from Detroit to Port Huron and cosigned with I-75 from Detroit to state line[71]
I-92 Benton Harbor Detroit Proposed designation in 1957 for what became I-94 from Detroit to Benton Harbor[71]
I-94N Muskegon Grand Rapids Proposed designation in 1957 for what became I-196, and now I-96 from Grand Rapids to Muskegon[71]
I-98 Novi St. Clair Shores Proposed designation in 1958 for what became I-696[72]

Business routes[edit]

Number Length (mi)[2] Length (km) Southern or western terminus Northern or eastern terminus Formed Removed Notes
BL I‑69 5.202 8.372 I-69 south of Coldwater I-69 in Coldwater 1967[32] current
BL I‑69 4.891 7.871 I-69 south of Charlotte I-69 in Charlotte 1974[74][75] current
BL I‑69 14.668 23.606 I-96/I-69 in Delta Township I-69 in Bath Township 1987[76][77] current Longest business route in the state, serves Lansing and East Lansing[2]
BL I‑69 5.408 8.703 I-94/I-69 in Port Huron Township I-94/I-69 in Port Huron 1984[78][79] current
BL I‑75 7.767 12.500 I-75 in Bloomfield Township I-75 in Auburn Hills 1963[80][81] current Follows Woodward Avenue through downtown Pontiac[2]
BL I‑75 7.338 11.809 I-75/US 10/US 23 in Buena Vista Township I-75/US 10/US 23 in Zilwaukee Township 1961[82][83] 1971[66][84] Previously served downtown Saginaw[66][67]
BS I‑75 3.047 4.904 I-75/US 23 and US 10 in Monitor Township M-25 in Bay City 1961[82][83] current Previously part of a business loop[85][86]
BL I‑75 5.525 8.892 I-75 in Horton Township I-75/M-55 in Ogemaw Township 1973[87][88] current Replaced BUS M-76 through West Branch[87][88]
BL I‑75 6.935 11.161 I-75 and M-18 in Higgins Township I-75 on the GerrishBeaver Creek township line 1973[87][88] current Serves Roscommon[2]
BL I‑75 5.823 9.371 I-75 in Grayling Township I-75 and M-93 in Grayling Township 1961[82][83] current Serves Grayling[2]
BL I‑75 3.391 5.457 I-75 in Bagley Township I-75 and M-32 in Gaylord 1986[89][90] current
BL I‑75 4.719 7.594 I-75 and US 2 in St. Ignace I-75 and H-63 in Evergreen Shores c. 1960[91][92] current
BS I‑75 5.867 9.442 I-75 in Sault Ste. Marie Portage Avenue in Sault Ste. Marie 1962[93][94] current
BL I‑94 10.705 17.228 I-94 in Lincoln Township I-94/US 31 in Benton Township 1961[95][96] current Serves Benton Harbor and St. Joseph[2]
BL I‑94 11.090 17.848 I-94 and US 131 in Portage I-94 in Comstock Township 1961[95][96] current Serves Kalamazoo[2]
BL I‑94 13.978 22.495 I-94 in Battle Creek I-94 and M-96 in Emmett Township 1961[95][96] current
BL I‑94 5.707 9.185 I-94 and I-69 in Marshall Township I-94 in Marengo Township 1961[95][96] current Serves Marshall[2]
BL I‑94 4.520 7.274 I-94 in Sheridan Township I-94 in Parma Township 1961[95][96] current Serves Albion[2]
BL I‑94 10.274 16.534 I-94 in Blackman Township I-94 in Leoni Township 1961[95][96] current Serves Jackson[2]
BL I‑94 8.436 13.576 I-94 in Ann Arbor I-94 and US 23 in Pittsfield Township 1961[95][96] current
BL I‑94 8.536 13.737 I-94 in Kimball Township I-94/I-69 in Port Huron 1986[97][98] current
BS I‑96 1.292 2.079 Grand River Avenue in Portland I-96 in Portland 1978[99] 2007[100]
BL I‑96 13.545 21.799 I-96 in Watertown Township I-96 in Lansing 1962[101][102] current
BL I‑96 5.415 8.715 I-96 in Howell Township I-96 in Genoa Township 1962[103][104] current Serves Howell[2]
BL I‑96 4.365 7.025 M-5 in Farmington Hills M-5 in Farmington Hills 1962[103][104] current Now an unsigned highway along Grand River Avenue serving Farmington[105]
BS I‑96 7.033 11.319 I-96 and M-5 in Detroit Cass and Grand River avenues in Detroit 1962[103][104] current Now an unsigned trunkline along Grand River Avenue in Detroit[105]
