List of Irish-American Medal of Honor recipients

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The following is a list of Irish-American soldiers, sailors, airmen and marines who were awarded the American military's highest decoration — the Medal of Honor. The Medal of Honor is bestowed "for conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of life, above and beyond the call of duty, in actual combat against an armed enemy force." The medal is awarded by the President of the United States on behalf of the Congress.

Of the 3,464 Medals of Honor awarded as of September 17, 2009,[1] an estimated 2,018 have been awarded to Irish-American recipients, more than twice the number awarded any other ethnic group;[2][3] 257 Irish-born Americans have received the Medal of Honor[4][5] which represents more than half of foreign-born MOH recipients.[6] A monument to these Irish-born Medal of Honor winners is located at Valley Forge's Medal of Honor Grove.[7] The first Irish American to receive the Medal was Michael Madden, who received it for his actions in the American Civil War.


Medal of Honor[edit]

Main article: Medal of Honor

The Medal of Honor was created during the American Civil War and is the highest military decoration presented by the United States government to a member of its armed forces. The recipient must have distinguished themselves at the risk of their own life above and beyond the call of duty in action against an enemy of the United States. Due to the nature of this medal, it is commonly presented posthumously.[8]

Civil War[edit]

      This along with the *, indicates that the Medal of Honor was awarded posthumously
      This indicates that the recipient was born in Ireland

