List of Italian queens

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Iron Crown of Lombardy, used in Italian coronations from the Lombard era to the 19th century
See also; King of Italy

Queen of Italy (regina Italiae in Latin and regina d'Italia in Italian) is a title adopted by many spouses of the rulers of the Italian peninsula after the fall of the Roman Empire. The details of where and how the ruling kings ruled are in the article about them.

Queen consorts of Italy, under Odoacer[edit]

  • Unknown

Ostrogothic Queen consorts of Italy[edit]

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Audofleda of the Salian Franks Childeric I, King of the Salian Franks
(Merovingian)
470 493 30 August 526
husband's death
 ? Theodoric
Mathesuentha of the Visigoths Eutharic
(Areal line)
517 536 540
husband's death
after 550 Witiges
Berthora of Rheims Theudebert I, King of Rheims
(Merovingian)
536 ? 549 1 July 552
husband's death
 ? Totila
No names of Ostrogothic queens are mention during beyond this point.
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

Lombardic Queen consorts of Italy[edit]

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Chlothsind of the Franks Chlothar I, King of the Franks
(Merovingian)
 ?  ?  ?  ?  ? Alboin
Assassination of Alboin.jpg Rosamund of the Gepids Cunimund, King of the Gepids  ? 567 28 June 572/573
husband's death
 ?
Theodelinda married Agilulf (detail).jpg Theodelinda of Bavaria Garibald I, Duke of Bavaria
(Agilolfings)
 ? 15 May 589 5 September 590
husband's death
22 January 627 Authari
May 591 616
husband's death
Agilulf
Gundiberga of the Lombards Authari 591  ? 626
husband's accession, locked in monastery
636
husband's death
 ? Arioald
after 636 652
husband's death
Rothari
Theodota of the Lombards Aripert I  ? after 662  ?  ? Grimoald I
No names of Lombardic queens are mentioned until 739.
Guntrude  ?  ?  ? 712
husband's ascension
744
husband's disposition
 ? Liutprand
Tassia  ?  ?  ? 744
husband's ascension
749
husband's disposition
 ? Ratchis
Ansa Verissimo  ?  ? 744
husband's ascension
5 June 774
husband's disposition
 ? Desiderius
Hildegard 1499.jpg Hildegard of Vinzgouw Gerold of Vinzgouw 758 771 774
husband's coronation as Lombardic king
30 April 783 Charles I
Fastrada of Franconia Raoul III de Franconie et d'Aéda de Bavière 765 784
as Queen consort the Lombards
10 October 794
Luitgard of Sundgau Luitfrid II, Count of Sundgau 776 794
as Queen consort the Lombards
4 June 800
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

Queen consorts of Italy[edit]

Carolingian Dynasty, (774–887)[edit]

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Hildegard 1499.jpg Hildegard of Vinzgouw Gerold of Vinzgouw
(Agilolfings)
758 771 5 June 774
husband's coronation as Lombardic king
30 April 783 Charles I
Fastrada of Franconia Raoul III of Franconia 765 784
as Queen consort the Lombards
10 October 794
Luitgard of Sundgau Luitfrid II, Count of Sundgau
(Etichonids)
776 794
as Queen consort the Lombards
4 June 800
Bertha of Gellone William of Gellone, Count of Toulouse  ? 795? 781
as Queen consort of Italy
8 July 810
husband's death
 ? Pepin
Cunigunda of Laon  ?  ? 813 17 April 818
husband's death
 ? Bernard I
Ermengarde of Tours Hugh of Tours
(Etichonids)
804 15 October 821 as sole queen
15 June 844 as senior queen
20 March 851 Lothair I
Engelberga of Parma Adelchis I, Count of Parma
(Supponids)
830 5 October 851 12 August 875
husband's death
896/901 Louis II
RichildaofProvence.jpg Richilde of Provence Bivin of Gorze, Count of the Ardennes
(Bosonid)
845 870 12 August 875
husband's ascension
6 October 877
husband's death
2 June 910 Charles II
Saint Richardis (fragment of The Ordeal by Fire by Dierec Bouts the Older).jpg Richardis of Swabia Erchanger, Count of the Nordgau
(Ahalolfinger)
840 1 August 862 879
husband's ascension
887
husband's death
18 September, between 894 and 896 Charles III
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

