List of Italians

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This is a list of notable Italians.

Acting[edit]

Actors[edit]

Actresses[edit]

Architects[edit]

Ancient Rome[edit]

Middle Ages[edit]

Humanism and the Renaissance[edit]

Baroque[edit]

Neoclassicism[edit]

The 1900s[edit]

Chefs and gastronomists[edit]

  • Martino da Como (c. 1430 – late 15th century), "Prince of cooks", considered the western world's first celebrity chef. His book Libro de Arte Coquinaria (1465) was a benchmark for Italian cuisine and laid the ground for European gastronomic tradition
  • Pellegrino Artusi (1820–1911) writer and gastronomist, credited with establishing a truly national Italian cuisine. His La scienza in cucina e l'arte di mangiare bene (1891) was the first gastronomic treatise comprising all regions of united Italy
  • Carlo Petrini (born 1949), politician, writer and gastronomist. Taking part in a campaign against the McDonald’s chain and a busy daily routine, he founded the worldwide influential Slow Food movement in 1986.

Engineers[edit]

Explorers[edit]

Fictional characters[edit]

Filmmakers[edit]

Illustrators[edit]

Military and political figures[edit]

Etruscan civilization[edit]

Ancient Rome[edit]

Roman Catholic Church[edit]

Renaissance[edit]

  • Cesare Borgia (1475/1476–1507), Spanish-Italian condottiero, nobleman, politician, and cardinal. Powerful lord, and a leading figure in the politics of his era
  • Bartolomeo Colleoni (1400–1475), condottiere, at various times in Venetian and Milanese service and from 1454 general in chief of the Republic of Venice for life
  • Andrea Doria (1466–1560), condottiere, and admiral who was the foremost naval leader of his time[51]
  • Erasmo of Narni (1370–1443, known as Gattamelata), who served Florence, Venice and the pope before becoming dictator of Padua
  • Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor (1194–1250), King of Sicily and promoter of Sicilian culture and political power; expanded domain into much of Italy[52]
  • Federico da Montefeltro (1422–1482), lord of Urbino from 1444 (as Duke from 1474) until his death. He is widely regarded as one of the most successful condottieri of his time
  • Giovanni dalle Bande Nere (1498–1526), the most noted soldier of all the Medici
  • Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta (1417–1468), condottiero and nobleman. He was widely considered by his contemporaries as one of the most daring military leaders in Italy
  • Niccolò Piccinino (1386–1444), soldier of fortune who played an important role in the 15th-century wars of the Visconti of Milan against Venice, Florence, and the pope
  • Francesco I Sforza (1401–1466), condottiere who played a crucial role in 15th-century Italian politics
  • Muzio Sforza (1369–1424), soldier of fortune who played an important role in the wars of his period and whose son Francesco became duke of Milan
  • Gian Giacomo Trivulzio (1440/1441–1518), aristocrat and condottiero who served as a military captain under Galeazzo, later became the grand Marshal of France

Domination by other countries[edit]

1861 to the rise of Fascism[edit]

Italian republic[edit]

Musicians[edit]

Composers[edit]

Middle Ages[edit]

Renaissance[edit]

Baroque[edit]

Classical period[edit]

Romantic[edit]

The 1900s[edit]

Conductors[edit]

Singers[edit]

Castrati singers[edit]

  • Antonio Bernacchi (1685–1756), contralto castrato. Renowned for his technical virtuosity, he sang in operas throughout Italy and also abroad, notably at Munich and for Handel in London
  • Caffarelli (1710–1783), contralto castrato. A pupil of Nicola Porpora; he sang for Handel in London, England, in 1738, creating the title roles in Faramondo and Serse
  • Giovanni Carestini (c. 1704 – c. 1760), contralto castrato, one of the foremost of his time. Début Rome 1721
  • Girolamo Crescentini (1762–1846), mezzo-soprano castrato. His repertory being chiefly operas by Zingarelli, Cimarosa and Gazzaniga
  • Farinelli (1705–1782), soprano, castrati.
  • Nicolò Grimaldi (1673–1732), mezzo-soprano castrato known for his association with the composer George Frideric Handel, in two of whose early operas he sang
  • Giovanni Francesco Grossi (1653–1697), soprano castrato. He sang Siface in Cavalli's Scipione affricano (1671) and was thereafter always known by that name
  • Alessandro Moreschi (1858–1922), soprano castrato. The most famous of the late 19th century; known as angel of Rome "because of vocal purity[92]
  • Gaspare Pacchierotti (1740–1821), mezzo-soprano castrato, and one of the most famous singers of his time
  • Senesino (1686–1758), contralto castrato; renowned for his power and his skill in both coloratura and expressive singing
  • Giovanni Velluti (1780–1861), soprano. The last of the great castrate singers

Sopranos[edit]

  • Gemma Bellincioni (1864–1950), opera singer - soprano
  • Maria Caniglia (1905–1979), soprano; one of the leading Italian dramatic sopranos of the 1930s and 1940s
  • Mirella Freni (born 1935), soprano; one of the dominant figures on the opera scene; she has since performed at many venues, including Milan, Vienna and Salzburg
  • Amelita Galli-Curci (1882–1963), coloratura soprano
  • Giulia Grisi (1811–1869), operatic soprano whose brilliant dramatic voice established her as an operatic prima donna for more than 30 years[93]
  • Claudia Muzio (1889–1936), operatic soprano, whose international career was among the most successful of the early 20th century. She brought drama and pathos to all her roles
  • Giuditta Pasta (1797–1865), soprano. She was famed for her roles in the operas of Rossini, Bellini and Donizetti; acclaimed for her vocal range and expressiveness
  • Adelina Patti (1843–1919), soprano; one of the great coloratura singers of the 19th century
  • Renata Scotto (born 1934), soprano and opera director; considered one of the preeminent singers of her generation, specializing in the bel canto repertoire
  • Renata Tebaldi (1922–2004), lyric soprano; one of the most acclaimed members of the Metropolitan Opera company from 1955 to 1973, and retired from singing in 1976
  • Luisa Tetrazzini (1871–1940), coloratura soprano; one of the finest of her time

Mezzo-sopranos[edit]

  • Cecilia Bartoli (born 1966), operatic mezzo-soprano who achieved global stardom with her outstanding vocal skills
  • Faustina Bordoni (1697–1781), mezzo-soprano; known for her beauty and acting as well as her vocal range and breath control
  • Fiorenza Cossotto (born 1935), mezzo-soprano; she is considered by many to be one of the great mezzo-sopranos of the 20th century
  • Giulietta Simionato (1910–2010), mezzo-soprano who excelled at bel canto and lighter operas by Rossini and Mozart
  • Ebe Stignani (1903 or 1904–1974), mezzo-soprano; member of the Scala ensemble and was regarded as its leading exponent of dramatic contralto and mezzo roles