Image Name Service Rank Unit Place of action Date of action Notes
Allen, JamesJames Allen Army Private South Mountain, Maryland September 14, 1862 Single-handed and slightly wounded he accosted a squad of 14 Confederate soldiers bearing the colors of the 16th Georgia Infantry (C.S.A.).
Anderson, RobertRobert Anderson Navy Quartermaster On board the USS Crusader and the USS Keokuk 1863 Served on board the USS Crusader and the USS Keokuk during various actions of those vessels.
Barry, AugustusAugustus Barry Army Sergeant Major Unknown 1863 – 1865 Gallantry in various actions during the rebellion.[9]
Bass, David L.David L. Bass Navy Seaman Fort Fisher, North Carolina January 15, 1865 On board the U.S.S. Minnesota in action during the assault on Fort Fisher, 15 January 1865.
Blackwood, William R. D.William R. D. Blackwood Army Surgeon Petersburg, Virginia April 2, 1865 Removed severely wounded officers and soldiers from the field while under a heavy fire from the enemy, exposing himself beyond the call of duty, thus furnishing an example of most distinguished gallantry.
Profile of a balding white man with bushy, drooping mustache wearing an ornate military jacket with shoulder boards, shoulder cords, and a lanyard hanging from the chest. Bourke, John GregoryJohn Gregory Bourke Army Private Company E, 15th Pennsylvania Cavalry Murfreesboro, Tennessee December 31, 1862 – January 2, 1863 Gallantry in action.[10]
Brady, JamesJames Brady Army E-01Private Battle of Chaffin's Farm, Virginia Sep 29, 1864 Capture of flag[9]
Brannigan, FelixFelix Brannigan Army E-01Private Battle of Chancellorsville, Virginia May 2, 1863 Volunteered on a dangerous service and brought in valuable information.
Brosnan, JohnJohn Brosnan Army Sergeant Company E, 164th New York Infantry Second Battle of Petersburg, Virginia Jun 17, 1864 Rescued a wounded comrade who lay exposed to the enemy's fire, receiving a severe wound in the effort.[9]
Buckley, DenisDenis Buckley Army E-01Private Battle of Peachtree Creek, Ga. Jul 20, 1864 Capture of flag of 31st Mississippi (C.S.A.).[9]
Buckley, John C.John C. Buckley Army Sergeant Battle of Vicksburg, Miss. May 22, 1863 Gallantry in the charge of the "volunteer storming party."[9]
Burk, E. MichaelE. Michael Burk Army E-01Private Battle of Spotsylvania Court House, Virginia May 12, 1864 Capture of flag, seizing it as his regiment advanced over the enemy's works. He received a bullet wound in the chest while capturing flag.[9]
Burk, ThomasThomas Burk Army Sergeant Battle of Wilderness May 6, 1864 At the risk of his own life went back while the rebels were still firing and, finding Col. Wheelock unable to move, alone and unaided, carried him off the field of battle.[9]
Burke, Daniel W.Daniel W. Burke Army First Sergeant Battle of Shepherdstown, Virginia Sep 20, 1862 Voluntarily attempted to spike a gun in the face of the enemy.[9]
Callahan, John H.John H. Callahan Army E-01Private Battle of Fort Blakely, Ala. Apr 9, 1865 Capture of flag.
Campbell, WilliamWilliam Campbell Army Private Vicksburg, Mississippi May 22, 1863 Gallantry in the charge of the "volunteer storming party."
Carey, HughHugh Carey Army Sergeant 82nd New York Infantry Battle of Gettysburg, Pa. Jul 2, 1863 Captured the flag of the 7th Virginia Infantry (C.S.A.), being twice wounded in the effort.[11]
Colbert, PatrickPatrick Colbert Navy Coxswain Aboard the USS Commodore Hull October 31, 1864 Served on board the U.S.S. Commodore Hull at the capture of Plymouth, 31 October 1864[9]
Collis, Charles H. T.Charles H. T. Collis Army Colonel Petersburg, Virginia December 13, 1862 Gallantly led his regiment in battle at a critical moment.
Conlan, DennisDennis Conlan Navy Seaman Aboard the USS Agawam, First Battle of Fort Fisher December 23, 1864 Conlan served on board the U.S.S. Agawam, as one of a volunteer crew of a powder boat which was exploded near Fort Fisher, 23 December 1864.[9]
Connor, ThomasThomas Connor Navy Ordinary Seaman Fort Fisher, North Carolina January 15, 1865 On board the U.S.S. Minnesota, in action during the assault on Fort Fisher, 15 January 1865.
Connors, JamesJames Connors Army Private Battle of Fisher's Hill, Virginia September 22, 1864 Capture of enemy flag.
Cooper, John L. M.John L. M. Cooper Navy Coxswain Mobile Bay, Alabama
Mobile, Alabama
August 5, 1864
April 26, 1865
Double MOH recipient
Corcoran, JohnJohn Corcoran Army E-01Private Third Battle of Petersburg, Virginia Apr 2, 1865 Was one of a detachment of 20 picked artillerymen who voluntarily accompanied an infantry assaulting party, and who turned upon the enemy the guns captured in the assault.[12]
Head of a white man with a drooping mustache and short hair, wearing a dark suit over a light-colored shirt and tie. The portrait is surrounded by a shield-shaped decorative frame. Corcoran, Thomas E.Thomas E. Corcoran Navy Landman Vicksburg, Mississippi May 27, 1863 Served on board the U.S.S. Cincinnati during the attack on the Vicksburg batteries and at the time of her sinking
Creed, JohnJohn Creed Army Private Battle of Fisher's Hill, Virginia September 22, 1864 Capture of the enemy flag.
A white man with a mustache standing with his left arm resting on an object to his side and his right hand inside his jacket. A star-shaped medal is hanging from a ribbon on his left breast. Cronin, CorneliusCornelius Cronin Navy Chief Quartermaster Aboard the USS Richmond, Battle of Mobile Bay August 5, 1864 On board the U.S.S. Richmond in action at Mobile Bay on 5 August 1864[9]
Curran, Richard J.Richard J. Curran Army Assistant Surgeon Antietam, Maryland September 17, 1862 Voluntarily exposed himself to great danger by going to the fighting line there succoring the wounded and helpless and conducting them to the field hospital.
Dougherty, MichaelMichael Dougherty Army E-01Private Jefferson, Virginia Oct 12, 1863 At the head of a detachment of his company dashed across an open field, exposed to a deadly fire from the enemy, and succeeded in dislodging them from an unoccupied house, which he and his comrades defended for several hours against repeated attacks, thus preventing the enemy from flanking the position of the Union forces.
Dougherty, PatrickPatrick Dougherty Navy Landsman Aboard the USS Lackawanna, Battle of Mobile Bay August 5, 1864 As a landsman on board the U.S.S. Lackawanna, Dougherty acted gallantly without orders when the powder box at his gun was disabled under the heavy enemy fire, and maintained a supply of powder throughout the prolonged action. Dougherty also aided in the attacks on Fort Morgan and in the capture of the prize ram Tennessee.
English, EdmundEdmund English Army First Sergeant Wilderness, Virginia May 6, 1864 During a rout and while under orders to retreat seized the colors, rallied the men, and drove the enemy back.
