List of Italian inventions
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Italy has been the source of many significant inventions. The following inventions were made in the geographical region of Italy or were made by Italians.
- 1 An alphabetical list of Italian inventions
- 2 External links
- 3 References
An alphabetical list of Italian inventions
- Airpower, strategic doctrine first formulated by Giulio Douhet
- Aerial warfare, airstrike, aerial resupply and aerial reconnaissance. The first use of airplanes in an actual war occurred in the 1911 Italo-Turkish War with the Italian Army Air Corps conducting reconnaissance missions by airplane and bombing a Turkish camp at Ain Zara, Libya 
- Alpini, first unit of mountain troops, created in 1872 
- Ambulance the first ambulance service (horse-drawn carts) was instituted in 1244 in Florence by a pious organization known as "Arciconfraternita della Misericordia"
- Amici roof prism invented by Giovan Battista Amici 
- Amici prism invented by Giovan Battista Amici 
- Alendronate, a medication to treat osteoporosis was developed by the pharmaceutical company Istituto Gentili in the 1980s
- Anemometer developed by Leon Battista Alberti in 1450.
- Anesthesia first used by Italian physician Ugo da Lucca in 1200
- Architonnerre, steam-powered cannon invented by Leonardo da Vinci
- Arduino In 2005, in Ivrea, Italy, a project was initiated to make a device for controlling student-built interaction design projects with less expense than with other prototyping systems available at the time.
- Artificial Heart. First Artificial Heart to be implanted in a human being was created by Domingo Liotta
- Artificial insemination first studied and developed by Lazzaro Spallanzani in 1784 at the University of Pavia 
- Artificial Pneumothorax first example of an "artificial lung" was developed by Carlo Forlanini in 1882
- Artificio de Juanelo, mechanical water pumps built in Toledo
- Anatomical theatre
- Automobile, the Italian word given by Francesco Di Giorgio Martini to drawings he made in 1470. The Italian meaning is "move by itself". Later on his colleague, Leonardo da Vinci also came up with drawings in 1495.
- Avogadro constant, a chemical concept relating to the Mole, discovered by Amedeo Avogadro .
- Ball bearings invented by Leonardo da Vinci in the 1500s 
- Ballistics the discipline of ballistics was initially studied and developed by Italian mathematician Niccolo Tartaglia
- Bank, the Bank of San Giorgio opened for business in Genoa, Italy in 1149
- Barometer invented by Evangelista Torricelli in 1643 
- Battery (electricity) constructed by Alessandro Volta in 1800 .
- Battledress The first mass-produced military camouflage was the Italian telo mimetico ("mimetic cloth") pattern of 1929, used to cover a shelter-half (telo tenda).
- Bicycle. Although it is claimed that Leonardo da Vinci had designed a bicycle, later analysis of the sketches revealed that the ink used was a 19th century ink, suggesting that the sketch was a modern day forgery.
- Biella, an improved Connecting rod device to transform circular motion into linear motion, invented in the 1480s by Leonardo da Vinci and used in modern engines
- Binishell a rapidly erected building invented by Dante Bini using airforms.
- Bossi-Bonomi Pedaliante a man powered aircraft which flew successfully 
- Cam hammer invented in the 1480s by Leonardo da Vinci
- Carbon filament light bulb a light bulb invented by Alessandro Cruto in 1881 
- Carbon paper Invented by Pellegrino Turri in 1806 
- Carburetor invented by Luigi De Cristoforis in 1876 
- Cardan suspension of a gimbal is named after the Italian inventor Gerolamo Cardano (1501–1576), who described the device in detail. This device made inertial navigation possible.
- Cellular microbiology field pioneered by Rino Rappuoli
- Cephalosporins antibiotics. Discovered by Giuseppe Brotzu in 1948.
- Cloning (the first horse) accomplished by Cesare Galli in 2003 
- Cloning (endangered species of wildlife) first Gaur cloned by Philip Damiani in 2001 (Damiani is an Italian-American scientist.