BL I‑196 3.572 5.749 I-196/US 31 and M-140 in South Haven Township I-196/US 31 in South Haven 1963[106][107] current
BL I‑196 11.508 18.520 I-196/US 31 in Laketown Township I-196 in Zeeland Township 1974[108][109] current Serves Holland[2]
BS I‑196 3.388 5.452 I-196 in Wyoming US 131 in Grand Rapids 1974[110][111] current
BS I‑375 0.167 0.269 M-3 and M-10 in Detroit I-375 in Detroit 1963[56] current Unsigned along Jefferson Avenue[e]
Capitol Loop 2.381 3.832 I-496 and M-99 in Lansing I-496 and BL I-96 in Lansing 1989[114] current Also designated Connector 496[115] or Capitol Loop I-496 by MDOT[116]
BS I‑696 18.562 29.873 I-696 and US 24 in Southfield Jefferson Avenue in Detroit c. 1961[103][104] 1970[117][118] Previous designation for the John C. Lodge Freeway, now M-10[117][118][119]
  •       Former

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The Mackinac Bridge Authority (MBA) is an independent state agency responsible for the Mackinac Bridge and thus maintains that section of the overall highway system. The MBA works with MDOT but does not report to it. The executive secretary of the MBA is appointed by MDOT with MBA approval.[9]
  2. ^ The Michigan State Highway Department was reorganized into the Michigan Department of State Highways and Transportation on August 23, 1973,[11] and the name was later shortened to its current form in 1978.[12]
  3. ^ When the MSHD was planning the freeway network in the state, they called all of the auxiliary Interstate Highways, "Penetrator"[44]
  4. ^ The legislation defining the I-73 corridor specifies Sault Ste. Marie and Detroit as the northern termini, but the Grayling–Sault Ste. Marie or Toledo–Detroit segments overlap I-75 with no requirement to overlap the highway designations. Similarly, Congress included I-94 between Chicago and Port Huron in the I-69 corridor to make it eligible for funding.[31]
  5. ^ The section of Jefferson Avenue that connects I-375 with M-10 is combined with the freeway as I-375 on MDOT right-of-way (ROW) maps that document property transfers and ROW descriptions,[112] but in the department's Physical Reference Finder Application, the street is marked as BS I-375,[2] a designation missing from the official state map for the public.[113]

References[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b McNichol 2006, p. 106
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Michigan Department of Transportation (2009). MDOT Physical Reference Finder Application (Map). Cartography by Michigan Center for Geographic Information. http://www.mcgi.state.mi.us/prfinder/. Retrieved November 17, 2010.
  3. ^ Swift 2011, p. 5
  4. ^ Hamilton 2007, p. 8
  5. ^ Lewis 2013, p. 253
  6. ^ McNichol 2006, pp. 10–11
  7. ^ Zander, Mark, ed. (September 19, 2013). "Chapter 11: Design, Section 44: Interstate Highways" (PDF). Facilities Development Manual. Wisconsin Department of Transportation. p. 2. Retrieved April 14, 2014. 
  8. ^ McNichol 2006, pp. 57, 121
  9. ^ "Bridge Legislation Signed". The Grand Rapids Press. Associated Press. December 29, 2005. p. B3. OCLC 9975013. 
  10. ^ Hyde 2013, pp. 147–168
  11. ^ a b Kulsea & Shawver 1980, p. 27
  12. ^ Kulsea & Shawver 1980, pp. 30–31
  13. ^ Kulsea & Shawver 1980, pp. 17–18
  14. ^ MDOT Staff 2010, p. 12
  15. ^ "Michigan To Push Its North–South Turnpike: Toll Road To Link Centers of Industrial Areas". Youngstown Vindicator. February 21, 1955. p. 2. OCLC 5424159. Retrieved October 30, 2012. 
  16. ^ Bagley, Les (October 25, 2007). "Autos Across Mackinac: Michigan Decides Against Building Turnpikes". The St. Ignace News. OCLC 36250796. Archived from the original on April 17, 2013. Retrieved October 30, 2012. 