Fallon, Thomas T.Thomas T. Fallon Army E-01Private Williamsburg, Virginia May 1862 and Jun 1864 At Williamsburg, Virginia, assisted in driving rebel skirmishers to their main line. Participated in action, at Fair Oaks, Virginia, though excused from duty because of disability. In a charge with his company at Big Shanty, Ga., was the first man on the enemy's works.[6]
Fitzpatrick, ThomasThomas Fitzpatrick Navy Coxswain Aboard the USS Hartford, Battle of Mobile Bay August 5, 1864 As captain of the No. 1 gun on board the flagship U.S.S. Hartford, during action against rebel gunboats, the ram Tennessee and Fort Morgan in Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864.
Flanagan, AugustinAugustin Flanagan Army Sergeant Battle of Chaffin's Farm, Virginia Sep 29, 1864 Gallantry in the charge on the enemy's works: rushing forward with the colors and calling upon the men to follow him; was severely wounded.
Flannigan, JamesJames Flannigan Army E-01Private Nolensville, Tenn. Feb 15, 1863 Was one of a detachment of 16 men who heroically defended a wagon train against the attack of 125 cavalry, repulsed the attack and saved the train.
Flynn, ChristopherChristopher Flynn Army E-04Corporal 14th Connecticut Infantry Battle of Gettysburg, Pa. Jul 3, 1863 Capture of flag of 52d North Carolina Infantry (C.S.A.).[11]
Flynn, James E.James E. Flynn Army Sergeant Battle of Vicksburg, Miss. May 22, 1863 Gallantry in the charge of the "volunteer storming party."
Head of a white man with a bushy mustache wearing a dark suit and bow tie. The portrait is surrounded by an oval-shaped frame decorated with stars and stripes. Horgan, Michael C.Michael C. Horgan Navy Landman Plymouth, North Carolina October 31, 1864 "[D]istinguished himself by a display of coolness when he participated in landing and spiking a 9-inch gun while under a devastating fire from enemy musketry."
Horne, Samuel B.Samuel B. Horne Army Captain Fort Harrison, Virginia September 29, 1864 While acting as an aide and carrying an important message, was severely wounded and his horse killed but delivered the order and rejoined his general.
Hudson, MichaelMichael Hudson Marine Corps Sergeant Mobile Bay, Alabama August 5, 1864 On board the U.S.S. Brooklyn during action against rebel forts and gunboats and with the ram Tennessee in Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864
Kerr, Thomas R.Thomas R. Kerr Army Captain Moorefield, West Virginia August 7, 1864 After being most desperately wounded, he captured the colors of the 8th Virginia Cavalry (C.S.A.).
Knox, Edward M.Edward M. Knox Army O-01Second Lieutenant Gettysburg, Pennsylvania Jul 2, 1863 Held his ground with the battery after the other batteries had fallen back until compelled to draw his piece off by hand; he was severely wounded.[13]
Laffey, BartlettBartlett Laffey Navy Seaman Yazoo City, Mississippi March 5, 1864 Served on board the U.S.S. Marmora off Yazoo City, Miss., 5 March 1864. Landed ashore with his howitzer gun and crew in the midst of battle and contributed to the turning back of the enemy.
Logan, HughHugh Logan Navy Captain of the Forecastle Mobile Bay, Alabama December 30, 1862 On board the U.S.S. Rhode Island which was engaged in rescuing men from the stricken Monitor in Mobile Bay, on 30 December 1862.
Lonergan, JohnJohn Lonergan Army Captain 13th Vermont Infantry Gettysburg, Pennsylvania July 2, 1863 Gallantry in the recapture of 4 guns and the capture of 2 additional guns from the enemy; also the capture of a number of prisoners.[11]
Madden, MichaelMichael Madden Army Private Mason's Island, Maryland September 3, 1861 Assisted a wounded comrade to the riverbank and, under heavy fire of the enemy, swam with him across a branch of the Potomac to the Union lines.
Mangam, Richard C.Richard C. Mangam Army Private Battle of Hatcher's Run, Virginia April 2, 1865 Capture of flag of 8th Mississippi Infantry (C.S.A.)
Martin II, JamesJames Martin II Marine Corps Sergeant Mobile Bay, Alabama August 5, 1864 Despite damage to his ship and the loss of several men on board as enemy fire raked her decks, Sgt. Martin fought his gun with skill and courage throughout the furious 2 hour battle which resulted in the surrender of the rebel ram Tennessee and in the damaging and destruction of batteries at Fort Morgan.
McAdams, PeterPeter McAdams Army E-04Corporal Salem Heights, Virginia May 3, 1863 Went 250 yards in front of his regiment toward the position of the enemy and under fire brought within the lines a wounded and unconscious comrade.[14]
McAnally, CharlesCharles McAnally Army Second Lieutenant Spotsylvania County, Virginia May 12, 1864 In a hand-to-hand encounter with the enemy captured a flag, was wounded in the act, but continued on duty until he received a second wound.
McEnroe, Patrick H.Patrick H. McEnroe Army Sergeant Winchester, Virginia September 19, 1864 Capture of colors of 36th Virginia Infantry (C.S.A.).
McHugh, MartinMartin McHugh Navy Seaman Aboard the USS Cincinnati, Operations against Vicksburg May 27, 1863 Serving on board the USS Cincinnati during the attack on the Vicksburg batteries and at the time of her sinking, 27 May 1863.[15]
Framed portrait of a white man with a very long beard, neatly trimmed hair, and a dark jacket. Molloy, HughHugh Molloy Navy Ordinary Seaman Harrisonburg, Louisiana March 2, 1864 Served on board the USS Fort Hindman during the engagement near Harrisonburg, La., 2 March 1864.
Monaghan, PatrickPatrick Monaghan Army E-04Corporal Second Battle of Petersburg, Virginia Jun 17, 1864 Recapture of colors of 7th New York Heavy Artillery.
Morrison, John G.John G. Morrison Navy Coxswain On board the USS Carondelet July 15, 1862 Serving as coxswain on board the USS Carondelet, Morrison was commended for meritorious conduct in general and especially for his heroic conduct and his inspiring example to the crew in the engagement with the rebel ram Arkansas, Yazoo River, 15 July 1862.
Portrait of a white man with wavy hair and a long, forked beard, wearing a suit. Mulholland, St. Clair A.St. Clair A. Mulholland Army Major Chancellorsville, Virginia May 4–5, 1863 In command of the picket line held the enemy in check all night to cover the retreat of the Army.
Murphy, DennisDennis Murphy Army Sergeant Corinth, Mississippi October 3, 1862 Although wounded three times, carried the colors throughout the conflict.
Murphy, Michael C.Michael C. Murphy Army Lieutenant Colonel Battle of North Anna, Virginia May 24, 1864 This officer, commanding the regiment, kept it on the field exposed to the fire of the enemy for 3 hours without being able to fire one shot in return because of the ammunition being exhausted.
Nugent, ChristopherChristopher Nugent Marine Corps Sergeant On board the USS Fort Henry June 15, 1863 For his actions while serving on board the USS Fort Henry, Crystal River, Fla., 15 June 1863.