- Codex the precursor of modern books, invented during Roman times 
- Combination lock was first invented by Girolamo Cardano in the 16th Century
- Concrete with Glycerin Invented by Michele Rossi at the University of Milan using byproducts from the production of biodiesel. First tested in 2005 during Hurricane Katrina, proved to be stronger and more resistant than conventional concrete 
- Condom invented by Gabriele Fallopio in 1564 
- Connecting rod a device invented by Roman engineers to transform circular motion into linear motion
- Coronary stent, medical device co-invented by Dr. Cesare Gianturco in 1976
- Decompression chamber invented by Alberto Gianni in 1916.
- Dentures the first dentures were developed by the Etruscans in 700 BC 
- Digital Synthesizer (musical computerized instrument). Fist practical Synthesizer was created by Giuseppe di Giugno in 1976.
- Dictionary first dictionary widely diffused and translated in multiple languages invented by Ambrogio Calepino in 1502.
- Differential (mechanical device) an example of differential gear was designed by Leonardo da Vinci in the 1480s
- Dipleidoscope invented by Giovan Battista Amici.
- Doppio Borgato, a musical instrument which is a variation of the piano 
- Double-entry bookkeeping system, invented in the mercantile city-states of medieval Italy and first documented by Lucas de Burgo in Venice. Perfected by Amatino Mannucci in the 14th century.
- Double-hull boat designed by Leonardo da Vinci in the 1480s
- Doxorubicin a chemotherapy agent invented by Farmitalia Spa in the 1950s .
- Dry Compass was invented by Flavio Gioja (fl. 1302), an Italian pilot from Amalfi, has been credited with perfecting the sailor's compass by suspending its needle over a compass card, thus giving the compass its familiar appearance.
- Dulbecco’s modiﬁed Eagle's medium (DMEM), a culture medium invented by Renato Dulbecco, which is suitable for most mammalian cells, making it possible to grow them in culture. See Eagle's minimal essential medium
- Dynamo, the first practical electric generator was described in 1863 by Antonio Pacinotti in a paper in the Physics Journal "Il nuovo cimento" 
- Eau de Cologne (perfume) developed by Johann Maria Farina in 1709 
- Electric cable created by Giuseppe Pirelli in 1884
- Electric motor the dynamo invented by A. Pacinotti in 1863 worked as an electric motor when operated in reverse
- Electromagnetic seismograph invented by Luigi Palmieri in 1856
- Electroplating a manufacturing technique invented by Luigi Brugnatelli in 1805.
- Electrophorus built by Alessandro Volta in 1775 
- Electroconvulsive therapy for depression, developed by Ugo Cerletti and Lucio Bini in 1937
- Encyclopedia invented by Domenico Bandini in the 15th Century 
- Energy catalizer device invented by Andrea Rossi and awarded an Italian patent (#0001387256).
- Epidemiology. This discipline was created by Girolamo Fracastoro in the mid 16th century.
- Espresso machine, first prototype invented by Angelo Moriondo in 1884 in Turin.
- Espresso machine (piston driven model) invented by Achille Gaggia in 1945.
- Eyeglasses invented by Salvino Armati in 1280 
- Fabian strategy. A guerrilla-warfare strategy first impelemented by Quintus Fabius Maximus "Cunctator" in 217 BC 
- Fastcap ultracapacitor a new storage device technology invented by Riccardo Signorelli in 2009 to replace electric batteries, especially in cars.
- Floating Solar Panels invented in 2010 by Marco Rosa-Clot
- Flywheel.A variant of the flywheel with variable moment of inertia was invented in the 1480s by Leonardo da Vinci
- Fresnel Solar Spot invented by Sicilian-born Peter Mule in 1935
- Frogmen. Known as Incursori in Italy. Their record can be traced back to World War I and the operation against the Austrian-Hungarian Battleship Viribus Unitis in Pola Harbour in 1918.
