List of Persian scientists and scholars
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 Pre-modern Era
The following is a non-comprehensive list of Persian scientists and engineers that lived from antiquity up until the beginning of the modern age.
- Abdol-Hamid, founder of Arabic prose along with the fellow Persian Ibn Muqaffa.
- Abhari, mathematician.
- Abu Dawood, Islamic scholar.
- Abū Ḥanīfa, Islamic scholar.
- Abu Nasr e Mansur, mathematician.
- Abu Sa'id al-Darir al-Jurajani
- Abu Wafa Buzjani, mathematician.
- Azod al-Dowleh, prominent scientific patron
- Ahmad ibn Farrokh, physician.
- Ahmad Ibn Imad ul-din, physician and chemist.
- Alavi Shirazi, royal physician to India.
- Alhazen, or Ebne Heisam in Persian.
- Amuli, Muhammad ibn Mahmud, physician.
- Abū Ja'far al-Khāzin
- Ansari, Khwaja Abdullah, Islamic scholar.
- An Shihkao
- Aqa-Kermani, physician.
- Aqsara'i, physician.
- Arzani, Muqim, physician.
- Astarabadi, physician.
- Aufi, Muhammad, scientist and historian
- Avicenna (Ibn Sina), physician, philosopher
- Azophi, a.k.a. Abdorrahman Sufi, astronomer from Ray that invented the meridian ring.
- Ghiyāth al-Dīn Jamshīd ibn Masʾūd al-Kāshī,astronomer and mathematician.
- Baghawi, Islamic scholar
- Bahai, Sheikhpoet, mathematician, and astronomer,engineer,designer,faghih(religious scientist),Architect
- Baladhuri, historian, d.892
- Balkhi, a.k.a. Albumasar, mathematician
- Balkhi, Ibn Sahl, geographer and mathematician
- Balkhi, Ibn
- Banū Mūsā Brothers
- Barmak, Khaled, Bhuddist from Khorasan in the court of al-Mansur, initiated the Greek translation movement of the Abbasid House of Wisdom
- Bayhaqi, historian
- Behbahani, Vahid, theologian
- Ibn Bibi, historian of the Seljuks of Rum
- Biruni, astronomer and mathematician
- Bukhari, prominent Islamic scholar
- Bukhtishu, Persian Christian physician of Academy of Gundishapur
- Bukhtishu, Abdollah ibn, Christian physician in Persia
- Bukhtishu, Gabriel ibn, Christian physician
- Bukhtishu, Yuhanna, Christian physician
- Burzoe, a.k.a. Borzouyeh-i Tabib, physician of Academy of Gundishapur
- Birjandi astronomer and mathematician 16th century
- Esfarayeni, physician
- Farghani, d.880, a.k.a. Alfraganus, astronomer
- Farabi, d.950, (Al-Farabi, Pharabius), philosopher
- Kamal al-Din Farisi, d.1318, mathematician
- Fazari, Ibrahim, d.777, mathematician and astronomer
- Fazari, Mohammad, d.796, mathematician and astronomer
- Ferdowsi, d.1020, the famous poet
- Feyz Kashani, Mohsen, d.1680, theologian
- Geber; Jaber ibn Hayan, d.815, chemist. Known as Geber in English.
- Gardezi, Abu Said, d.1061, geographer and historian
- Ghazali (Algazel), d.1111, philosopher
- Gilani, Hakim, d.1069, royal physician
- Gorgani, Zayn al-Din Isma‘il ibn, d.1136, royal physician
- Gorgani, Abu Saeed, astronomer and mathematician
- Gorgani, Rostam, physician
- Gorgani e Masihi, see Masihi Gorgani, d.999, Avicenn'a master
- Hakim Ghulam Imam, physician
- Hakim Muhammad Mehdi Naqi, physician
- Hakim Muhammad Sharif Khan, physician
- Hakim Nishaburi, Islamic scholar
- Hallaj, Mystic-philosopher
- Haly Abbas, prominent physician
- Hamadani, Ali, physician
- Hamadani, Mir Sayyid Ali, poet and philosopher
- Hanbal, Ahmad Ibn, Islamic scholar
- Harawi, Abolfadl, astronomer of Buyid dynasty
- Harawi, Muwaffak: See Al-Muwaffak, pharmacologist
- Harawi, Muhammad ibn Yusuf, physician
- Harawi, Ali, traveller
- Majid Hassanizadeh, Professor of Hydrogeolgoy, Expertise: theories of porous media (Utrecht University, The Netherlands).
- Hasani, Qavameddin, physician
- Hedayat, Habibollah, Nutritionist and Obstetrician Gynecologist
- Ibn Abi Sadiq, "The Second Hippocrates", Avicenna's disciple
- Ibn Haytham, physicist
- Ibn Khaseb, physician
- Ibn Khordadbeh, geographer
- Ibn Rustah
- Ilaqi, Yusef, Avicenna's pupil
- Ilyas, Yusef ibn, physician
- Isfahani Abol-fath, mathematician
- Ibn Sina, (Avicenna), Philosopher and Physician
- Isfahani, Jalaleddin, physician
- Isfahani, Husayn, physician
- Istakhri, geographer, gives the earliest known account of windmills
- Iranshahri, philosopher, the teacher of Muhammad Zakaria Razi.
- Jābir ibn Hayyān, a polymath who is considered the father of chemistry. He emphasized systematic experimentation, and did much to free alchemy from superstition and turn it into a science.