Contraltos[edit]

Tenors[edit]

  • Carlo Bergonzi (born 1924), operatic tenor; from 1956 to 1983, his beautiful voice was a fixture in the 19th-century Italian and French repertoire at the Metropolitan Opera[94]
  • Andrea Bocelli (born 1958), opera tenor noted for his unique blend of opera and pop music[95]
  • Enrico Caruso (1873–1921), operatic tenor
  • Franco Corelli (1921–2003), tenor; powerful voice and passionate singing style; had a major international opera career between 1951 and 1976
  • Fernando De Lucia (1860 or 1861–1925), opera tenor and singing teacher who enjoyed an international career
  • Mario Del Monaco (1915–1982), operatic tenor
  • Giuseppe Di Stefano (1921–2008), lyric tenor who was hailed as one of the finest operatic tenors of his generation[96]
  • Giuseppe Filianoti (born 1974), operatic tenor noted for his beautiful voice and impressive stage presence.
  • Beniamino Gigli (1890–1957), operatic tenor. The most famous tenor of his generation; was a leading in French and Italian operas from 1920 to 1932
  • Giacomo Lauri-Volpi (1892–1979), lyric-dramatic tenor; he performed throughout Europe and the Americas in a top-class career that spanned 40 years
  • Giovanni Martinelli (1885–1969), operatic tenor; his repertoire of about 50 roles included the leading tenor roles in nearly all the principal Italian operas[97]
  • Luciano Pavarotti (1935–2007), lyric tenor
  • Aureliano Pertile (1885–1952), lyric-dramatic tenor; one of the most important of the entire 20th century
  • Gianni Raimondi (1923–2008), lyric tenor, particularly associated with the Italian repertory
  • Giovanni Battista Rubini (1794–1854), tenor; known for playing heroic roles
  • Tito Schipa (1888–1965), operatic tenor; he is considered one of the finest tenore di grazia in operatic history
  • Francesco Tamagno (1850–1905), tenor; he became famous for his performances in the title roles of Verdi's Otello and Don Carlos

Baritones[edit]

Basses[edit]

  • Salvatore Baccaloni (1900–1969), operatic bass; known for his large repertory, he sang nearly 170 roles in five languages
  • Sesto Bruscantini (1919–2003), operatic bass-baritone, buffo singer
  • Enzo Dara (born 1938), bass buffo; one of the foremost performers of his generation
  • Nazzareno De Angelis (1881–1962), operatic bass, particularly associated with Verdi, Rossini and Wagner roles
  • Ferruccio Furlanetto (born 1949), buss; known as a brilliant interpreter in the Italian repertoire and as a Mozart-singer
  • Luigi Lablache (1794–1858), peratic bass admired for his musicianship and acting
  • Tancredi Pasero (1893–1983), bass. Particularly associated with the Italian repertory
  • Ezio Pinza (1892–1957), operatic performer who was the leading basso at the Metropolitan Opera House in New York City (1926–1948)
  • Cesare Siepi (1923–2010), bass singer who won over audiences worldwide in signature roles such as Don Giovanni and Figaro in The Marriage of Figaro

Painters[edit]

Ancient Rome[edit]

Middle Ages[edit]

Renaissance and Mannerism[edit]