After 887, Italy fell into instability, with many rulers claiming the Kingship simultaneously:

Unruoching dynasty, (887–924)[edit]

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Bertila of Spoleto Suppo II of Spoleto
(Supponids)
860 880 26 December 887
husband's ascension
December 915 Berengar I
Anna of Provence Louis the Blind
(Bosonids)
- by December 915 7 April 924
husband's death
after May 930
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

Widonid dynasty, (889–896)[edit]

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Ageltrude of Benevento Adelchis, Prince of Benevento  ? early 880s 889
husband's coronation
12 December 894
husband's death
27 August 923 Guy
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

Carolingian Dynasty, (896–899)[edit]

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Ota of Neustria Berengar I of Neustria
(Conradines)
874 before the end of 888 22 February 896
husband's coronation
8 December 899
husband's death
after 30 November 903 Arnulf
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

Bosonid dynasty, (900–905)[edit]

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Anna of Constantinople
[1]
Leo VI the Wise
(Macedonian)
885 around 900 12 October 900
husband's coronation
21 July 905
husband relinquished titles
912 Louis III
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

Elder Welf dynasty, (922–926)[edit]

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Reine Berthe et les fileueses, 1888.jpg Bertha of Swabia Burchard II, Duke of Swabia
(Hunfridings)
907 922 922
husband's coronation
926 husband's deposition
933 husband relinquished titles
after 2 January 966 Rudolph
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

Bosonid dynasty, (926–950)[edit]

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Alda (or Hilda) A German  ? after 924 before 932
marriage annulled
 ? Hugh
Marozia of Tusculum, Senatrix and Patricia of Rome Theophylact I, Count of Tusculum
(Tusculani)
890 932 December 932
933 husband fled, her imprisonment
932/937
Reine Berthe et les fileueses, 1888.jpg Bertha of Swabia Burchard II, Duke of Swabia
(Hunfridings)
907 12 December 937 10 April 948
husband's death
after 2 January 966
Adelaide of Italy.jpg Adelaide of Burgundy and Italy Rudolf II of Burgundy and Italy
(Elder Welf)
931 12 December 947 10 April 948
husband's coronation
22 November 950
husband's death
16 December 999 Lothair II
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

Anscarid dynasty, (950–963)[edit]

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Willa of Tuscany Boso, Margrave of Tuscany
(Bosonids)
910 930/931 15 December 950
husband's coronation
953
husband's imprisonment
963/after 966 Berengar II
Gerberga of Mâcon Lambert I, Count of Chalon 945 960/62 963
husband's desposition
11 December 986/991 Adalbert
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

Ottonian dynasty, (951–1002)[edit]

In 951 Otto I of Germany invaded Italy and was crowned "King of the Lombards". In 952, Berengar and Adalbert became in vassals but remained Kings until being deposed by Otto.

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Adelaide of Italy.jpg Adelaide of Burgundy and Italy Rudolf II of Burgundy and Italy
(Elder Welf)
931 951 7 May 973
husband's death
16 December 999 Otto I
Theophanu.jpg Theophanu of Constantinople 960 14 April 972 7 December 983
husband's death
15 June 991 Otto II
Picture Name House Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

Anscarid dynasty, (1002–1014)[edit]

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Bertha probably Otbert II, Margrave of Milan  ? before 1000 c. 1002
husband accession
c. 1014
husband gave up claim
 ? Arduin
Picture Name House Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

After the brief interruption by Arduin of Ivrea and after the restoration of the Holy Roman Emperor as the sole holder of the title King of Italy, the title became one of the many appanages of the Holy Roman Empress.