  17. ^ a b c Kulsea & Shawver 1980, p. 19
  18. ^ United States nominal Gross Domestic Product per capita figures follow the "Measuring Worth" series supplied in Johnston, Louis & Williamson, Samuel H. (2014). "What Was the U.S. GDP Then?". MeasuringWorth. Retrieved April 18, 2014.  These figures follow the figures as of 2012.
  19. ^ a b c d "Michigan Delays Road Number System". Toledo Blade. June 4, 1959. p. 11. OCLC 12962635. Retrieved November 21, 2010. 
  20. ^ a b "Interstate 75 Road Markers Are Unveiled". The Herald-Press (St. Joseph, MI). Associated Press. October 13, 1959. p. 3. OCLC 10117184. Retrieved March 22, 2013. 
  21. ^ a b "Ohio, Michigan Dedicate New Expressway". Chicago Daily Tribune. May 23, 1959. p. 3. OCLC 1554151. 
  22. ^ a b "Michigan Became Leading Highway Builder in 1960". Holland Evening Sentinel. United Press International. December 29, 1960. p. 12. OCLC 13440201. Retrieved April 14, 2014. 
  23. ^ "Interstates Get New Exit Signs: Michigan Using National System". The Blade (Toledo, OH). Associated Press. July 4, 1974. p. 19. OCLC 12962717. 
  24. ^ "Highway Additions Requested By State". The Owosso Argus-Press. Associated Press. November 14, 1968. p. 7. OCLC 9802802. Retrieved December 5, 2010. 
  25. ^ Weingroff, Richard (July 16, 2013) [1998]. "Part I: History". The Dwight D. Eisenhower System of Interstate and Defense Highways. Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved August 18, 2013. 
  26. ^ Weingroff, Richard (July 16, 2013) [1998]. "Part II: Mileage". The Dwight D. Eisenhower System of Interstate and Defense Highways. Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved August 18, 2013. 
  27. ^ a b "I-69 Now Open South of Lansing". Marshall Evening Chronicle. Associated Press. October 17, 1992. p. 20. OCLC 18110507. Retrieved August 17, 2013. 
  28. ^ a b Debnar, Kari (June 12, 2001). "MDOT Postpones Further Studies Along I-73 Corridor" (Press release). Michigan Department of Transportation. Archived from the original on December 31, 2004. Retrieved September 28, 2010. 
  29. ^ Hickey, JoAnne (August 22, 2007). "South Takes the Lead: I-73 Will Push from South to North" (PDF). Marion Star & Mullins Enterprise (Marion, SC). p. 5A. OCLC 761993706. Archived from the original on May 8, 2012. Retrieved January 4, 2011. 
  30. ^ Pelham, Dennis (July 16, 2011). "Group Seeks to Revive I-73 Interest in Michigan". The Daily Telegram (Adrian, MI). p. A8. OCLC 33972687. Archived from the original on May 8, 2012. Retrieved September 6, 2011. 
  31. ^ a b c "National Highway System Designation Act of 1995". US Congress. November 28, 1995. Pub.L. 104–59. Retrieved September 28, 2010. "§1105(c)(5) I-73/74 North-South Corridor from Charleston, South Carolina, through Winston-Salem, North Carolina, to Portsmouth, Ohio, to Cincinnati, Ohio, to termini at Detroit, Michigan and Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan. The Sault Ste. Marie terminus shall be reached via a corridor connecting Adrian, Jackson, Lansing, Mount Pleasant, and Grayling, Michigan." 
  32. ^ a b "Indiana, Mich., To Open Road". The News-Palladium (Benton Harbor, MI). Associated Press. September 29, 1967. p. 12. OCLC 10117334. Retrieved August 15, 2013. 
  33. ^ Barnett 2004, pp. 40–41, 49–50, 171–172, 179–80
  34. ^ "Around the State: West Branch". Traverse City Record-Eagle. United Press International. November 2, 1973. p. 3. OCLC 30098364. Retrieved March 23, 2013. 
  35. ^ Barnett 2004, pp. 22–23, 81–82, 88, 177–178, 233
  36. ^ Barnett 2004, pp. 67–68, 81
  37. ^ Barnett 2004, pp. 120–121
  38. ^ Michigan Legislature (2001). "Rosa Parks Memorial Highway". Michigan Memorial Highway Act (Excerpt) Act 142 of 2001. State of Michigan. MCL 250.1098. Retrieved August 18, 2006. 