  • Mariotto Albertinelli (1474–1515), painter, known for The Visitation (1503) and The Annunciation (1510)
  • Alessandro Allori (1535–1607), painter. His varied output included altarpieces, portraits, and tapestry designs. The Pearl Fishing (1570–1572) is generally considered his masterpiece
  • Andrea del Castagno (c. 1421–1457), painter in the early Florentine Renaissance. Known for a series of monumental frescoes depicting the Last Supper
  • Andrea del Sarto (1486–1530), painter. His most striking among other well-known works is the series of frescoes on the life of St. John the Baptist in the Chiostro dello Scalzo (c. 1515–1526)
  • Andrea del Verrocchio (c. 1435–1488), sculptor and painter. Among his principal paintings are Baptism of Christ (1472–1475) and several versions of the Madonna and Child
  • Sofonisba Anguissola (c. 1535–1625), painter, mainly of portraits, the first woman artist to win international renown[105]
  • Antonello da Messina (c. 1430–1479), Sicilian painter. Major works were altarpieces and portraits
  • Antonio da Correggio (1489–1534), painter, known for the frescoes in the domes of San Giovanni Evangelista and the Cathedral of Parma, where he worked from 1520 to 1530
  • Giuseppe Arcimboldo (1527–1593), painter, famous for his allegorical or symbolical compositions in which he arranged objects such as fruits and vegetables into the form of the human face
  • Alesso Baldovinetti (1425–1499), painter. He contributed importantly to the fledgling art of landscape painting[106]
  • Jacopo de' Barbari (c. 1440 – before 1516), painter and printmaker. His few surviving paintings (about twelve) include the first known example of trompe-l'œil since antiquity
  • Federico Barocci (c. 1526–1612), leading painter of the central Italian school in the last decades of the 16th century and an important precursor of the Baroque style
  • Jacopo Bassano (c. 1510–1592), painter of the Venetian school, known for his religious paintings, lush landscapes, and scenes of everyday life
  • Domenico di Pace Beccafumi (1486–1551), painter, sculptor, draughtsman, printmaker and illuminator. He was one of the protagonists of Tuscan Mannerism[107]
  • Gentile Bellini (c. 1429–1507), painter, member of the founding family of the Venetian school of Renaissance painting, known for his portraiture and his scenes of Venice
  • Giovanni Bellini (c. 1430–1516), painter. Among his works may be cited St. Francis in Ecstasy (c. 1480) and Portrait of Doge Leonardo Loredan (1501)
  • Jacopo Bellini (c. 1400 – c. 1470), painter who introduced the principles of Florentine early Renaissance art into Venice[108]
  • Ambrogio Bergognone (c. 1470–1523/1524), painter. His most important works are the frescoes in the Certosa di Pavia
  • Boccaccio Boccaccino (c. 1467 – c. 1525), painter. His most impressive work is the fresco cycle of the Life of the Virgin along the nave in the cathedral at Cremona
  • Giovanni Antonio Boltraffio (1466/1467–1516), painter. He was a pupil of Leonardo da Vinci, whose style he adhered to faithfully
  • Paris Bordone (1500–1571), painter of religious, mythological, and anecdotal subjects, known for his striking sexualized paintings of women
  • Sandro Botticelli (c. 1445–1510), painter of the Florentine school. The Primavera (c. 1482) and The Birth of Venus (c. 1486) rank now among the most familiar masterpieces of Florentine art
  • Francesco Botticini (1446–1498), painter profoundly influenced by Castagno; worked under and was formed by Cosimo Rosselli and Verrocchio
  • Bramantino (c. 1456 – c. 1530), painter and architect, a follower of Bramante, from whom he takes his nickname
  • Bronzino (1503–1572), painter. He is noted chiefly for his stylized portraits. Of his religious works, Deposition of Christ (1540–1545) is the most famous
  • Luca Cambiasi (1527–1585), painter and draughtsman. He was the outstanding Genoese painter of the 16th century
  • Vittore Carpaccio (c. 1460–1525/1526), painter active in Venice, known for the cycle depicting the life of Saint Ursula and the Saint George series
  • Cennino Cennini (c. 1370 – c. 1440), painter, known for writing Il libro dell'arte (1437), source on the methods, techniques, and attitudes of medieval artists[109]
  • Cigoli (1559–1613), painter, draughtsman, architect and scenographer. He was one of the most influential artists in 17th-century Florence[110]
  • Cima da Conegliano (c. 1459 – c. 1517), painter of the Venetian school whose style was marked by its use of landscape and by airy, luminous colour
  • Niccolò Antonio Colantonio (fl. 1440–1470), painter, based in Naples, where he painted religious paintings in a style marked by Flemish influence
  • Francesco del Cossa (c. 1430 – c. 1477), painter of the Ferrarese school, best known works are the frescoes in the Palazzo Schifanoia at Ferrara (probably commissioned in 1469)
  • Lorenzo Costa (1460–1535), painter of the Ferrarese and Bolognese schools, known for his painting the Madonna and Child with the Bentivoglio family (1483)
  • Carlo Crivelli (c. 1435 – c. 1495), painter. All his works were of religious subjects, done in an elaborate, old-fashioned style reminiscent of the linearism of Andrea Mantegna
  • Daniele da Volterra (c. 1509–1566), painter and sculptor, noted for his finely drawn, highly idealized figures done in the style of Michelangelo
  • Ercole de' Roberti (c. 1451–1496), painter. His dynamic figurative compositions are marked by an exceptional intensity of feeling
  • Francesco de' Rossi (1510–1563), painter and designer, one of the leading Mannerist fresco painters of the Florentine-Roman school[111]
  • Niccolò dell'Abbate (1509 or 1512–1571), painter and decorator. He is credited with introducing landscape painting in France
  • Dosso Dossi (c. 1490–1542), painter and leader of the Ferrarese school in the 16th century[112]
  • Gaudenzio Ferrari (c. 1471–1546), painter and sculptor, one of the leading representatives of the Lombard school
  • Rosso Fiorentino (1494–1540), painter. His masterpiece is generally considered to be the Deposition or Descent from the Cross altarpiece in the Pinacoteca Comunale di Volterra
  • Lavinia Fontana (1552–1614), painter. She was one of the first women painters in European history to have enjoyed professional success[113]
  • Prospero Fontana (1512–1597), painter, father of Lavinia Fontana. One of the leading painters in Bologna
  • Vincenzo Foppa (c. 1430 – c. 1515), painter, leading figure in 15th-century Lombard art[114]
  • Fra Angelico (c. 1395–1455), painter. His most well-known works are frescoes at the monastery of San Marco, Florence, and in the chapel of Pope Nicholas V in the Vatican
  • Fra Bartolomeo (1472–1517), painter, a leading figure of the High Renaissance. Noted for his austere religious works
  • Franciabigio (1482–1525), painter, known for his portraits and religious paintings
  • Agnolo Gaddi (c. 1350–1396), painter. He was an influential and prolific artist who was the last major Florentine painter stylistically descended from Giotto[115]
  • Fede Galizia (1578–1630), painter, one of the earliest still life painters in Italy, who was also known for miniature portraits, landscapes, and religious subjects
  • Gentile da Fabriano (c. 1370–1427), painter, one of the outstanding exponents of the elegant international Gothic style[116]
  • Domenico Ghirlandaio (1449–1494), painter. His most famous achievement is his fresco cycle of the life of Mary and St. John the Baptist for the choir of Santa Maria Novella (1485–1490)
  • Ridolfo Ghirlandaio (1483–1561), painter. He was the son of Domenico Ghirlandaio, and was trained in his father's workshop
  • Giorgione (c. 1477/8–1510), painter of the Venetian school. His The Tempest (c. 1508), a milestone in Renaissance landscape painting
  • Giovanni da Udine (1487–1564), painter and architect. A pupil of Raphael and one of his assistants in painting the frescoes of the Vatican
  • Giovanni di Paolo (c. 1403–1482), painter. One of the most attractive and idiosyncratic painters of the Sienese School