Ottonian dynasty, (1004–1024)[edit]

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Kunigunde.png Cunigunde of Luxembourg Siegfried, Count of Luxembourg
(Luxembourg)
975 1000 14 May 1004
husband's coronation
13 July 1024
husband's death
3 March 1033 Henry II
Picture Name House Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

Salian dynasty, (1026–1125)[edit]

Picture Name House Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Gisela von Schwaben.JPG Gisela of Swabia Hermann II, Duke of Swabia
(Conradines)
11 November 995 1016 1026
husband's coronation as King of Italy
4 June 1039
husband's death
14 February 1043 Conrad II, Holy Roman Emperor
Agnes of Poitou.jpg Agnes de Poitou William V, Duke of Aquitaine
(Ramnulfids)
1025 21 November 1043 5 October 1056
husband's death
14 December 1077 Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor
Bertha of Savoy, Holy Roman Empress.jpg Bertha of Savoy Otto, Count of Savoy
(Savoy)
21 September 1051 13 July 1066 25 June 1080
husband's coronation as King of Italy
27 December 1087 Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor
Eupraxia of Kiev Vsevolod I, Grand Prince of Kiev
(Rurikids)
1071 14 August 1089 1093
stepson's coronation
20 July 1109
Constanze of Sicily Roger I of Sicily
(Hauteville)
1077–1087 1095 April 1098
husband's deposition
1138 Conrad II of Italy
Empress matilda.jpg Matilda of England Henry I of England
(Normandy)
7 February 1101 7 January 1114 23 May 1125
husband's death
10 September 1167 Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor
Picture Name House Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

House of Supplinburg, (1128–1137)[edit]

Picture Name House Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Richenza von Northeim (Königslutter).jpg Richenza of Northeim Henry, Margrave of Frisia
(Northeim)
1087/89 1100 1128
husband's coronation as King of Italy
4 December 1137
husband's death
10 June 1141 Lothair III, Holy Roman Emperor
Picture Name House Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

House of Hohenstaufen, (1154–1197)[edit]

Picture Name House Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Giovanni Battista Tiepolo 032.jpg Beatrice I, Countess of Burgundy Renaud III, Count of Burgundy
(Ivrea)
1148 9 June 1156 15 November 1184 Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor
Constance-Sicily.jpg Constance of Sicily Roger II of Sicily
(Hauteville)
2 November 1154 27 January 1186 14 April 1191
husband's coronation as Emperor
28 September 1197
husband's death
27 November 1198 Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor
Picture Name House Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

House of Welf, (1208–1215)[edit]

Picture Name House Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Ota4 zena.jpg Beatrice of Swabia Philip of Swabia
(Hohenstaufen)
April/June 1198 23 July 1212 11 August 1212 Otto IV
MarieBrabant1190-1260.jpg Marie of Brabant Henry I, Duke of Brabant
(Leuven)
1190 after 19 May 1214 5 July 1215
husband's deposition
9 March/14 June 1260
Picture Name House Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

House of Hohenstaufen, (1212–1250)[edit]

Picture Name House Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
KonstancieAragonska Uhry.jpg Constance of Aragon Alfonso II of Aragón
(Barcelona)
1179 5 August 1209 9 December 1212
husband's coronation as Roman king
22 November 1220
husband's coronation as Emperor
23 June 1222 Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor
Yolande of Jerusalem.jpg Yolande of Jerusalem John of Brienne, King of Jerusalem
(Brienne)
1212 9 November 1225 25 April 1228
IsabelaAnglie.gif Isabella of England John of England
(Plantagenet)
1214 15/20 July 1235 1 December 1241
Bianca Lancia A child of Manfred I Lancia
(Aleramici-Lancia)
c. 1200 c. 1244?
Evidence for marriage is dubious
c. 1244
Picture Name House Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

House of Luxembourg, (1308–1313)[edit]

Picture Name House Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Margaret of Brabant.jpg Margaret of Brabant John I, Duke of Brabant
(Leuven)
4 October 1276 9 July 1292 27 November 1308
husband's became Roman king
6 January 1311
husband's coronation as King of Italy
14 December 1311 Henry VII, Holy Roman Emperor
Picture Name House Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

House of Wittelsbach, (1327–1347)[edit]

Picture Name House Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Marguerite II de Hainaut.png Margaret, Countess of Hainaut William I, Count of Hainaut
(Avesnes)
c. 1311 26 February 1324 23 October 1327
husband's coronation as King of Italy
11 October 1347
husband's death
23 June 1356 Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor
Picture Name House Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

House of Luxembourg, (1355–1437)[edit]