  39. ^ Kulsea & Shawver 1980, p. 27
  40. ^ Michigan State Highway Department (1960). Official Highway Map (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by MSHD. Battle Creek inset. (Includes all changes through July 1, 1960)
  41. ^ Michigan State Highway Department (1961). Official Highway Map (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by MSHD. Battle Creek inset. (Includes all changes through July 1, 1961)
  42. ^ Barnett 2004, p. 201
  43. ^ Vander Meer, John J. (March 18, 2002). "Penetrator to get $1.6M face-lift". Battle Creek Enquirer. pp. 1A, 7A. OCLC 33956507. 
  44. ^ Richard, Tim (April 3, 1986). "I-275: The Interstate that Isn't". Observer (Livonia, MI). OCLC 22646576. 
  45. ^ Michigan Department of State Highways (1966). Official Highway Map (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by MSHD. Battle Creek inset.
  46. ^ Michigan Department of State Highways (1967). Official Highway Map (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by MSHD. Battle Creek inset.
  47. ^ a b "New Numbers Seen for Road". Holland Evening Sentinel. October 23, 1963. p. 4. OCLC 13440201. 
  48. ^ a b "Would Shift Route Number: Mackie Seeks Int. 96 Designation for Grand Rapids–Muskegon Stretch". The Grand Rapids Press. May 1, 1963. p. 32. OCLC 9975013. 
  49. ^ Barnett 2004, p. 89
  50. ^ "Ford Will Miss I-196 Dedication". The News-Palladium (Benton Harbor, MI). Associated Press. November 30, 1974. p. 10. OCLC 10117334. Retrieved June 28, 2013. 
  51. ^ Michigan Department of State Highways and Transportation (1974). Official Highway Map (Map). 1 in:14.5 mi. Section M13–N13.
  52. ^ Michigan Department of State Highways and Transportation (1975). Official Transportation Map (Map). 1 in:14.5 mi / 1 in:23 km. Section M13–N13.
  53. ^ "Freeway To Open Jan. 14". Ludington Daily News. January 8, 1977. p. 2. OCLC 427389796. 
  54. ^ "Driver's Boon: Int. 296 Opening Finishes City Freeway, Links Kalamazoo, Muskegon". The Grand Rapids Press. December 17, 1962. p. A1. OCLC 9975013. 
  55. ^ Merchant, David A. (December 3, 1979). "Removal of I-296 Designation, Grand Rapids". (Letter to John P. Woodford). Lansing, MI: Federal Highway Administration. 
  56. ^ a b c Staff (2006). "Today in Interstate History: June 12, 1964". The Interstate is 50. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Archived from the original on August 4, 2007. Retrieved March 25, 2010. 
  57. ^ Barnett 2004, p. 233
  58. ^ Staff (2010). Highway Guide Sign for I-110, US 54, I-10 and US 180. El Paso, TX: Texas Department of Transportation. Retrieved April 11, 2014. 
  59. ^ a b Barnett 2004, pp. 40–41
  60. ^ Barnett 2004, p. 215
  61. ^ Michigan Department of Transportation (1981). Official Transportation Map (Map). 1 in:14.5 mi / 1 in:23 km (1980–81 ed.). Section K12.
  62. ^ Michigan Department of Transportation (1982). Official Transportation Map (Map). 1 in:14.5 mi / 1 in:23 km. Section K12.
  63. ^ "New Highway Opened". Ironwood Daily Globe. Associated Press. December 21, 1963. p. 9. OCLC 10890811. Retrieved April 24, 2013. 
  64. ^ Barnett 2004, p. 165
  65. ^ Miller, Matthew (February 22, 2009). "Looking Back: I-496 Construction, A Complicated Legacy". Lansing State Journal. pp. 1A, 8A. ISSN 0274-9742. 
  66. ^ a b c Michigan Department of State Highways (1971). Official Highway Map (Map). 1 in:14.5 mi. Cartography by MDSH. Section J12.
  67. ^ a b Michigan Department of State Highways (1972). Official Highway Map (Map). 1 in:14.5 mi. Cartography by MDSH. Section J12.
  68. ^ Brown, Warren (February 4, 1990). "Home of the American Auto Finds Reuther Freeway a Mixed Blessing". The Washington Post. p. H2. ISSN 0740-5421. Retrieved July 13, 2012.  (subscription required)
  69. ^ Barnett 2004, p. 234
  70. ^ Leavitt, Paul (December 11, 1989). "Nationline". USA Today. p. 3A. ISSN 0734-7456. 