  • Stefano di Giovanni (c. 1400–1450), painter of the Sienese school, is noted for the gentle piety of his art
  • Benozzo Gozzoli (c. 1421–1497), painter. He is famous for his numerous frescos, such as The Journey of the Magi to Bethlehem (1459–1461) in the Medici Palace, Florence
  • Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519), painter, sculptor, architect, musician, engineer and scientist. The supreme example of Renaissance genius. Author of Mona Lisa (c. 1503–1506)
  • Filippino Lippi (c. 1457–1504), painter. His most popular painting is the Apparition of the Virgin to St. Bernard altarpiece (1480)
  • Filippo Lippi (c. 1406–1469), painter. His finest fresco cycle is in Prato cathedral and depicts the lives of St. Stephen and St. John the Baptist
  • Gian Paolo Lomazzo (1538–1592), painter. His first work, Trattato dell'arte della pittura, scoltura et architettura (1584) is in part a guide to contemporary concepts of decorum
  • Lorenzo di Credi (1459–1537), painter and sculptor. Examples of his art are the Madonna with Child and Two Saints and Adoration
  • Lorenzo Monaco (c. 1370 – c. 1425), painter, one of the leading artists in Florence at the beginning of the 15th century[117]
  • Lorenzo Lotto (c. 1480–1556), painter known for his perceptive portraits and mystical paintings of religious subjects
  • Bernardino Luini (c. 1480/1482–1532), painter, known for his mythological and religious frescoes
  • Andrea Mantegna (c. 1431–1506), painter. His most important works were nine tempera pictures of Triumph of Caesar (c. 1486) and his decoration of the ceiling of the Camera degli Sposi
  • Masaccio (1401–1428), painter. His most famous works are the frescoes in the Brancacci Chapel and in the church of Santa Maria del Carmine, in Florence
  • Masolino da Panicale (c. 1383 – c. 1447), painter of the Florentine school. He collaborated with Masaccio, in a cycle of frescoes in the Brancacci Chapel in Santa Maria del Carmine, in Florence
  • Melozzo da Forlì (c. 1438–1494), painter of the Umbrian school. One of the great fresco artists of the 15th century
  • Michelangelo (1475–1564), sculptor, painter, architect and poet who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art.[118] Author of The Creation of Adam (c. 1511)
  • Moretto da Brescia (c. 1498–1554), painter. Together with Romanino and Girolamo Savoldo, he was one of the most distinguished painters of Brescia of the 16th century[119]
  • Giovanni Battista Moroni (c. 1520/1524–1578), painter. He was known for his sober and dignified portraits
  • Palma Giovane (1548/1550–1628), painter. The leading Venetian painter and draftsman of the late 16th and early 17th centuries
  • Palma Vecchio (c. 1480–1528), painter of the High Renaissance, noted for the craftsmanship of his religious and mythological works
  • Parmigianino (1503–1540), painter, one of the first artists to develop the elegant and sophisticated version of Mannerist style
  • Perino del Vaga (1501–1547), painter. A pupil and assistant of Raphael Sanzio in Rome, he carried out decorations in the Logge of the Vatican from Raphael's designs
  • Francesco Pesellino (1422–1457), painter of the Florentine school who excelled in the execution of small-scale paintings
  • Piero della Francesca (c. 1415–1492), painter and mathematician. His most famous cycle, The History of the True Cross (1452–1466), depicts scenes from the Golden Legend
  • Piero di Cosimo (1462–1521), painter noted for his eccentric character and his fanciful mythological paintings[120]
  • Pietro Perugino (1446–1524), painter. One of his most famous masterpieces is The Delivery of the Keys (1481–1482), in the Sistine Chapel
  • Pinturicchio (1454–1513), painter, known for his highly decorative frescoes. His most elaborate project was the decoration of the Cathedral of Siena
  • Pisanello (c. 1395–1455), medalist and painter. He is regarded as the foremost exponent of the International Gothic style in Italian painting[121]
  • Polidoro da Caravaggio (c. 1499–1543), painter. One of the most original and innovative artists of the mid-16th century[122]
  • Antonio del Pollaiolo (1429/1433–1498), painter, sculptor, goldsmith, and engraver, was a master of anatomical rendering and excelled in action subjects, notably mythologies
  • Pontormo (1494–1557), painter. He is thought to have painted Vertumnus and Pomona (1520–1521), which shows qualities characteristic of mannerism
  • Il Pordenone (c. 1484–1539), painter chiefly known for his frescoes of religious subjects
  • Francesco Primaticcio (1504–1570), painter, architect, sculptor, and leader of the first school of Fontainebleau[123]
  • Francesco Raibolini (c. 1450–1517), painter, goldsmith and medallist. His major surviving paintings are altarpieces, mostly images of the Virgin and saints
  • Raphael (1483–1520), painter and architect, expressed the ideals of the High Renaissance, known for his Madonnas
  • Giulio Romano (c. 1499–1546), painter and architect. Well-known oils include The Stoning of St. Stephen (Church of Santo Stefano, Genoa) and Adoration of the Magi (Louvre)
  • Cosimo Rosselli (1439–1507), painter. Of his many works in Florence the most famous is The Miracle-working Chalice in Sant' Ambrogio, a work that includes many contemporary portraits[124]
  • Andrea Schiavone (c. 1510/15–1563), painter and etcher. His most characteristic works were fairly small religious or mythological pictures for private patrons
  • Sebastiano del Piombo (c. 1485–1547), painter of the Venetian School, known for his portraits, including his portrayal of Pope Clement VII (1526)
  • Luca Signorelli (c. 1445–1523), painter, known for his nudes and for his novel compositional devices. His masterpiece is the fresco cycle in Orvieto Cathedral
  • Il Sodoma (1477–1549), painter, a master of the human figure and leading pupil of Leonardo da Vinci
  • Francesco Squarcione (c. 1395 – after 1468), painter who founded the Paduan school and is known for being the teacher of Andrea Mantegna and other noteworthy painters[125]
  • Taddeo di Bartolo (c. 1362–1422), painter. He was the leading painter in Siena in the first two decades of the 15th century and also worked in and for other cities[126]
  • Antonio Tempesta (1555–1630), painter and engraver from Florence who specialised in pastoral scenes
  • Pellegrino Tibaldi (1527–1596), painter, sculptor, and architect who spread the style of Italian Mannerist painting in Spain during the late 16th century[127]
  • Tintoretto (1518–1594), painter of the Venetian school. One of the most important artists of the late Renaissance. His works include St. George and the Dragon (1555)
  • Titian (c. 1488/1490–1576), painter of the Venetian school, noted for his religious and mythological works, such as Bacchus and Ariadne (1520–1523), and his portraits
  • Cosimo Tura (c. 1430–1495), painter who was the founder and the first significant figure of the 15th-century school of Ferrara[128]
  • Paolo Uccello (1397–1475), painter. His three panels depicting The Battle of San Romano (1438), combine the decorative late Gothic style with the new heroic style of the early Renaissance
  • Bartolomeo Veneto (fl. 1502–1546), painter who worked in Northern Italy in an area bounded by Venice and Milan
  • Domenico Veneziano (c. 1410–1461), painter. In Florence he created his most celebrated work, the St. Lucy Altarpiece (c. 1445–1447)
  • Paolo Veronese (1528–1588), painter of the Venetian school, famous for paintings such as The Wedding at Cana (1563) and The Feast in the House of Levi (1573)
  • Alvise Vivarini (1442/1453–1503/1505), painter in the late Gothic style whose father, Antonio, was the founder of the influential Vivarini family of Venetian artists
  • Bartolomeo Vivarini (c. 1432 – c. 1499), painter and member of the influential Vivarini family of Venetian artists
  • Federico Zuccari (c. 1540/1541–1609), painter and architect. He was the author of L'idea de' Pittori, Scultori, ed Architetti (1607)
  • Taddeo Zuccari (1529–1566), painter. One of the most popular members of the Roman mannerist school