O'Beirne, James R.James R. O'Beirne Army Captain Battle of Seven Pines, Virginia May 31-June 1, 1862 Gallantly maintained the line of battle until ordered to fall back.
O'Brien, Henry D.Henry D. O'Brien Army E-04Corporal Battle of Gettysburg, Pa. Jul 3, 1863 Taking up the colors where they had fallen, he rushed ahead of his regiment, close to the muzzles of the enemy's guns, and engaged in the desperate struggle in which the enemy was defeated, and though severely wounded, he held the colors until wounded a second time.
O'Brien, OliverOliver O'Brien Navy Coxswain Aboard the USS John Adams November 28, 1864 Served as coxswain on board the U.S. Sloop John Adams, Sullvan's Island Channel, 28 November 1864. Taking part in the boarding of the blockade runner Beatrice while under heavy enemy fire from Fort Moultrie, O'Brien, who was in charge of one of the boarding launches, carried out his duties with prompt and energetic conduct. This action resulted in the firing of the Beatrice and the capture of a quantity of supplies from her.
Peter O'BrienPeter O'Brien Army E-01Private Battle of Waynesboro, Virginia Mar 2, 1865 Capture of flag and of a Confederate officer with his horse and equipment
Thomas O'ConnellThomas O'Connell Navy Coal Heaver Aboard the USS Hartford, Battle of Mobile Bay Aug 5, 1864 On board the flagship USS Hartford, during successful attacks against Fort Morgan, rebel gunboats and the ram Tennessee in Mobile Bay on 5 August 1864.
Timothy O'ConnorTimothy O'Connor Army E-01Private Unknown Unknown Date and place of act not of record in War Department.
O'Dea, JohnJohn O'Dea Army Private Vicksburg, Mississippi May 22, 1863 Gallantry in the charge of the "volunteer storming party"
O'Donnell, MenomenMenomen O'Donnell Army O-02First Lieutenant Battle of Vicksburg, Mississippi and Fort DeRussey, La. May 22, 1863 and Mar 14, 1864 Voluntarily joined the color guard in the assault on the enemy's works when he saw indications of wavering and caused the colors of his regiment to be planted on the parapet. Voluntarily placed himself in the ranks of an assaulting column (being then on staff duty) and rode with it into the enemy's works, being the only mounted officer present, was twice wounded in battle.
O'Donoghue, TimothyTimothy O'Donoghue Navy Seaman Aboard the USS Signal, Red River Campaign May 5, 1864 Served as boatswain's mate on board the USS Signal, Red River, 5 May 1864.
Stephen O'NeillStephen O'Neill Army E-04Corporal Battle of Chancellorsville, Virginia May 1, 1863 Took up the colors from the hands of the color bearer who had been shot down and bore them through the remainder of the battle.
Platt, George C.George C. Platt Army Private Fairfield, Pennsylvania July 3, 1863 Seized the regimental flag upon the death of the standard bearer in a hand-to-hand fight and prevented it from falling into the hands of the enemy.
Plunkett, ThomasThomas Plunkett Army Sergeant Fredericksburg, Virginia December 11, 1862 Seized the colors of his regiment, the color bearer having been shot down, and bore them to the front where both his arms were carried off by a shell.
Head and shoulders of a white man with a drooping mustache, wearing a cavalry hat and a double-breasted military jacket with two medals pinned to the left breast. Quinlan, JamesJames Quinlan Army Major Savage's Station, Virginia June 29, 1862 Led his regiment on the enemy's battery, silenced the guns, held the position against overwhelming numbers, and covered the retreat of the 2d Army Corps.
Rannahan, JohnJohn Rannahan Marine Corps Corporal Fort Fisher, North Carolina January 15, 1865 On board the USS Minnesota in the assault on Fort Fisher, 15 January 1865.
Reynolds, GeorgeGeorge Reynolds Army Private Winchester, Virginia September 19, 1864 Capture of Virginia State flag.
Roantree, James S.James S. Roantree Marine Corps Sergeant Mobile Bay, Alabama August 5, 1864 On board the USS Oneida during action against rebel forts and gunboats and with the ram Tennessee in Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864.
Ryan, Peter J.Peter J. Ryan Army Private Winchester, Virginia September 19, 1864 With one companion, captured 14 Confederates in the severest part of the battle.
Schutt, GeorgeGeorge Schutt Navy Coxswain St. Marks, Florida March 5–6, 1865
Sewell, William J.William J. Sewell Army Colonel Chancellorsville, Virginia May 3, 1863 For assuming command of the brigade, rallying the troops, and remaining in command though wounded.[6]
Smith, WilliamWilliam Smith Navy Quartermaster On board the USS Kearsarge January 15, 1865 Served as second quartermaster on board the USS Kearsarge when she destroyed the Alabama off Cherbourg, France, 19 June 1864.
Sullivan, JamesJames Sullivan Navy Ordinary Seaman Battle of Fort Fisher, North Carolina December 2, 1864 On board the USS Agawam as one of a volunteer crew of a powder boat which was exploded near Fort Fisher, 2 December 1864.
Sullivan, JohnJohn Sullivan Navy Seaman USS Monticello Jun 23, 1864 – Jun 25, 1864 Served as seaman on board the USS Monticello during the reconnaissance of the harbor and water defenses of Wilmington, North Carolina 23 to 25 June 1864.
Sullivan, TimothyTimothy Sullivan Navy Coxswain USS Louisville Various Served on board the USS Louisville during various actions of that vessel. During the engagements of the Louisville, Sullivan served as first captain of a 9 inch gun and throughout his period of service was "especially commended for his attention to duty, bravery, and coolness in action."
Tobin, John M.John M. Tobin Army First Lieutenant Malvern Hill, Virginia July 1, 1862 Voluntarily took command of the 9th Massachusetts while adjutant, bravely fighting from 3 p.m. until dusk, rallying and re_forming the regiment under fire; twice picked up the regimental flag, the color bearer having been shot down, and placed it in worthy hands.
Walsh, JohnJohn Walsh Army Corporal Battle of Cedar Creek, Virginia October 19, 1864 Recaptured the flag of the 15th New Jersey Infantry.
Wells, Thomas M.Thomas M. Wells Army Chief Bugler Battle of Cedar Creek, Virginia October 19, 1864 Capture of colors of 44th Georgia Infantry (C.S.A.).
Welsh, EdwardEdward Welsh Army Private Vicksburg, Mississippi May 22, 1863 Gallantry in the charge of the "volunteer storming party."
Welsh, JamesJames Welsh Army E-01Private Battle of the Crater, Petersburg, Virginia Jul 30, 1864 Bore off the regimental colors after the color sergeant had been wounded and the color corporal bearing the colors killed thereby saving the colors from capture.[12]
White, Patrick H.Patrick H. White Army Captain Vicksburg, Mississippi May 22, 1863 Carried with others by hand a cannon up to and fired it through an embrasure of the enemy's works.