Picture Name House Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Anna von Schweidnitz.jpg Anna of Świdnica Henry II, Duke of Świdnica
(Piast)
c. 1339 27 May 1353 January 1355
husband's coronation as King of Italy
11 July 1362 Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor
Eliška Pomořanská.jpg Elizabeth of Pomerania Bogislaw V, Duke of Pomerania
(Pomerania-Wolgast)
c. 1347 21 May 1363 29 November 1378
husband's death
14 February 1393
Joanna of Bavaria.jpg Joanna of Bavaria Albert I, Duke of Bavaria
(Wittelsbach)
c. 1362 29 September 1370 29 November 1378
husband's accession
31 December 1386 Wenceslaus, King of the Romans
ZofieBav2.jpg Sofia of Bavaria John II, Duke of Bavaria
(Wittelsbach)
1376 2 May 1389 20 August 1400
husband's deposition
1410
husband's Italian reign ends
16 August 1419
husband's death
26 September 1425
BarboraCellja.jpg Barbara of Celje Hermann II, Count of Celje
(Celje)
1390/1395 1408 21 July 1411
husband's election as Emperor

25 November 1431
husband's coronation as King

31 May 1433
husband's coronation as Emperor
9 December 1437
husband's death
11 July 1451 Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor
Picture Name House Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

House of Habsburg, (1437–1745)[edit]

Picture Name House Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Elisabeth-Boehmen.jpg Elizabeth of Bohemia Sigismund
(Luxembourg)
7 October 1409 1422 9 December 1437
husband's accession as King of the Romans
18 March 1438
husband's election as King of the Romans
27 October 1439
husband's death
25 December 1442 Albert II of Germany
4G7FM PL0062-20.jpg Leonor of Portugal Edward of Portugal
(Aviz)
18 September 1434 16 March 1452 19 March 1452
husband's coronation as Emperor
3 September 1467 Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor
Ambrogio de Predis 002.jpg Bianca Maria of Milan Galeazzo Maria, Duke of Milan
(Sforza)
5 April 1472 16 March 1494 4 February 1508
husband declared emperor-elect
31 December 1510 Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor
Tizian 057.jpg Isabella of Portugal Manuel I of Portugal
(Aviz)
23 October 1503 10 March 1526 24 February 1530
husband's coronation Emperor
1 May 1539 Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
Ferdinand I and his successor used the title of a King of Italy, though they were never crowned as such:
Annajagiello.jpg Anna of Bohemia and Hungary Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary
(Jagiello)
23 July 1503 25 May 1521 16 January 1556
husband's election
1558
husband declared emperor-elect
27 January 1547 Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor
Maria of Spain 1557.jpg Maria of Spain Charles V
(Habsburg)
21 June 1528 13 September 1548 25 July 1564
husband's ascension as emperor-elect
12 October 1576
husband's death
26 February 1603 Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor
Frans Pourbus d. J. 002.jpg Anna of Austria Ferdinand II, Archduke of Austria
(Habsburg)
4 October 1585 4 December 1611 20 January 1612
husband's ascension as emperor-elect
14 December 1618 Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor
Justus Sustermans 002.jpg Eleonore of Mantua Vincenzo I, Duke of Mantua
(Gonzaga)
23 September (23 February?) 1598 4 February 1622 15 February 1637
husband's death
27 June 1655 Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor
Diego Velázquez 031.jpg Maria Anna of Spain Philip III of Spain
(Habsburg)
18 August 1606 20 February 1631 15 February 1637
husband's ascension as emperor-elect
13 May 1646 Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor
Lorenzo Lippi 005.jpg Maria Leopoldine of Austria Leopold V, Archduke of Austria
(Habsburg)
6 April 1632 2 July 1648 7 August 1649
The Peace of Westphalia on 24 October 1648, effectively terminated any imperial claims to their lands in Italy, but the Holy Roman Emperors continued their claim until the abdication of Emperor Francis II due to the growing power of Napoleon Bonaparte, who had crown himself King of Italy the previous year.
Frans Luycx 005.jpg Eleanor of Mantua Charles II, Duke of Nevers and Rethel
(Gonzaga)
18 November 1630 30 April 1651 2 April 1657
husband's death
6 December 1686
Diego Rodriguez de Silva y Velázquez - Infanta Margarita Teresa in a Blue Dress - Google Art Project.jpg Margaret Theresa of Spain Philip IV of Spain
(Habsburg)
12 July 1651 12 December 1666 12 March 1673 Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor
Giovanni Maria Morandi 001.jpg Claudia Felicitas of Austria Archduke Ferdinand Charles of Austria
(Habsburg)
30 May 1653 15 October 1673 8 April 1676
Eleonore of Pfalz Neuburg.jpg Eleonore-Magdalena of Neuburg Philip William, Elector Palatine
(Wittelsbach)
6 January 1655 14 December 1676 5 May 1705
husband's death
19 January 1720
Amalia Wilhelmine von Braunschweig.jpg Wilhelmina Amalia of Brunswick John Frederick, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
(Welf)
21 April 1673 24 February 1699 5 May 1705
husband's ascension as emperor-elect
17 April 1711
husband's death
10 April 1742 Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor
Elisabeth Christine of Braunschweig Wolfenbuettel.jpg Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel Louis Rudolph, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
(Welf)
28 August (28 September?) 1691 1 August 1708 December 1711
husband's election as emperor-elect
20 October 1740
husband's death
21 December 1750 Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor
Picture Name House Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