Baroque and Rococo[edit]

  • Francesco Albani (1578–1660), painter, known for paintings of mythological and poetic subjects
  • Cristofano Allori (1577–1621), painter. He became one of the foremost Florentine artists of the early Baroque period, also winning renown as a courtier, poet, musician and lover[129]
  • Jacopo Amigoni (1682–1752), painter and etcher. His oeuvre includes decorative frescoes for churches and palaces, history and mythological paintings and a few etchings
  • Marcello Bacciarelli (1731–1818), painter working at the royal court in Warsaw, who captured seminal moments in Polish history on canvas
  • Sisto Badalocchio (1585 – c. 1647), painter and engraver. His most important work are the frescoes in the cupola and pendentives of St. John the Baptist (Reggio Emilia)[130]
  • Pompeo Batoni (1708–1787), painter. In his day he was the most celebrated painter in Rome and one of the most famous in Europe
  • Bernardo Bellotto (1720–1780), painter of topographical views, known as vedute ("view paintings")
  • Guido Cagnacci (1601–1663), painter. Particularly noteworthy are his altarpieces of the Virgin and Child with Three Carmelite Saints (c. 1631) and Christ with Saints Joseph and Eligius (1635)
  • Canaletto (1697–1768), painter and etcher, noted particularly for his highly detailed paintings of cities, esp Venice, which are marked by strong contrasts of light and shade
  • Battistello Caracciolo (1578–1635), painter. Caravaggesque painter and the founder of Neapolitan Caravaggism[131]
  • Caravaggio (1571–1610), painter of the baroque whose influential works, such as The Entombment of Christ (1602–1603), are marked by intense realism and revolutionary use of light
  • Annibale Carracci (1560–1609), painter. Well known among his numerous works are The Beaneater (1580–1590), The Choice of Hercules (1596) and Domine quo vadis? (c. 1603)
  • Ludovico Carracci (1555–1619), painter, draughtsman and etcher born in Bologna
  • Rosalba Carriera (1675–1757), portrait painter and miniaturist,Rococo style, nown for her work in pastels[132]
  • Giuseppe Crespi (1665–1747), painter of the Bolognese school, known for the imposing paintings of the Seven Sacraments (1712)
  • Carlo Dolci (1616–1686), Florentine painter, known for his paintings of the heads and half-figures of Jesus and the Mater Dolorosa
  • Domenichino (1581–1641), painter of the baroque eclectic school who is noted for his religious and mythological works, including several frescoes of Saint Cecilia
  • Domenico Fetti (c. 1589–1623), painter whose best-known works are small representations of biblical parables
  • Giovanni Battista Gaulli (1639–1709), painter. He was a celebrated artist of the Roman High Baroque. Worship of the Holy Name of Jesus (1674–1679) is his most noted work
  • Artemisia Gentileschi (1593–1653), painter. Among her works may be cited Susanna and the Elders (1610) and Judith Slaying Holofernes (1614–1620)
  • Orazio Gentileschi (1563–1639), painter. The Annunciation (1623), painted in Genoa and now in the Galleria Sabauda of Turin, is considered by several authorities his masterpiece
  • Luca Giordano (1634–1705), painter, the most important Italian decorative artist of the second half of the 17th century
  • Francesco Guardi (1712–1793), painter, a follower of Canaletto. His many charming landscapes are in the galleries of London, Paris, Venice and Boston
  • Guercino (1591–1666), painter. Extremely skillful, prolific, and quick to finish his work, he was known for his frescoes, altarpieces, oils, and drawings
  • Giovanni Lanfranco (1582–1647), painter, one of the foremost artists of the High Baroque. His masterpiece is the Assumption of the Virgin in the dome of Sant'Andrea della Valle (1625–1627)
  • Pietro Longhi (1702–1785), painter, known for his small pictures depicting the life of upper-middle-class Venetians of his day
  • Alessandro Magnasco (1667–1749), painter, known for his scenes of disembodied, flamelike figures in stormy landscapes or cavernousinteriors
  • Bartolomeo Manfredi (1582–1622), painter, active mainly in Rome, where he was one of the most important of Caravaggio's followers
  • Carlo Maratta (1625–1713), painter and engraver of the Roman school; one of the last great masters of Baroque classicism
  • Pietro Novelli (1603–1647), painter. Probably the most distinguished Sicilian painter of the 17th century[133]
  • Giovanni Paolo Panini (1691–1765), the foremost painter of Roman topography in the 18th century[134]
  • Giovanni Battista Piazzetta (1682–1754), painter, illustrator and designer. His most popular work is the celebrated Fortune Teller (1740)
  • Andrea Pozzo (1642–1709), painter, a leading exponent of the baroque style. His masterpiece is the nave ceiling of the Church of Sant'Ignazio in Rome
  • Mattia Preti (1613–1699), painter, called Il Calabrese for his birthplace. His most substantial undertaking was the decoration of St. John's, Valletta
  • Guido Reni (1575–1642), painter noted for the classical idealism of his renderings of mythological and religious subjects
  • Sebastiano Ricci (1659–1734), painter. He is remembered for his decorative paintings, which mark the transition between the late Baroque and the development of the Rococo style
  • Salvator Rosa (1615–1673), painter, etcher and poet, known for his spirited battle pieces painted in the style of Falcone, for his marines, and especially for his landscapes
  • Francesco Solimena (1657–1747), painter. The leading artist of the Neapolitan Baroque during the first half of the 18th century[135]
  • Massimo Stanzione (c. 1586 – c. 1656), painter. His style has a distinctive refinement and grace that has earned him the nickname "the Neapolitan Guido Reni."[136]
  • Bernardo Strozzi (c. 1581–1644), painter
  • Giovanni Battista Tiepolo (1696–1770), painter. His frescoes in the Palazzo Labia and the doge's palace won him international fame
  • Giovanni Domenico Tiepolo (1727–1804), painter and printmaker. His most noted early works are the chinoiserie decorations of the Villa Valmarana in Vicenza (1757)

The 1800s[edit]

The 1900s[edit]

  • Pietro Annigoni (1910–1988), painter (and occasional sculptor), the only artist of his time to become internationally famous as a society and state portraitist[137]
  • Giacomo Balla (1871–1958), painter, sculptor, stage designer, decorative artist and actor. He was one of the originators of Futurism
  • Umberto Boccioni (1882–1916), painter, sculptor and theorist. His painting The City Rises (1910) is a dynamic composition of swirling human figures in a fragmented crowd scene
  • Alberto Burri (1915–1995), painter and sculptor. He was one of the first artists to exploit the evocative force of waste materials, looking forward to Trash art in America and Arte Povera in Italy
  • Aldo Carpi, rector of the Brera Academy and author of a collection of memoirs concerning his imprisonment in the infamous Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp.
  • Carlo Carrà (1881–1966), painter, known for his still lifes in the style of Metaphysical painting
  • Francesco Clemente (born 1952), painter and draftsman whose dramatic figural imagery was a major component in the revitalization of Italian art beginning in the 1980s
  • Enzo Cucchi (born 1949), painter, draughtsman and sculptor. He was a key member of the Italian Transavantgarde movement
  • Giorgio de Chirico (1888–1978), painter. He founded the scuola metafisica art movement. Guillaume Apollinaire called him the most astonishing painter of his time."[138]
  • Lucio Fontana (1899–1968), painter, sculptor and theorist, founder of Spatialism, noted for gashed monochrome paintings
  • Renato Guttuso (1911–1987), painter. He was a forceful personality and Italy's leading exponent of Social realism in the 20th century
  • Piero Manzoni (1933–1963), artist. He is regarded as one of the forerunners of Arte Povera and Conceptual art
  • Amedeo Modigliani (1884–1920), painter and sculptor whose portraits and nudes, characterized by asymmetrical compositions, are among the most important portraits of the 20th century[139]
  • Giorgio Morandi (1890–1964), painter and etcher. He is widely acknowledged as a major Italian painter of the 20th century
  • Giuseppe Pellizza da Volpedo (1868–1907), painter. His most famous work is The Fourth Estate (1901); a symbol of the 20th century
  • Luigi Russolo (1885–1947), painter. One of the five signers of the basic 1910 "Manifesto of Futurist Painting" before switching his attention to music
  • Emilio Scanavino (1922–1986), painter and sculptor. One of the most important protagonists of the Spatialist movement in Italy[140]
  • Gino Severini (1883–1966), painter who synthesized the styles of Futurism and Cubism
  • Mario Sironi (1885–1961), painter, sculptor, illustrator and designer. He was the leading artist of the Novecento Italiano group in the 1920s, developing a muscular, monumental figurative style