Indian Wars[edit]

      This indicates that the recipient was born in Ireland

Image Name Service Rank Unit Place of action Date of action Notes
Barrett, RichardRichard Barrett Army First Sergeant Company A, 1st U.S. Cavalry Sycamore Canyon, Arizona May 23, 1872 Conspicuous gallantry in a charge upon the Tonto Apaches.
Bell, James J.James J. Bell Army Private Big Horn, Montana July 9, 1876
Boyne, ThomasThomas Boyne Army Sergeant Company C, 9th U.S. Cavalry Mimbres Mountains, N. Mex. and Cuchillo Negro River near Ojo Caliente, New Mexico May 29, 1879 and Sep 27, 1879 Bravery in action.[9]
Branagan, EdwardEdward Branagan Army Private Company F, 4th U.S. Cavalry Red River, Texas Sep 29, 1872 "Gallantry in action."
Brogan, JamesJames Brogan Army Sergeant Company G, 6th U.S. Cavalry Simon Valley, Arizona Dec 14, 1877 Engaged singlehanded 2 renegade Indians until his horse was shot under him and then pursued them so long as he was able.
Brophy, JamesJames Brophy Army Private Company B, 8th U.S. Cavalry Arizona 1868 Bravery in scouts and actions against Indians.
Brown, JamesJames Brown Army Sergeant Company F, 5th U.S. Cavalry Davidson Canyon near Camp Crittenden, Arizona Aug 27, 1872 In command of a detachment of 4 men defeated a superior force.[9]
Burke, Patrick J.Patrick J. Burke Army Farrier Company B, 8th U.S. Cavalry Arizona 1868 Bravery in scouts and actions against Indians.[9]
Burke, RichardRichard Burke Army Private Company G, 5th U.S. Infantry Cedar Creek, etc., Montana Oct 1876 – Jan 1877 Gallantry in engagements.[9]
EdmondButler.jpg Butler, EdmondEdmond Butler Army Captain Company C, 5th U.S. Infantry Wolf Mountains, Montana January 8, 1877 Most distinguished gallantry in action with hostile Indians.[9]
Byrne, DenisDenis Byrne Army Sergeant Company G, 5th U.S. Infantry Cedar Creek, Montana October 1876 - January 1877 Gallantry in engagements.[9]
Callan, Thomas J.Thomas J. Callan Army Private Company B, 7th US Cavalry Little Bighorn, Montana June 25–26, 1876 Displayed conspicuously good conduct in assisting to drive away the Indians
Surname misspelled "Callen" on citation
Connor, JohnJohn Connor Army Corporal Near Wichita River, Texas July 12, 1870
Evans, WilliamWilliam Evans Army Private Big Horn, Montana July 9, 1876
Farren, DanielDaniel Farren Army Private Arizona Territory August – October 1868
Fegan, JamesJames Fegan Army Sergeant Near Plum Creek, Kansas March 1868
Foley, John H.John H. Foley Army Sergeant Near Platte River, Nebraska April 26, 1872
Foran, NicholasNicholas Foran Army Private Arizona Territory August – October 1868
Golden, PatrickPatrick Golden Army Sergeant Arizona Territory August – October 1868
Hogan, HenryHenry Hogan Army First Sergeant Cedar Creek, Montana
Bear Paw Mountains, Montana
October 1876 - January 8, 1877
September 30, 1877
Double MOH recipient
Irwin, Bernard J. D.Bernard J. D. Irwin Army Assistant Surgeon Apache Pass, Arizona February 13–14, 1861
Keenan, JohnJohn Keenan Army Private Arizona Territory August – October 1868
Leonard, Patrick J.Patrick J. Leonard Army Sergeant Little Blue, Nebraska May 15, 1870
Leonard, Patrick T.Patrick T. Leonard Army Corporal Near Fort Hartsuff, Nebraska April 26, 1876
McHugh, JohnJohn McHugh Army Private Company A, 5th U.S. Infantry Cedar Creek, etc., Montana Oct 21, 1876 – Jan 8, 1877 "Gallantry in action"
Nihill, JohnJohn Nihill Army Private Whetstone Mountains, Arizona July 13, 1872
Nolan, Richard J.Richard J. Nolan Army Farrier White Clay Creek, South Dakota December 30, 1890
Orr, MosesMoses Orr Army Private Winter of 1872/1873
O'Sullivan, John F.John F. O'Sullivan Army Private Staked Plains, Texas December 8, 1874
Parnell, William R.William R. Parnell Army First Lieutenant White Bird Canyon, Idaho June 17, 1877
Rogan, PatrickPatrick Rogan Army Sergeant Big Hole, Montana August 9, 1877
Rooney, EdwardEdward Rooney Army Private Company D, 5th US Infantry Cedar Creek, etc., Montana Oct 21, 1876 – Jan 8, 1877 "Gallantry in action."[9]
Ryan, DavidDavid Ryan Army Private Company G, 5th US Infantry Cedar Creek, etc., Montana Oct 21, 1876 – Jan 8, 1877 "Gallantry in action."
Ryan, DennisDennis Ryan Army First Sergeant Company I, 6th US Cavalry Gageby Creek, Indian Territory Dec 2, 1874 Courage while in command of a detachment.
Sullivan, ThomasThomas Sullivan Army Private Company E, 7th US Cavalry Wounded Knee Creek, South Dakota Dec 29, 1890 Conspicuous bravery in action against Indians concealed in a ravine.[6]
Rescue of Lt. Charles King.jpg Taylor, BernardBernard Taylor Army Sergeant Company A, 5th US Cavalry Near Sunset Pass, Arizona Nov 1, 1874 Bravery in rescuing Lt. King, 5th U.S. Cavalry, from Indians.
Tracy, JohnJohn Tracy Army Private Chiricahua Mountains, Arizona October 20, 1869 Born as Henry G. Nabers

Korean Expedition[edit]

      This indicates that the recipient was born in Ireland

Image Name Service Rank Unit Place of action Date of action Notes
Coleman, JohnJohn Coleman Marine Corps Private On board the USS Colorado June 11, 1871
Dougherty, JamesJames Dougherty Marine Corps Private Korea June 11, 1871
Grace, Patrick H.Patrick H. Grace Navy Chief Quartermaster On board the USS Benicia June 10, 1871 - June 11, 1871
McNamara, MichaelMichael McNamara Marine Corps Private On board the USS Benicia June 11, 1871

Spanish-American War[edit]

      This indicates that the recipient was born in Ireland

Image Name Service Rank Unit Place of action Date of action Notes
Head and torso of a young black man wearing a suit and tie with a watch chain hanging from a jacket button. He has a cap pushed high up on his forehead and tilted over his left ear. Bell, DennisDennis Bell Army Private Tayabacoa, Cuba Jun 30, 1898 Voluntarily went ashore in the face of the enemy and aided in the rescue of his wounded comrades; this after several previous attempts at rescue had been frustrated.[9]
Brady, George F.George F. Brady Navy Chief Gunner's Mate Cardenas, Cuba May 11, 1898
Cavanaugh, ThomasThomas Cavanaugh Navy Fireman First Class Bahamas November 14, 1898
Cooney, Thomas C.Thomas C. Cooney Navy Chief Machinist Cardenas, Cuba May 11, 1898
Doherty, Thomas M.Thomas M. Doherty Army Corporal Santiago de Cuba July 1, 1898
Fitzgerald, JohnJohn Fitzgerald Marine Corps Private Cuzco, Cuba June 14, 1898
Gaughan, PhilipPhilip Gaughan Marine Corps Sergeant Cienfuegos, Cuba May 11, 1898
Gibbons, MichaelMichael Gibbons Navy Oiler Cienfuegos, Cuba May 11, 1898
Kearney, MichaelMichael Kearney Marine Corps Private Cienfuegos, Cuba May 11, 1898
Kelly, ThomasThomas Kelly Army Private Santiago de Cuba July 1, 1898
Maxwell, JohnJohn Maxwell Navy Fireman Second Class Cienfuegos, Cuba May 11, 1898
Montague, DanielDaniel Montague Navy Chief Master-at-arms Santiago de Cuba June 2, 1898
Murphy, John E.John E. Murphy Navy Coxswain Santiago de Cuba June 2, 1898
Sullivan, EdwardEdward Sullivan Marine Corps Corporal Cienfuegos, Cuba May 11, 1898

Philippine-American War[edit]

      This with the * indicates that the Medal of Honor was awarded posthumously
      This indicates that the recipient was born in Ireland