- Gear shift developed by Leonardo da Vinci in the 1480s
- Geothermal energy harnessed to heat public baths in Aquae Sulis (Bath, England) by Roman Engineers  The earliest industrial exploitation began in 1904 when geothermal power was used to power some light bulbs in Larderello, Italy 
- Girandoni Air Rifle, first repeating rifle used in combat, 50 years before the Henry repeating rifle
- Helicopter In 1877 Enrico Forlanini's unmanned helicopter, powered by a steam engine was the first that rose to a height of 12 meters (40 ft), hovering for some 20 seconds after a vertical take-off.
- Highway, first Autostrada built in 1921
- Human torpedo the first example of a swimmer delivery vehicle used in combat
- Hydrofoil, developed by Enrico Forlanini in 1900
- Inclinometer Leonardo da Vinci developed an Inclinometer for his flying machines in the late 1480s.
- Induction motor Invented by Galileo Ferraris (Nikola Tesla developed a similar invention around the same time) 
- Induction regulator
- In vitro fertilization first performed by Lazzaro Spallanzani at the University of Pavia 
- Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle a reusable space launch vehicle developed by European nations in which Italy had a leading role.Launch is planned for 2013-2014.
- Internal combustion engine, first four-cylinder engine credited to Eugenio Barsanti and Felice Matteucci
- Jetboat, Italian engineer Secondo Campini demonstrated a jet boat in Venice in 1932 
- Jumping position in horsemanship, developed by Federico Caprilli
- Knockout mice, genetically engineered mice which are used to study the function of genes, developed by Italian-born US Scientist Mario Capecchi in 1989. Prof Capecchi was awarded the 2007 Nobel Prize in Medicine for this innovation.
- LARES (satellite) a satellite developed in Italy and launched in 2012.
- Law school, the Studium of the University of Pavia was founded in AD 825 and is the oldest law school in the world.
c an early robot developed by Leonardo da Vinci around 1495
- Life Preserver a design for a life preserver is found in Leonardo da Vinci's notes dating to the 1490s.
- Liposuction, medical procedure invented by Dr Giorgio Fischer in 1974.
- Magic lantern, sometimes credited to 15th-century Venetian engineer Giovanni Fontana
- Magnesium Battery. An unusual type of Magnesium Battery was invented in 1999 by Vito di Noto and Maurizio Fami at the University of Padua. Able to store twice the energy of a lithium battery of the same weight.
- MAS (boat) one of the first examples of fast attack craft which demonstrated its effectiveness in the sinking of the Austrian battleship SMS Szent István in 1918 at the closing of the First World War.
- Medical School (Schola Medica Salernitana)
- Medical thermometer invented by Sanctorius in the early 1600s
- Microprocessor, developed by Italian-born American engineer Federico Faggin
- Microscopic anatomy and histology pioneered by Marcello Malpighi in the 1660s
- Mile, a unit of distance based on the distance covered in 1,000 steps by a Roman legionnaire
- Moka pot
- Molecular engine, a nanoscale engine whose first example was built by Italian-born American scientist Carlo Montemagno in 1996.
- Montessori education developed by Maria Montessori in 1907.
- MOPP (medicine), a combination chemotherapy regimen used to treat Hodgkin's disease. MOPP was the first combination chemotherapy brought in that achieved a high success rate. It was developed in the 1960s by a team led by Vincent DeVita, Jr..
- Mountain paratroopers. created in the 1950s with the Alpini Paracadutisti platoons that later formed the Monte Cervino Battalion
- MPEG. This technology which is the basis for MP-3 was developed by Leonardo Chiariglione in 1988 .
- Musical notation, staff notation invented by Guido d'Arezzo in 1028 AD. To this day, the entire world's maestro's still exclusively uses the Italian language to describe how the notation is to be played.
- Nail (fastener), invented during the Roman era
- Newspaper, the first newspaper started circulating in Venice in 1563.
- Nitroglycerin, first synthesized by Ascanio Sobrero in 1847
- Nuclear reactor, first artificial reactor built by Enrico Fermi in 1942 
- Ocarina a musical instrument invented by Giuseppe Donati
- Opera musical theatre with careful attention to acoustics. Hundreds of years later, even movie theatres later copied the design.