Printers[edit]

Printmakers[edit]

Saints[edit]

  • Agatha of Sicily (fl. 3rd century AD), legendary Christian saint, martyred under Roman Emperor Decius. She is invoked against outbreaks of fire and is the patron saint of bell makers
  • Agnes of Rome (c. 291 – c. 304), legendary Christian martyr, the patron saint of girls
  • Robert Bellarmine (1542–1621), theologian, cardinal, Doctor of the Church, and a principal influence in the Counter-Reformation
  • Bernardine of Siena (1380–1444), preacher. He was a Franciscan of the Observant congregation and one of the most effective and most widely known preachers of his day[143]
  • Charles Borromeo (1538–1584), cardinal and archbishop. He was one of the leaders of the Counter-Reformation
  • John Bosco (1815–1888), Catholic priest, pioneer in educating the poor and founder of the Salesian Order
  • Catherine of Siena (1347–1380), Dominican tertiary, mystic, and patron saint of Italy who played a major role in returning the papacy from Avignon to Rome (1377)
  • Saint Cecilia (2nd century AD), patron saint of musicians and Church music. Venerated in both East and West, she is one of the eight women commemorated by name in the Canon of the Mass
  • Francis of Paola (1416–1507), mendicant friar. The founder of the Minims, a religious order in the Catholic Church
  • Hippolytus of Rome (170–235), Christian martyr who was also the first antipope (217/218–235)
  • Januarius (... – c. 305), Bishop and martyr, sometimes called Gennaro, long popular because of the liquefaction of his blood on his feast day
  • Lawrence of Brindisi (1559–1619), Capuchin friar. He was one of the leading polemicists of the Counter-Reformation in Germany
  • Saint Longinus (1st century AD), Roman soldier who pierced Jesus's side with a spear as he hung on the cross
  • Saint Lucy (283–304), Christian martyr. She is the patron saint of the city of Syracuse (Sicily)
  • Philip Neri (1515–1595), priest. The founder of the Congregation of the Oratory, a congregation of secular priests and clerics
  • Pio of Pietrelcina (1887–1968), Capuchin priest. He is renowned among Roman Catholics as one of the Church's modern stigmatists
  • Rita of Cascia (1381–1457), Augustinian nun
  • Saint Rosalia (1130–1166), hermitess, greatly venerated at Palermo and in the whole of Sicily of which she in patroness
  • Roger of Cannae (1060–1129), Bishop
  • Saint Valentine (3rd century AD), according to tradition, he is the patron saint of courtship, travelers, and young people
  • Vitus (c. 290 – c. 303), Christian saint. He is counted as one of the Fourteen Holy Helpers of the Catholic Church

Scientists[edit]

Sculptors[edit]

Sportspeople[edit]

Writers and philosophers[edit]

Ancient and Late Antique[edit]

The Middle Ages[edit]

Humanism and the Renaissance[edit]