Image Name Service Rank Unit Place of action Date of action Notes
Byrne, Bernard A.Bernard A. Byrne Army Captain 6th U.S. Infantry Bobong, Negros July 19, 1899 Rallied his men on the bridge after the line had been broken and pushed back.[9]
Leahy, Cornelius J.Cornelius J. Leahy* Army Private Company A, 36th Infantry, U.S. Volunteers Luzon, Philippines September 3, 1899 ”Distinguished gallantry in action in driving off a superior force and with the assistance of 1 comrade brought from the field of action the bodies of 2 comrades, 1 killed and the other severely wounded, this while on a scout.”
Prendergast, Thomas F.Thomas F. Prendergast Marine Corps Corporal Luzon, Philippines March 25, 1899 - March 29, 1899 and April 5, 1899 ”For distinguished conduct in the presence of the enemy in battle”
Shanahan, PatrickPatrick Shanahan Navy Chief Boatswain's Mate Philippines May 28, 1899

Boxer Rebellion[edit]

      This indicates that the recipient was born in Ireland

Image Name Service Rank Unit Place of action Date of action Notes
Cooney, JamesJames Cooney Marine Corps Private Tientsin, China July 13, 1900
Daly, DanielDaniel Daly Marine Corps Private 15th Company of Marines Peking, China July 19, 1901 Double MOH recipient
Head of a white man with brown hair and a drooping mustache wearing a blue military jacket. The man is looking off to the side. Foley, Alexander J.Alexander J. Foley Marine Corps Sergeant near Tianjin, China Jul 13, 1900 "[For] distinguishing himself by meritorious conduct"
Hunt, MartinMartin Hunt Marine Corps Private Beijing, China June 20, 1900 - July 16, 1900
Killackey, JosephJoseph Killackey Navy Landman China June 13, 1900 - June 22, 1900

United States occupation of Haiti[edit]

Image Name Service Rank Unit Place of action Date of action Notes
DanielDaly.jpg Daly, DanielDaniel Daly Marine Corps Gunnery Sergeant 15th Company of Marines near Fort Liberte, Haiti October 24, 1916 Double MOH recipient

World War I[edit]

      This with the * indicates that the Medal of Honor was awarded posthumously
      This indicates that the recipient was born in Ireland

Image Name Service Rank Unit Place of action Date of action Notes
Three-quarters shot of a middle-aged man in a plain military uniform, standing almost at attention. He is wearing a campaign hat and two medals on his chest. Donaldson, Michael A.Michael A. Donaldson Army E-05Sergeant Sommerance-Landres-et-Saint-Georges Road, France Oct 14, 1918 Rescued six wounded men despite intense fire
Head and shoulders of an older man with neatly combed and parted gray hair wearing a suit and tie. Donovan, William J.William J. Donovan Army O-05Lieutenant Colonel near Landres-et-Saint-Georges, France Oct 14, 1918 – Oct 15, 1918 Exposed himself to fire in order to lead and organize his men, remained with them after being wounded[16]
O'Neill, Richard W.Richard W. O'Neill Army E-05Sergeant on the Ourcq River, France Jul 30, 1918 Continued to lead an attack despite being repeatedly wounded[16]
Perkins, Michael J.Michael J. Perkins* Army E-02Private First Class Belleu Bois, France Oct 27, 1918 Singly-handedly attacked and captured a pillbox[17]
Thompson, Joseph H.Joseph H. Thompson Army Major Apremont, France October 1, 1918

World War II[edit]

      This with the * indicates that the Medal of Honor was awarded posthumously
      This indicates that the recipient was born in Ireland

Image Name Service Rank Unit Place of action Date of action Notes
Burke, FrankFrank Burke Army First Lieutenant Nuremberg, Germany April 17, 1945 Also known as Francis X. Burke.[6]
Head and shoulders of a man in a white jacket with black shoulderboards with binoculars hanging from around his neck. His eyes are shaded by a white peaked cap with a black visor. Callaghan, Daniel J.Daniel J. Callaghan* Navy Rear Admiral Naval Battle of Guadalcanal, Savo Island November 12, 1942 – November 13, 1942 [18]
Craig, RobertRobert Craig* Army Second Lieutenant near Favoratta, Sicily July 11, 1943 [19]
Daly, Michael J.Michael J. Daly Army First Lieutenant Nuremberg, Germany April 18, 1945
Kelly, Charles E.Charles E. Kelly Army Corporal near Altavilla, Italy September 13, 1943 [20]
black and white headshot of Joseph McCarthy in his military uniform McCarthy, Joseph J.Joseph J. McCarthy Marine Corps Reserve O-03Captain 04-24-022nd Battalion, 24th Marine Regiment, 4th Marine Division Iwo Jima February 21, 1945 Risked his life to eliminate several enemy troops so his men could move forward
Cadet Thomas B. McGuire.jpg McGuire, Jr., Thomas B.Thomas B. McGuire, Jr.* Army Air Forces Major over Luzon, Philippine Islands December 25, 1944 – December 26, 1944 The second leading air ace in World War II before being killed in action in January 1945. McGuire Air Force Base is named for him.[6]
Audie Murphy uniform medals.jpg Murphy, Audie L.Audie L. Murphy Army Second Lieutenant near Holtzwihr, France January 26, 1945 Highest number of decorations for US combatant.
Obrien, William J.William J. O'Brien* Army Lieutenant Colonel Saipan, Marianas Islands June 20, 1944 – July 7, 1944
OCallahan JT h47538.jpg Ocallahan, Joseph T.Joseph T. O'Callahan Navy Commander near Kobe, Japan March 19, 1945 Chaplain aboard aircraft carrier USS Franklin.
Edward Ohare.jpg Ohare, Edward H.Edward H. O'Hare Navy Lieutenant off Papua New Guinea February 20, 1942 O'Hare International Airport in Chicago was named in his memory.
RichardOKane.jpg Okane, Richard H.Richard H. O'Kane Navy Commander Philippine Islands October 23, 1944 – October 24, 1944 For submarine operations against two Japanese convoys.[21]
Walsh KA.jpg Walsh, Kenneth A.Kenneth A. Walsh Marine Corps First Lieutenant Solomon Islands area August 15, 1943 and August 30, 1943

Korean War[edit]

      This with the * indicates that the Medal of Honor was awarded posthumously
      This indicates that the recipient was born in Ireland

