List of Irish monarchs
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Early medieval kings in Ireland
High Kings of Ireland 846–1198
- The historical High-Kings of Ireland date from the inauguration of Mael Sechnaill mac Maele Ruanaid in 846 to Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair, who died in 1198.
Ruaidrí was inaugurated King of Ireland at Dublin in spring 1166. He was arguably the first undisputed full king of Ireland. He was also the only Gaelic one, as the events of the Norman invasion of Ireland in 1169 undid Gaelic efforts at establishing an all-island united kingdom of Ireland. King Ruaidrí died at Cong in 1198, and was buried at Clonmacnoise. He was the last fully recognised Gaelic monarch of Ireland. Later claimants such as Brian Ua Neill (died 1260) and Edward Bruce (died 1318) were not recognised as such even among the native Irish.
From Lordship of Ireland to British monarchy
In 1177, as the leader of the Norman invasion of Ireland, King Henry II of England created the title of Lord of Ireland for his youngest son John, who was not then expected to succeed to any other title. John became king in 1199, and the title was held thereafter by the monarchs of England. Under the Crown of Ireland Act 1542 The Lordship of Ireland was raised into the Kingdom of Ireland. The Kingdom of Ireland continued after the Acts of Union 1707 which united the kingdoms of England and Scotland.
- From King John (of the House of Plantagenet) to King Henry VIII (of the House of Tudor), English monarchs were also Lords of Ireland.
- From King Henry VIII to Queen Anne (of the House of Stuart), English monarchs were also King or Queen of Ireland.
- From Queen Anne to King George III (of the House of Hanover), British monarchs were also King or Queen of Ireland.
- Note: In 1506 Lambert Simnel, an English pretender to the throne, was crowned Edward VI of Ireland
During the reign of George III of the United Kingdom the Kingdoms of Great Britain and of Ireland merged to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland by the terms of the Act of Union 1800.
British monarchy to Irish monarchy
With the passage in 1931 of the Statute of Westminster, the British monarch (that is, King George V in his British council, parliament, and courts) ceased to have dominion over Ireland; only the monarch in right of Ireland had sovereignty over that realm, advised by Irish ministers and acting in his Irish parliament and courts only, though the monarch of Ireland and the monarch of the United Kingdom (and the monarch of all the Dominions and later Commonwealth realms) were the same person. This arrangement lasted through the reigns of George V, Edward VIII, and George VI.
Northern Ireland continues as a constituent part of United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
- "History of Ireland > The Irish Free State (1922-1937)". Collins 22 Society. Retrieved 2 January 2011.
- Cottrell, Peter (2008). The Irish Civil War 1922-23. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. p. 85. ISBN 978-1-84603-270-7.
- Kondō, Atsushi (2001). Citizenship in a Global World: Comparing Citizenship Rights for Aliens. Hampshire: Palgrave. p. 120. ISBN 0-333-80265-9. "Ireland reluctantly remained a member of the Commonwealth s Irish citizens remained British Subjects. However, Irish representatives stopped attending Commonwealth meetings in 1937 and Ireland adopted a position of neutrality in World War II. Ireland became a Republic in 1949 and formally left the Commonwealth."