  • Pietro Aretino (1492–1556), writer and satirist; known for his literary attacks on his wealthy and powerful contemporaries and for six volumes of letters
  • Ludovico Ariosto (1474–1533), poet remembered for his epic poem Orlando furioso (1516)
  • Pietro Bembo (1470–1547), cardinal who wrote one of the earliest Italian grammars and assisted in establishing the Italian literary language[202]
  • Francesco Berni (1497/98–1535), poet; important for the distinctive style of his Italian burlesque, which was called bernesco and imitated by many poets[203]
  • Giovanni Boccaccio (1313–1375), poet and scholar, author of De mulieribus claris, the Decameron and poems in the vernacular
  • Matteo Maria Boiardo (1440/41–1494), poet whose Orlando innamorato, the first poem to combine elements of both Arthurian and Carolingian traditions of romance[204]
  • Giovanni Botero (c. 1544–1617), philosopher and diplomat, known for his work The Reason of State (1589)
  • Luigi Da Porto (1485–1530), writer and storiographer, better known as the author of the novel Novella novamente ritrovata with the story of Romeo and Juliet, later adapted by William Shakespeare for his famous drama
  • Leonardo Bruni (c. 1370–1444), a leading historian of his time. He wrote History of the Florentine People (1414–15); is generally considered the first modern work of history
  • Giordano Bruno (1548–1600), philosopher; his major metaphysical works, De la causa, principio, et Uno (1584) and De l'infinito universo et Mondi (1584), were published in France
  • Giulio Camillo (c. 1480–1544), philosopher; known for his theatre, described in his posthumously published work L’Idea del Theatro
  • Baldassare Castiglione (1478–1529), courtier, diplomat and writer, known for his dialogue The Book of the Courtier ; one of the great books of its time[205]
  • Francesco Colonna (1433-1527), author of Hypnerotomachia Poliphili.
  • Cesare Cremonini (1550–1631), Aristotelian philosopher at Padua University
  • Mario Equicola (c. 1470–1525), writer; author of Libro de natura de amore (1525) and Istituzioni del comporre in ogni sorta di rima della lingua volgare (1541)
  • Marsilio Ficino (1433–1499), philosopher; his chief work was Theologia Platonica de immortalitate animae (1482), in which he combined Christian theology and Neoplatonic elements
  • Francesco Filelfo (1398–1481), writer; author of pieces in prose, published under the title Convivia Mediolanensia, and a great many Latin translations from the Greek
  • Veronica Franco (1546–1591), poet and high-ranking courtesan; famous in her day for her intellectual and artistic accomplishments
  • Giovanni Battista Guarini (1538–1612), poet who, with Torquato Tasso, is credited with establishing the form of a new literary genre, the pastoral drama[206]
  • Francesco Guicciardini (1483–1540), historian; author of the most important contemporary History of Italy (1537/1540); the masterwork of Italian historical literature of the Renaissance
  • Cristoforo Landino (1424–1498), writer; he wrote three works framed as philosophical dialogues: De anima (1453), De vera nobilitate (1469), and the Disputationes Camaldulenses (c. 1474)
  • Niccolò Machiavelli (1469–1527), political philosopher and writer; known for his The Prince (written in 1513 and published in 1532); one of the world's most famous essays on political science
  • Giannozzo Manetti (1396–1459), politician and diplomat; significant scholar of the early Italian Renaissance
  • Girolamo Mei (1519–1594), writer; his treatise De modis musicis antiquorum (a study of ancient Greek music) greatly influenced the ideas of the Florentine Camerata
  • Guidobaldo del Monte (1545–1607), mathematician, philosopher and astronomer; known for his work Mechanicorum Liber (1577)
  • Gianfrancesco Straparola (1480–1557), writer, whose collection of 75 stories Le piacevoli notti contains the first known versions of many popular fairy tales. Along with Basile, he set the standards for the literary form of fairy tale
  • Agostino Nifo (c. 1473–1538 or 1545), philosopher and commentator; his principal works are: De intellectu et daemonibus (1492) and De immortalitate animi (1518/1524)
  • Marius Nizolius (1498–1576), philosopher and scholar; his major work was the Thesaurus Ciceronianus, published in 1535
  • Franciscus Patricius (1529–1597), philosopher and scientist. His two great works: Discussionum peripateticorum libri XV (1571) and Nova de universis philosophia (1591)
  • Petrarch (1304–1374), scholar and poet; his Il Canzoniere had enormous influence on the poets of the 15th and 16th centuries
  • Alessandro Piccolomini (1508–1579), philosopher; his works include Il Dialogo della bella creanza delle donne, o Raffaella (1539) and the comedies Amor costante (1536) and Alessandro (1544)
  • Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (1463–1494), scholar and Platonist philosopher; his Oration on the Dignity of Man (1486) is better known than any other philosophical text of the 15th century
  • Bartolomeo Platina (1421–1481), writer and gastronomist. Author of Lives of the Popes (1479); the first systematic handbook of papal history and On honourable pleasure and health (1465); the world's first printed cookbook
  • Poliziano (1454–1494), poet and philologist; among his works: Stanze per la giostra (incomplete) and Orfeo (1475)
  • Pietro Pomponazzi (1462–1525), philosopher; his principal work is On the Immortality of the Soul (1516)
  • Simone Porzio (1496–1554), philosopher. His principal works are: An homo bonus, vel malus volens fiat (1551) and De mente humana (1551)
  • Francesco Pucci (1543–1597), philosopher; author of Forma d'una repubblica cattolica (1581)
  • Luigi Pulci (1432–1484), poet; he ridiculed the heroic poems of his time in his mock epic Morgante (1478, 1483)
  • Ottavio Rinuccini (1562–1621), poet, courtier and opera librettist
  • Coluccio Salutati (1331–1406), philosopher, man of letters and a skilled writer; Coluccio drew heavily upon the classical tradition
  • Jacopo Sannazaro (1456–1530), poet; author of Arcadia (1501–1504), first pastoral romance[207]
  • Julius Caesar Scaliger (1484–1558), scholar; author of De causis linguae Latinae (1540) and Poetics (1561)[208]
  • Sperone Speroni (1500–1588), philosopher and scholar; he was one of the central members of Padua's literary academy, Accademia degli Infiammati, and wrote on both moral and literary matters
  • Torquato Tasso (1544–1595), poet, one of the foremost writers of the Renaissance, celebrated for his heroic epic poem Jerusalem Delivered (1581)[209]
  • Bernardino Telesio (1509–1588), philosopher; his chief work was De rerum natura iuxta propria principia (1565), marked the period of transition from Aristotelianism to modern thought
  • Gian Giorgio Trissino (1478–1550), literary theorist, philologist, dramatist, and poet, an important innovator in Italian drama[210]
  • Lorenzo Valla (1407–1457), rhetorician, and educator who attacked medieval traditions and anticipated views of the Protestant reformers
  • Lucilio Vanini (1585–1619), philosopher; author of Amphitheatrum Aeternae Providentiae Divino-Magicum (1615) and De Admirandis Naturae Reginae Deaeque Mortalium Arcanis (1616)
  • Benedetto Varchi (1502/1503–1565), poet and historian; known for his work Storia fiorentina (16 vol.), published only in 1721
  • Giorgio Vasari (1511–1574), writer, architect and painter, known for his entertaining biographies of artists, Le Vite de’ più eccellenti architetti, pittori, et scultori italiani (1550)[211]
  • Nicoletto Vernia (1442–1499), Averroist philosopher, at the University of Padua
  • Giovanni della Casa (1503 –1556), poet, writer and diplomat. His Il Galateo (1558), the most celebrated etiquette book in European history, set the foundation for modern etiquette, polite behavior and manners literature[212]

The Baroque period and the Enlightenment[edit]

  • Claudio Achillini (1574–1640), poet and jurist; one of the better known Marinisti
  • Vittorio Alfieri (1749–1803), tragic poet; from 1775 to 1787, wrote 19 verse tragedies; his works include Filippo (1775), Oreste (1786) and Mirra (1786)
  • Francesco Algarotti (1712–1764), philosopher and art critic; author of a number of stimulating essays on the subjects of architecture (1753), the opera (1755), and painting (1762)[213]
  • Giuseppe Marc'Antonio Baretti (1719–1789), literary critic; author of Italian Library (1757)
  • Giambattista Basile (c. 1575–1632), poet; his collection of 50 short stories Pentamerone (1634–6), provided the content later borrowed by Charles Perrault and Brothers Grimm. With Straparola, he is one of the two fathers of fairy tale tradition
  • Cesare Beccaria (1738–1794), philosopher, criminologist and jurist; works include his treatise Dei delitti e delle pene (1763–4)[214]
  • Saverio Bettinelli (1718–1808), writer; author of Lettere dieci di Virgilio agli Arcadi (1758)
  • Tommaso Campanella (1568–1639), Dominican philosopher and writer; remembered for his socialistic work The City of the Sun (1602)[215]
  • Melchiorre Cesarotti (1730–1808), poet and translator; author of Essay on the Philosophy of Taste (1785) and Essay on the Philosophy of Languages (1785)
  • Elena Cornaro Piscopia (1646–1684), philosopher. She was the first female to graduate from a university
  • Lorenzo Da Ponte (1749–1838), poet and librettist; his most important librettos were for Mozart: The Marriage of Figaro (1786), Don Giovanni (1787), and Così fan tutte (1790)
  • Carlo Denina (1731–1813), historian; author of Delle rivoluzioni d'Italia (1769–70) and Delle revoluzioni della Germania (1804)
  • Gaetano Filangieri (1752–1788), economist and state adviser; he is known for his work, The Science of Legislation (vols. 1–7; 1780–85)
  • Ferdinando Galiani (1728–1787), economist; he published two treatises, Della moneta (1750) and Dialogues sur le commerce des blés (1770)
  • Antonio Genovesi (1712–1769), writer and political; author of Disciplinarum Metaphysicarum Elementa (1743–52) and Logica (1745)
  • Pietro Giannone (1676–1748), historian and jurist; his most important work was his Il Triregno, ossia del regno del cielo, della terra, e del papa ; published only in 1895
  • Carlo Goldoni (1707–1793), playwright; wrote more than 260 dramatic works of all sorts, including opera
  • Gasparo Gozzi (1713–1786), poet, critic and journalist. His principal writings are: Lettere famigliari (1755), Il Mondo morale (1760) and Osservatore Veneto periodico (1761)
  • Giovanni Battista Guarini (1538–1612), poet and theoretician of literature; his most well-known work is Il pastor fido (1590), a pastoral tragicomedy
  • Scipione Maffei (1675–1755), writer and art critic; his most important works: Conclusioni di amore (1702), La scienza cavalleresca (1710) and De fabula equestris ordinis Constantiniani (1712)
  • Giambattista Marino (1569–1625), poet. Founder of the school of Marinism (later Secentismo); among his principal works is L'Adone (1623), a long narrative poem
  • Metastasio (1698–1782), poet and librettist; considered the most important writer of opera seria libretti. His melodrama Attilio Regolo (1750) is generally considered his masterpiece
  • Ludovico Antonio Muratori (1672–1750), historian; author of Antiquitates Italicae Medii Aevi (6 vols; 1738–42) and Annali d'Italia (12 vols; 1744–49)
  • Ferrante Pallavicino (1615–1644) satirist and novelist; his most important works: Baccinata ouero battarella per le api barberine (1642) and La Retorica delle puttane (1643)
  • Giuseppe Parini (1729–1799), prose writer and poet; author of Dialogo sopra la nobiltà (1757) and Il giorno (4 books, 1763–1801)
  • Cesare Ripa (c. 1560 – c. 1622), aesthetician and writer; author of the Iconologia overo Descrittione Dell’imagini Universali cavate dall’Antichità et da altri luoghi (1593), an influential emblem book
  • Alessandro Verri (1741–1816), novelist and reformer; author of Le avventure di Saffo poetessa di Mitilene (1782), Notti romane al sepolcro degli Scipioni (1792–1804) and La vita di Erostrato (1815)
  • Pietro Verri (1728–1797), political economist and writer; his chief works are: Riflessioni sulle leggi vincolanti (1769) and Meditazioni sull' economia politica (1771)
  • Giambattista Vico (1668–1744), philosopher and historian; his major theories were developed in his Scienza nuova (1725)