Image Name Service Rank Unit Place of action Date of action Notes
Thomas J Hudner 1950.jpg Hudner, Jr., Thomas J.Thomas J. Hudner, Jr. Navy O-02Lieutenant, Junior Grade Fighter Squadron 32, attached to U.S.S. Leyte Battle of Chosin Reservoir, Korea December 4, 1950 Risked his life to rescue a downed pilot
Murphy RG.jpg Murphy, Raymond G.Raymond G. Murphy USMCR O-01Second Lieutenant Company A, 1st Battalion, 5th Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein.) Korea February 3, 1953 Although wounded he refused medical care to fight the enemy until all his men and casualties had been taken care of.
OBrien GH.jpg O'Brien, Jr., George H.George H. O'Brien, Jr. USMCR O-01Second Lieutenant Company H, 3rd Battalion, 7th Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein.) Korea October 27, 1952 Provided cover and care for wounded while his unit was attacking the enemy

Vietnam War[edit]

Image Name Service Rank Unit Place of action Date of action Notes
Head and shoulders of a white man with dark hair wearing a military jacket with a round patch on the upper sleeve, and oak leaf emblem atop the shoulder, and ribbon bars and pins on the left breast. Brady, Patrick H.Patrick H. Brady Army Major Chu Lai—South Vietnamnear Chu Lai, Republic of Vietnam January 6, 1968 Flew multiple missions against heavy fire to evacuate 51 wounded men[22]
Head and shoulders of a white man with short hair, wearing a military jacket with a star-shaped medal hanging from a ribbon around his neck. Donlon, Roger H. C.Roger H. C. Donlon Army Captain Nam Dong—South Vietnamnear Nam Dong, Republic of Vietnam July 6, 1964 Rescued and administered first aid to several wounded soldiers and led a group to defeat an enemy force causing them to retreat leaving behind 54 of their dead, many weapons, and grenades.
Dunagan, Kern W.Kern W. Dunagan Army Captain Quang Tin Province, Republic of Vietnam May 13, 1969 Although wounded he directed fire onto enemy positions and rescued several wounded soldiers
Portrait of a middle-aged white man in a formal military uniform in front of a U.S. flag Foley, Robert F.Robert F. Foley Army Captain Quan Dau Tieng—South Vietnamnear Quan Dau Tieng, Republic of Vietnam November 5, 1966 Despite his painful wounds he refused medical aid and persevered in the forefront of the attack on the enemy redoubt. He led the assault on several enemy gun emplacements and, single-handedly, destroyed three such positions.
A black and white image showing Kelley from the waist up in his military dress uniform. Kelley, Thomas G.Thomas G. Kelley Navy Lieutenant Ong Muong Canal, Kien Hoa Province, Republic of Vietnam June 15, 1969 Successfully relayed commands through one of his men until an enemy attack was silenced and the boats he was leading were able to move to safety
A black and white headshot of a young McMahon wearing a suit and tie. He is turned slightly to the right with his head down and he is smiling. McMahon, Thomas J.Thomas J. McMahon* Army Specialist Four Quang Tin Province, Republic of Vietnam March 19, 1969 While attempting to rescue three wounded soldiers despite heavy enemy fire, he was able to carry two of the men to safety but was killed while trying to rescue the third.
a colored image of an elderly McNerney in a business suit wearing his Medal of Honor around his neck. He is facing to the left. McNerney, David H.David H. McNerney Army First Sergeant Polei Doc, Republic of Vietnam March 22, 1967 Despite being wounded after his unit was attacked, he assumed command of the unit when the company commander was killed, organized the defense, and helped arrange a helicopter evacuation of the wounded. He refused his own medical evacuation and instead stayed with the company until a new commander arrived.
A black and white headshot photo of Noonan in his military dress blue uniform with hat. Noonan, Jr., Thomas P.Thomas P. Noonan, Jr.* Marine Corps Lance Corporal Vandegrift Combat Base—A Shau Valley—South Vietnamnear Vandergrift Combat Base, A Shau Valley, Republic of Vietnam February 5, 1969 Killed while attempting to rescue a wounded man
Head and shoulders of a white man with a pointed mustache, wearing a star-shaped medal on a blue ribbon around his neck. Omalley, Robert E.Robert E. O'Malley Marine Corps Corporal Company I, 3rd Battalion 3rd Marines An Cu'ong—South Vietnamnear An Cu'ong 2, South Vietnam August 18, 1965 Risked his life and led his men to repeatedly attack the enemy, assist another Marine unit that had inflicted heavy casualties and led his unit to a helicopter for evacuation.
A black and white head shot of Shea in his military dress uniform with hat. Shea, Daniel J.Daniel J. Shea* Army Private First Class Quảng Trị Province, Republic of Vietnam May 14, 1969 Killed by enemy gunfire after assisting in the defeat of an attacking enemy force
A black and white image showing the head and upper torso of Sijan wearing his military dress uniform with ribbons. Sijan, Lance P.Lance P. Sijan* Air Force Captain North Vietnam November 9, 1967 For actions while as a prisoner of war
A color image showing Thornton from the waist up in a business suit. He is wearing his Medal of Honor around his neck, with his left hand over his heart. Thornton, Michael E.Michael E. Thornton Navy Engineman Second Class Quảng Trị Province, Republic of Vietnam October 31, 1972 Saved the life of his superior officer and allowed the other members of his patrol to escape

War in Afghanistan[edit]

      This with the * indicates that the Medal of Honor was awarded posthumously
      This indicates that the recipient was born in Ireland

Image Name Service Rank Unit Place of action Date of action Notes
Top half of young man in circa 2000 dress U.S. Navy uniform of junior officer. Murphy, Michael P.Michael P. Murphy* Navy Lieutenant SEAL Delivery Vehicle Team 1 Near Asadabad, Kunar Province June 28, 2005 Led a four-man reconnaissance team in a fight against superior numbers, exposed himself to hostile fire in order to call for help

Peacetime[edit]