  71. ^ a b c d Public Roads Administration (August 14, 1957). Official Route Numbering for the National System of Interstate and Defense Highways, as Adopted by the American Association of State Highway Officials (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by PRA. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Interstate_Highway_plan_August_14,_1957.jpg. Retrieved November 22, 2010.
  72. ^ a b c d Staff (April 25, 1958). "Recommended Interstate Route Numbering for Michigan". Michigan State Highway Department. Archived from the original on August 5, 2004. Retrieved September 4, 2010. 
  73. ^ Staff (December 18, 1991). "Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991". U.S. Congress. Pub.L. 102–240. Retrieved September 28, 2010. "§1105(c)(5) I-73/74 North–South Corridor from Charleston, South Carolina, through Winston-Salem, North Carolina, to Portsmouth, Ohio, to Cincinnati, Ohio, and Detroit, Michigan." 
  74. ^ Michigan Department of State Highways and Transportation (1974). Official Highway Map (Map). 1 in:14.5 mi. Cartography by MDSHT. Section L10.
  75. ^ Michigan Department of State Highways and Transportation (1975). Official Transportation Map (Map). 1 in:14.5 mi / 1 in:23 km. Cartography by MDSHT. Section L10.
  76. ^ Michigan Department of Transportation (1987). Official Transportation Map (Map). 1 in:14.5 mi / 1 in:23 km. Cartography by MDOT. Section L11.
  77. ^ Michigan Department of Transportation (1988). Department of Transportation Map (Map). 1 in:14.5 mi / 1 in:23 km. Cartography by MDOT. Section L11.
  78. ^ Michigan Department of Transportation (1984). Official Transportation Map (Map). 1 in:14.5 mi / 1 in:23 km. Cartography by MDOT. Section K14.
  79. ^ Michigan Department of Transportation (1985). Official Transportation Map (Map). 1 in:14.5 mi / 1 in:23 km. Cartography by MDOT. Section K14.
  80. ^ Michigan State Highway Department (1963). Official Highway Map (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by MSHD. Section L13.
  81. ^ Michigan State Highway Department (1964). Official Highway Map (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by MSHD. Section L13.
  82. ^ a b c Michigan State Highway Department (1961). Official Highway Map (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by MSDH. Section G10, J12. (Includes all changes through July 1, 1961)
  83. ^ a b c Michigan State Highway Department (1962). Official Highway Map (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by MSDH. Section G10, J12.
  84. ^ Michigan Department of State Highways (1972). Official Highway Map (Map). 1 in:14.5 mi. Cartography by MDSH. Section J12.
  85. ^ Michigan Department of State Highways (1971). Official Highway Map (Map). 1 in:3 mi. Cartography by MDSH. Saginaw inset.
  86. ^ Michigan Department of State Highways (1972). Official Highway Map (Map). 1 in:3 mi. Cartography by MDSH. Saginaw inset.
  87. ^ a b c Michigan Department of State Highways (1973). Official Highway Map (Map). 1 in:14.5 mi. Cartography by MDSH. Section G10, H11.
  88. ^ a b c Michigan Department of State Highways and Transportation (1974). Official Highway Map (Map). 1 in:14.5 mi. Cartography by MDSHT. Section G10, H11.
  89. ^ Michigan Department of Transportation (1986). Official Transportation Map (Map). 1 in:14.5 mi / 1 in:23 km. Cartography by MDOT. Section F10.
  90. ^ Michigan Department of Transportation (1987). Official Transportation Map (Map). 1 in:14.5 mi / 1 in:23 km. Cartography by MDOT. Section F10.
  91. ^ Michigan State Highway Department (1960). Official Highway Map (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by MSDH. Section D10. (Includes all changes through July 1, 1960)
  92. ^ Michigan State Highway Department (1961). Official Highway Map (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by MSDH. Section D10. (Includes all changes through July 1, 1961)
  93. ^ Michigan State Highway Department (1962). Official Highway Map (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by MSDH. Section C10.
  94. ^ Michigan State Highway Department (1963). Official Highway Map (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by MSDH. Section C10.
  95. ^ a b c d e f g Michigan State Highway Department (1961). Official Highway Map (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by MSDH. Section N7–M13. (Includes all changes through July 1, 1961)
  96. ^ a b c d e f g Michigan State Highway Department (1962). Official Highway Map (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by MSDH. Section N7–m13.