- Oxygen rebreather, a design for an ARO apparatus which was practical and reliable was developed in Italy by Dario Gonzatti-Emilio Cressi—Duilio Marcante in the 1930s. Emilio Cressi became the founder of the Italian company Cressi-Sub.
- Paddle boat first designed by Leonardo da Vinci in the 1490s 
- Pantelegraph, a device for telegraphic transmission of writing and drawing invented by Giovanni Caselli. Commercial service started in 1865. It was the first functional Fax Machine to enter commercial service 
- Parachute, first described by Leonardo da Vinci in 1480. His design was built to the original specifications and it actually worked in a test
- Paratroopers, first drop carried out in 1927
- Parawing, developed in 1957 by Francis Rogallo, an Italian-American engineer.
- Patent law first appeared in Venice in 1474.
- Perspective drawing was pioneered by Paolo Uccello in the 15th Century
- Pertussis vaccine. First recombinant bacterial vaccine against pertussis developed by Rino Rappuoli
- Petrol engine, the first practical petrol engine was invented by Enrico Bernardi and patented in August 1882
- Pendolino, a tilting train developed by Fiat Ferroviaria in the 1960s.
- Piano, a musical instrument invented by Bartolomeo Cristofori in 1709.
- Piezoelectric surgery was developed by Tomaso Vercellotti 
- Pistol invented in Pistoia, Italy by Caminello Vitelli 
- Pneumatic Tyre created by Giuseppe Pirelli in 1889
- Polymers, invented by Giulio Natta
- Polypropylene, invented by Giulio Natta 
- Porro prism invented by Ignazio Porro
- Programma 101, one of the first electronic programmable calculators invented in 1964 by Pier Giorgio Pierotto and built by Olivetti
- Quick release skewer Invented by Tullio Campagnolo in 1927
- Radio, first long-range transmission by Guglielmo Marconi in 1895
- Radio direction finder, improved version invented by Ettore Bellini and Alessandro Tosi in 1907.
- Recombinant DNA Vaccine developed in 1983-1984 by Enzo Paoletti and Dennis Panicali.
- Reggio Emilia approach, education method
- Reverse vaccinology, a new method for producing vaccines first pioneered by Rino Rappuoli
- Riva-Rocci Sphygmomanometer, represented a more practical sphygmomanometer than the original German design.
- Roman bridge, one of the most efficient and reliable bridge designs of antiquity. Almost 1,000 Roman bridges still stand in Europe and other countries today.
- Roman Law which forms the basis of civil law in many European and Latin American countries and in Ethiopia 
- Roman roads, the first extensive network of paved roads 
- Stem cells as vectors for Gene Therapy: In 1992 Doctor Claudio Bordignon working at the Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy performed the first procedure of gene therapy using hematopoietic stem cells as vectors to deliver genes intended to correct hereditary diseases 
- Stem cell transplant to treat Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Developed in 1996 by Alberto Marmont De Haut Champs 
- Scissors, pivoted version invented by Romans around 100 AD
- Spring powered cart. A self-propelled mechanical cart, part of a larger robot, designed by Leonardo da Vinci in the 1480s 
- Sky Box wing a new concept of biplane configuration for ultralight aircraft Skybox wing
- Stiletto, a type of narrow dagger which appeared in the Middle Ages
- Telephone, a working telephone was built by Antonio Meucci
- Tensor calculus, invented by mathematicians Gregorio Ricci-Curbastro and Tullio Levi-Civita.
- Thermometer, invented by Galileo Galilei in 1593.
- Tontine a form of life insurance developed by Lorenzo De Tonti in 1653
- TX-Active Pollution-mitigating concrete invented by Italian company Italcementi in 2009 
- Torpedo first such weapon baptized "salvacoste" by inventor Giovanni Biagio Luppis. The company he founded with Robert Whitehead remains active in Italy to this day: http://www.wass.it/WASSWEB/
- Typewriter first practical and perfectly working typewriter invented by Pellegrino Turri in 1808 
- Unibody Automobile Construction Vincenzo Lancia was the first to use a unitized body or monocoque chassis on an automobile for structual added strength, safety and better road control.