      This indicates that the recipient was born in Ireland

Image Name Service Rank Unit Place of action Date of action Notes
Ahern, WilliamWilliam Ahern Navy Watertender On board the USS Puritan July 1, 1897
Cahey, ThomasThomas Cahey Navy Seaman On board the USS Petrel March 31, 1901
Clausey, John J.John J. Clausey Navy Chief Gunner's Mate USS Bennington (PG-4), San Diego, Calif. Jul 21, 1905 For extraordinary heroism when boiler exploded on ship.[9]
Costello, JohnJohn Costello Navy Ordinary Seaman USS Hartford, Philadelphia, Pa. Jul 16, 1876 For rescuing from drowning a Landsman of the USS Hartford[9]
Cramen, ThomasThomas Cramen Navy Boatswain's Mate On board the USS Portsmouth February 7, 1882
Crilley, Frank W.Frank W. Crilley Navy Chief Gunner's Mate wreck site of the USS F-4 (SS-23), off Honolulu, Hawaii Apr 17, 1915 For rescuing a fellow diver who had become tangled in the wreckage and trapped underwater[6][9]
Cronan, WillieWillie Cronan Navy Boatswain's Mate USS Bennington (PG-4), San Diego, Calif. Jul 21, 1905 Bravery shown during ship's boiler explosion[9]
Dempsey, JohnJohn Dempsey Navy Seaman Shanghai, China January 23, 1875
Flannagan, JohnJohn Flannagan Navy Boatswain's Mate Le Havre, France October 26, 1878
Floyd, EdwardEdward Floyd Navy Boilermaker On board the USS Iowa January 25, 1905
King, HughHugh King Navy Ordinary Seaman On board the USS Iroquois September 7, 1871
King, JohnJohn King Navy Watertender On board the USS Vicksburg
On board the USS Salem
May 29, 1901
September 13, 1909
Double MOH recipient
Kyle, Patrick J.Patrick J. Kyle Navy Landman Port Mahon, Minorca March 13, 1879
O'Neal, JohnJohn O'Neal Navy Boatswain's Mate Greytown, Nicaragua April 12, 1872
Regan, PatrickPatrick Regan Navy Ordinary Seaman Coquimbo, Chile July 30, 1873
Reid, PatrickPatrick Reid Navy Chief Watertender On board the USS North Dakota September 8, 1910
Smith, ThomasThomas Smith Navy Seaman Pará, Brazil October 1, 1878
Stanton, ThomasThomas Stanton Navy Chief Machinist's Mate On board the USS North Dakota September 8, 1910
Thayer, JamesJames Thayer Navy Ship's Corporal On board the USS Constitution November 16, 1879
Thornton, MichaelMichael Thornton Navy Seaman On board the USS Leyden August 26, 1881

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions". Medal of Honor. United Staters Navy. Retrieved September 9, 2009. 
  2. ^ Associated Press (March 17, 1987). "America's Irish honor St. Patrick". The Miami News. Retrieved October 10, 2012. 
  3. ^ Riehecky, Janet. Cultures of America: Irish Americans. New York: Marshall Cavendish, 1995. (pg. 68) ISBN 1-85435-783-2
  4. ^ United States Congress. Immigration reform: Hearing before the Subcommittee on Immigration and Refugee Affairs of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, One Hundred First Congress, first session, on S. 358 ... and S. 448 ... March 3, 1989. Washington, DC: US Government Print Office, 1990. (pg. 131)
  5. ^ O'Hanlon, Ray. The New Irish Americans. Niwot, Colorado: Roberts Rinehart Publishers, 1998. (pg. 77) ISBN 1-57098-212-0
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Fox, Thomas. Hidden History of the Irish of New Jersey. Charleston, South Carolina: The History Press, 2011. (pg. 110-116) ISBN 1-60949-030-4
  7. ^ Barnes, John A. Irish-American Landmarks: A Traveler's Guide. 9th ed. New York: Gale Research, 1995. (pg. 167) ISBN 0-8103-9603-3
  8. ^ "A Brief History — The Medal of Honor". Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ). Department of Defense. August 8, 2006. Retrieved February 9, 2010. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Hurley, Doran. "Medal of Honor Men of Irish Birth or Irish Ancestry in United States Army and Navy". The Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society. Vol. XXXII. New York: The Society, 1941. (pg. 57-73)
  10. ^ Limon, Jose E. Dancing With The Devil: Society And Cultural Poetics In Mexican-American South Texas. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1994. (pg. 26) ISBN 0-299-14224-8
  11. ^ a b c Hanna, Charles. Gettysburg Medal of Honor Recipients. Springville, Utah: Bonneville Books, 2010. (pg. 49-50, 87-89, 173-174) ISBN 1-59955-302-3
  12. ^ a b Molloy, Scott. Irish Titan, Irish Toilers: Joseph Banigan and Nineteenth-century New England Labor. Lebanon, New Hampshire: University of New Hampshire Press, 2008. (pg. 75) ISBN 1-58465-690-5
  13. ^ Bayor, Ronald H. and Timothy Meagher, eds. The New York Irish. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997. (pg. 186-187) ISBN 0-8018-5764-3
  14. ^ Bruce, Susannah Ural. The Harp and the Eagle: Irish-American Volunteers and the Union Army, 1861-1865. New York: New York University Press, 2006. (pg. 74) ISBN 0-8147-9940-X
  15. ^ Moss, Tracy (April 20, 2012). "Civil War hero's grave unmarked no more". The News-Gazette. Retrieved October 10, 2012. 
  16. ^ a b Willbanks, James H., ed. America's Heroes: Medal of Honor Recipients from the Civil War to Afghanistan. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, 2011. (pg. 85, 249) ISBN 1-59884-394-X
  17. ^ H. O'Connor, Thomas. South Boston, My Home Town: The History of an Ethnic Neighborhood. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1994. (pg. 161) ISBN 1-55553-188-1
  18. ^ Garvey, John and Karen Hanning. Images of America: Irish San Francisco. Arcadia Publishing, 2008. (pg. 66) ISBN 0-7385-3049-2
  19. ^ "William Craig: Father Of War Hero Honored By Bridge". Toledo Blade. September 3, 1968. Retrieved October 10, 2012. 
  20. ^ Associated Press (April 24, 1944). "Heroes Kelly, Childers Return; Bravery Recounted By Modest Infantryman". The Tuscaloosa News. Retrieved October 10, 2012. 
  21. ^ Tuohy, William. The Bravest Man: Richard O'Kane and the Amazing Submarine Adventures of the USS Tang. New York: Presido Press, 2006. (pg. 125) ISBN 0-89141-889-X
  22. ^ Keane, John F. Images of America: Irish Seattle. Arcadia Publishing, 2007. (pg. 81) ISBN 0-7385-4878-2

Further reading[edit]

  • Griffin, William D. The Book of Irish Americans. New York: Times Books, 1990. ISBN 0-8129-1264-0
  • O'Donnell, Edward T. 1001 Things Everyone Should Know About Irish-American History. New York: Broadway Books, 2002. ISBN 0-7679-0686-1

External links[edit]