  97. ^ Michigan Department of Transportation (1986). Official Transportation Map (Map). 1 in:14.5 mi / 1 in:23 km. Cartography by MDOT. Section K14.
  98. ^ Michigan Department of Transportation (1987). Official Transportation Map (Map). 1 in:14.5 mi / 1 in:23 km. Cartography by MDOT. Section K14.
  99. ^ Michigan Department of Transportation (February 2003). "Ionia County" (PDF). Right-of-Way File Application (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by V3 Consultants. Sheet 71. http://mdotcf.state.mi.us/public/ROWFiles/files/Ionia/SHEET071.pdf. Retrieved December 29, 2013.
  100. ^ Staff (October 31, 2007). "Contract Number 103107". Michigan Department of Transportation. Retrieved November 2, 2007.  (registration required)
  101. ^ Michigan State Highway Department (1962). Official Highway Map (Map). 1 in:3 mi. Cartography by MSHD. Lansing inset.
  102. ^ Michigan State Highway Department (1963). Official Highway Map (Map). 1 in:3 mi. Cartography by MSHD. Lansing inset.
  103. ^ a b c d Michigan State Highway Department (1962). Official Highway Map (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by MSHD. Section Detroit Area.
  104. ^ a b c d Michigan State Highway Department (1963). Official Highway Map (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by MSHD. Detroit Area inset.
  105. ^ a b Michigan Department of Transportation (2013). Truck Operators Map (Map). 1 in:3.5 mi / 1 cm:2 km. Cartography by MDOT. Detroit and Vicinity inset.
  106. ^ Michigan State Highway Department (1963). Official Highway Map (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by MSHD. Section M7–L8.
  107. ^ Michigan State Highway Department (1964). Official Highway Map (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by MSHD. Section M7–L8.
  108. ^ Michigan Department of State Highways and Transportation (1974). Official Highway Map (Map). 1 in:14.5 mi. Cartography by MDSHT. Section L8.
  109. ^ Michigan Department of State Highways and Transportation (1975). Official Transportation Map (Map). 1 in:14.5 mi / 1 in:23 km. Cartography by MDSHT. Section L8.
  110. ^ Michigan Department of State Highways and Transportation (1974). Official Highway Map (Map). 1 in:3 mi. Cartography by MDSHT. Grand Rapids inset.
  111. ^ Michigan Department of State Highways and Transportation (1975). Official Transportation Map (Map). 1 in:3 mi. Cartography by MDSHT. Grand Rapids inset.
  112. ^ Michigan Department of Transportation (February 11, 2010). "Wayne County" (PDF). Right-of-Way File Application (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by Gosselin Group. Sheet 173. http://mdotcf.state.mi.us/public/ROWFiles/files/Wayne/sheet173.pdf. Retrieved April 11, 2014.
  113. ^ Michigan Department of Transportation (2013). State Transportation Map (Map). 1 in:3.5 mi / 1 cm:2 km. Cartography by MDOT. Section H13, Downtown Detroit inset.
  114. ^ Michigan Department of Transportation (August 29, 2007). "Ingham County" (PDF). Right-of-Way File Application (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by MDOT. Sheet 180. http://mdotwas1.mdot.state.mi.us/public/ROWFiles/files/Ingham/sheet180.pdf. Retrieved October 15, 2008.
  115. ^ Staff (May 1, 2008). "Appendix C: State Trunkline Connector Routes" (PDF). Michigan Geographic Framework. Michigan Department of Information Technology. Archived from the original on January 8, 2011. Retrieved October 15, 2008. 
  116. ^ Michigan Department of Transportation (2006). Truck Operators Map (Map). 1 in:4.25mi / 1 cm:2 km. Cartography by MDOT. Lansing inset.
  117. ^ a b Michigan Department of State Highways (1970). Official Highway Map (Map). 1 in:2.5 mi.. Cartography by MSDH. Detroit and Vicinity inset.
  118. ^ a b Michigan Department of State Highways (1971). Official Highway Map (Map). 1 in:2.5 mi. Cartography by MSDH. Section A6–E9, Detroit and Vicinity inset.
  119. ^ Barnett 2004, pp. 121-122

Works cited[edit]

External links[edit]

Route map: Google / Bing