- Ja'far ibn Muhammad Abu Ma'shar al-Balkhi
- Jaghmini, physician
- Jaldaki, physician
- Juvayni, historian
- Juwayni, philosopher
- Juzjani, Abu Ubaid, physician
- Jamasb, philosopher
- Karaji, mathematician
- Kashani (Kashi), mathematician
- Kashfi, Jafar, theologian
- Kazerouni, Masoud, physician
- Kermani, Iwad, physician
- Kermani, Shams-ud-Din, Islamic scholar
- Khademhosseini, Alireza, Pioneer in Biomedical and Bioengineering
- Khazeni, Abu Jafar, mathematician
- Khazeni, Abolfath, physicist
- Khayyám, Omar, poet, mathematician, and astronomer
- Khorasani, Sultan Ali, physician
- Khujandi, mathematician and astronomer
- Khwarizmi (aka Al-Khwarazmi) creator of algorithm and algebra, mathematician and astronomer
- Kushyar ibn Labban, mathematician, Nasavi's master
- Kuhi, Rostam, mathematician
- Kubra, Najmeddin
- Mahani, mathematician
- Muhammad al-Fazari
- Muhammad Baqir Yazdi In the 17th century, He gave the pair of amicable numbers 9,363,584 and 9,437,056.
- Majusi, Ibn Abbas, physician
- Marvazi, astronomer and mathematician
- Marvazi, Abu Taher, philosopher
- Masawaiyh or Masuya
- Mashallah ibn Athari, of Jewish origins, from Khorasan who designed the city of Baghdad based on Firouzabad
- Masihi Gorgani, Avicenna's master
- Mirza Ali Hakim, physician
- Miskawayh, philosopher
- Mostowfi Qazvini, geographer
- Mullasadra, philosopher
- Muqaffa, Ibn, founder of Arabic prose along with Abdol-Hamid.
- bin Musa, Hasan, astronomer
- bin Musa, Ahmad, astronomer
- bin Musa, Muhammad, astronomer
- Muwaffaq, Abu mansur, pharmacologist
- Muhammad ibn Muhammad Tabrizi,philosopher
- Nagawri, physician
- Nahavandi, Benjamin, Jewish scholar
- Nahavandi, Ahmad, astronomer
- Nakhshabi, physician
- Nasir Gebelli, computer scientist and video game developer
- Nasir Khusraw, scientist, Ismaili scholar, mathematician, philosopher, Traveler and poet
- Nasavi, mathematician
- Natili Tabari, physician
- Naubakht, Designer of the city of Baghdad
- Naubakht, Fadhl ibn
- Nawbakhty, Islamic scholar, philosopher
- Nawbakhti, Ruh, Islamic scholar
- Nayrizi, mathematician
- Naqshband, Baha ud-Din, philosopher
- Neishaburi, physician
- Neishaburi, prominent Islamic scholar
- Nizami Ganjavi, romantic poet
- Nurbakhshi, physician
- Paul the Persian, philosopher.
- Qazi Zadeh, prominent mathematician
- Qazwini, Zakariya, physician
- Qumi, Qazi Sa’id, theologian
- Qumri, physician
- Qushayri, Abd al-Karīm ibn Hawāzin, d.1074, philosopher
- Razi, Amin, geographer
- Razi Amoli, Fakhreddin, philosopher
- Razi, Zakariya (Rhazes), chemist and physicist
- Razi, Najmeddin
- Rumi, Jalal ad-Din Muhammad
- Rashid-al-Din Hamadani, historian, physician and politician
- Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi, Physician
- Sabzevari, Mulla Hadi, poet and philosopher
- Saghani Ostorlabi, astronomer
- Sahl, Fadl ibn
- Sahl, Shapur ibn, physician
- Salman the Persian, religion commentator, companion of Prophet Muhammad
- Samarqandi, Najibeddin, physician
- Samarqandi, Ashraf, mathematician, astronomer.
- Sarakhsi, Muhammad ibn Ahmad, Islamic scholar
- Seifzadeh, Hossein,S. Political Scientist, Iranian Studies,
- Shahrastani historian of religions
- Shahrazuri, philosopher and physician
- Shahrazuri,Ibn al-Salah, Islamic scholar
- Shaykh Tusi, famous Islamic scholar
- Shaykh Saduq, theologian
- Shirazi, Imad al-Din Mas'ud, physician
- Shirazi, Muhammad Hadi Khorasani, physician
- Shirazi, Qutbeddin, astronomer
- Shirazi, Mahmud ibn Ilyas, physician
- Shirazi, Najm al-Din Mahmud ibn Ilyas, physician
- Shirazi, Qurayshi, physician
- Shirazi, Sultan Waezin, theologian
- Sijzi, mathematician
- Sijzi, Mas'ud, physician
- Soleiman ibn Hasan, physician
- Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi: see Azophi
- Suhrawardi, Shahab al-Din, philosopher
- Tabarani, Abu al-Qasim, Islamic scholar
- Tabari Amoli, prominent historian
- Tabari, Natili Amoli: See Al-Natili
- Tabari, ibn Farrukhan, astrologer and architect
- Tabari, Abul Hasan, physician.
- Tabari, Ibn Sahl, Jewish convert physician. Master of Rhazes
- Tabrizi, Maqsud Ali, physician.
- Taftazani, theologian, linguist
- Tayfur, Ibn Abi Tahir, d.893, linguist
- Tāriq, Yaqub ibn
- Tirmidhi, Islamic scholar
- Tunakabuni, physician
- Tughra'i, physician
- Tusi, Nizam ol-Molk, the great vizier
- Tusi, Nasireddin, mathematician, philosopher
- Tusi, Sharafeddin, mathematician
- Amin al-Din Rashid al-Din Vatvat, scholar and physician.
- Saba Valadkhan, biomedical scientist, and an Assistant Professor and RNA researcher at Case Western Reserve University
- Waqidi, historian
 See also
- List of contemporary Iranian scientists, scholars, and engineers
- Academy of Gundishapur
- International rankings of Iran in science and technology