House of Wittelsbach, (1742–1745)[edit]

Picture Name House Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Maria AmaliaBayern.jpg Maria Amalia of Austria Joseph I
(Habsburg)
22 October 1701 5 October 1722 24 January 1742
husband's election
20 January 1745
husband's death
11 December 1756 Charles VII, Holy Roman Emperor
Picture Name House Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

House of Habsburg-Lorraine, (1745–1806)[edit]

Picture Name House Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Kaiserin Maria Theresia (HRR).jpg Maria Theresa of Austria Charles VI
(Habsburg)
13 May 1717 12 February 1736 13 September 1745
husband's election as emperor-elect
18 August 1765
husband's death
29 November 1780 Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor
Maria Josepha von Bayern.jpg Maria Josepha of Bavaria Charles VII
(Wittelsbach)
30 March 1739 23 January 1765 18 August 1765
husband's ascestion as emperor-elect
28 May 1767 Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor
Joseph Grassi 001.jpg Maria Louisa of Spain Charles III of Spain
(Bourbon)
24 November 1745 5 August 1765 30 September 1790
husband's election
March 1792
husband's death
15 May 1792 Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor
Maria Teresa di Borbone-Napoli.jpg Maria Theresa of Naples and Sicily Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies
(Bourbon-Two Sicilies)
6 June 1772 15 August 1790 5 July 1792
husband's election
6 August 1806
husband's abdication
13 April 1807 Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor
Picture Name House Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

House of Bonaparte, (1805–1814)[edit]

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Detail 12.JPG Joséphine de Beauharnais Joseph-Gaspard Tascher de la Pagerie
(Tascher de la Pagerie)
23 June 1763 9 March 1796 26 May 1805
husband's ascension
10 January 1810
divorce
29 May 1814 Napoleon I
Marie Louise of Austria by Guerin detail.jpg Marie Louise of Austria Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor
(Habsburg-Lorraine)
12 December 1791 1 April 1810 6 April 1814
husband's abdication
17 December 1841
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

House of Savoy, (1861–1946)[edit]

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse
Queen Margharitha di Savoia.jpg Margherita of Savoy-Genoa Ferdinand, 1st Duke of Genoa
(Savoy)
20 November 1851 21 April 1868 9 January 1878
husband's accession
29 July 1900
husband's death
4 January 1926 Umberto I
Bundesarchiv Bild 102-00061, Elena von Montenegro.jpg Elena of Montenegro Nicholas I of Montenegro
(Petrović-Njegoš)
8 January 1873 24 October 1896 29 July 1900
husband's accession
9 May 1946
husband's abdication
28 November 1952 Victor Emmanuel III
Maria josé regina.jpg Marie-José of Belgium Albert I of Belgium
(Saxe-Coburg and Gotha)
4 August 1906 8 January 1930 9 May 1946
husband's accession
12 June 1946
monarchy abolished
27 January 2001 Umberto II
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Consort Ceased to be Consort Death Spouse

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Some historians believed that Anna never married Louis the Blind. Although there are proves that they were betrothed to one another, Anna was buried in Constantinople showing that she never left her father's court. The main reason some believe that she was his wife was because of Louis' son, Charles-Constantine's second name.