- Universal joint, invented by Gerolamo Cardano in 1545
- University. The University of Bologna was founded in 1083 and is still operating to this day.
- Vega (rocket) a rocket developed chiefly in Italy (65%) with the collaboration of other European Nations (Spain, Belgium, The Netherlands, Switzerland and Sweden). First flight took place in 2012.The last stage of the rocket has the ability to use the propulsion system to adjust the orbit.
- Vermouth first marketed by Antonio Benedetto Carpano in 1786.
- Vibram rubber soles, invented in 1937 by Vitale Bramani
- Vibram FiveFingers a type of shoe invented in 1999 by Robert Fliri.
- Violin, four stringed, the name of the inventor is unknown, but the instrument appeared in renaissance Italy.
- Viterbi algorithm created by Andrew James Viterbi (Italian-American researcher) in 1967 and now used in cell phones
- VVA-14 Wing-In-Ground/Aircraft Hybrid designed by Roberto Orso Di Bartini in 1972
- Waterbed invented by Sanctorius in the early 1600s
- Water Walking Skis were first designed by Leonardo da Vinci 
- Webmail invented by Luca Manunza in 1994-95
- Wheel lock invented by Leonardo da Vinci in the 15th century
- Wind tunnel designed by Gaetano Lanza in 1909.
- Wine dispenser invented in 2009 and now used in many restaurants around the world
- Worm drive (Universal screw) invented by Leonardo da Vinci in the 1480s
- Zamboni pile.
- Ziegler-Natta catalyst, catalyst to produce polymers co-invented by Giulio Natta
Scientific discoveries and advances in medicine
- Atherosclerosis was first described by Leonardo da Vinci in the 1500s
- Cardiac Stem Cell therapy for heart failure was developed by Dr Piero Anversa and Dr Roberto Bolli 
- Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency a condition linked to Multiple Sclerosis was first described by Doctor Paolo Zamboni in 2008
- Digestive Processes were first described by Lazzaro Spallanzani
- E=mc2 Formula developed independently of Einstein's work by Olinto de Pretto, who published it in 1903, one year before Einstein. (Einstein spoke perfect Italian and lived in Pavia, Italy around the same time).
- Stem cells responsible for causing Colon Cancer were isolated and described by Ruggero DeMaria and his team in 2007 
- Cosmic X-Rays were discovered by Riccardo Giacconi
- Fibonacci’s Series were created by mathematician Leonardo Fibonacci in 1202
- Golgi Apparatus was first described by Camillo Golgi
- Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis was found to have an association with diabetes type 1 and Multiple Sclerosis in Sardinia. The research team was led by professor Leonardo Sechi 
- Nerve Growth Factor was discovered by Italian biochemist Rita Levi-Montalcini
- Oncoviruses or viruses capable of causing cancers were first isolated and described by biologist Renato Dulbecco
- Reverse transcriptase a viral enzyme discovered by biologist Renato Dulbecco
- SARS virus was discovered by Carlo Urbani in 2003, the discovery cost him his life
- Venturi effect a phenomenon named after its discoverer, Italian physicist Giovanni Battista Venturi
Other Significant Italian Innovations
- Comau an Italian company who is a leader in industrial automation and developed many innovations in this field. In particular the Smart5 line of industrial robots. Today all major automotive manufacturers use Comau machines.
- Latin alphabet derived from the Greek alphabets became the foundation of many languages worldwide
- Runic alphabet: the runic alphabet was based on Old Italic script
- Stock Exchange: the first such institution was started in Bruges by members of the Della Borsa family (Van der Bourse in Flemish). The Della Borsas were venetian merchants
Italian contributions to music
- Disco music was pioneered by Italian Composer Giorgio Moroder in 1972
- Italo Dance a style of music popular in the 1970-1980s
- Italo Disco a style of music popular in the 1980s
- Italo House a style of music popular in the late 1980s
- Orchestra first created by Giovanni Gabrielli in the 1500s
- Opera first opera written by Claudio Monteverdi and Jacopo Peri in 1597
- Symphony this concept is the creation of Giovanni Battista Sammartini in 1734
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