The 1800s[edit]

  • Giuseppe Gioacchino Belli (1791–1863), poet; he described the vast panorama of Roman society in colorful dialect
  • Giovanni Berchet (1783–1851), patriot and poet; he wrote stirring patriotic ballads of a romantic type and rhymed romances, such as Giulia and Matilde
  • Luigi Capuana (1839–1915), critic and novelist; among his best works are the short stories in Paesane (1894) and the novel Il marchese di Roccaverdina (1901)
  • Giosuè Carducci (1835–1907), poet, winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1906, and one of the most influential literary figures of his age[216]
  • Carlo Collodi (1826–1890), author and journalist, best known as the creator of the canonical piece of children's literature and world's most translated non religious book Pinocchio[217]
  • Gabriele D'Annunzio (1863–1938), poet, military hero and political leader; author of Il piacere (1889), L'innocente (1892), Giovanni Episcopo (1892) and Il trionfo della morte (1894)[218]
  • Edmondo De Amicis (1846–1908), novelist and short-story writer; his most important work is the sentimental children's story Heart (1886)[219]
  • Federico De Roberto (1861–1927), writer; known for his novel I Vicerè (1894)
  • Francesco de Sanctis (1817–1883), historian and literary critic; important works are his Saggi critici (1866) and his Storia della letteratura italiana (1870–71)[220]
  • Antonio Fogazzaro (1842–1911), novelist and poet; his famous Piccolo mondo antico (1896), it is considered one of the great Italian novels of the 19th century
  • Ugo Foscolo (1778–1827), poet and patriot; his popular novel The Last Letters of Jacopo Ortis (1802) bitterly denounced Napoleon's cession of Venetia to Austria[221]
  • Vincenzo Gioberti (1801–1852), philosopher and political writer; his most celebrated work is Del primato morale e civile degli italiani (1843)[222]
  • Giuseppe Giusti (1809–1850), satirical poet; known for his poem, Sant’Ambrogio (c. 1846)
  • Raimondo Guarini (1765–1852), archaeologist, epigrapher, poet; authored the first Oscan/Latin dictionary
  • Giacomo Leopardi (1798–1837), poet and philosopher; author of Canti (1816–37), expressing a deeply pessimistic view of humanity and human nature
  • Alessandro Manzoni (1785–1873), poet and novelist; he is famous for the novel The Betrothed, generally ranked among the masterpieces of world literature
  • Ippolito Nievo (1831–1861), writer and patriot; known for his novel Confessioni di un Italiano, also known as Confessioni d'un ottuagenario which was published posthumously in 1867
  • Giovanni Pascoli (1855–1912), poet; his works include Carmina (in Latin, 1914), the more mystical Myricae (1891) and the patriotic Odi e inni (1906)
  • Silvio Pellico (1789–1854), dramatic poet; his principal works are Francesca da Rimini (1818) and Le mie prigioni (1832)
  • Antonio Rosmini-Serbati (1797–1855), religious philosopher; he is known for his work, Nuovo saggio sull’origine delle idee, published in 1830
  • Emilio Salgari (1862–1911), adventure novelist for the young; creator of popular heroic figure Sandokan
  • Niccolò Tommaseo (1802–1874), poet and critic; editor of a Dizionario della Lingua Italiana in eight volumes (1861–74), of a dictionary of synonyms (1830) and other works
  • Giovanni Verga (1840–1922), novelist; his works include Cavalleria rusticana (1880), I Malavoglia (1881), Novelle rusticane (1883), and Mastro-Don Gesualdo (1889)[223]

The 1900s[edit]

Other notables[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Totò" Encyclopædia Britannica Online, 2011. Web 2 March 2011.
  2. ^ "Eleonora Duse" Encyclopædia Britannica Online, 2011. Web 2 March 2011.
  3. ^ "Lorenzo Maitani" Encyclopædia Britannica Online, 2011. Web 2 March 2011.
  4. ^ Turner, Jane. Encyclopedia of Italian Renaissance & Mannerist art (Volume II). Grove's Dictionaries, 2000. p. 295. Web. 24 April 2011.
  5. ^ "Luciano Laurana" Encyclopædia Britannica Online, 2011. Web 27 April 2011.
  6. ^ "Michelozzo" Encyclopedia of World Biography. Web. 2 March 2011.
  7. ^ "Vincenzo Scamozzi" Encyclopædia Britannica Online, 2011. Web 2 March 2011.
  8. ^ "Giacomo Antonio Domenico Quarenghi" Encyclopædia Britannica Online, 2011. Web 2 March 2011.
  9. ^ Soucek King, Carol. Furniture: architects' and designers' originals. Architecture & Interior Design Library, 1994. p. 132. Web. 24 April 2011.
  10. ^ [1] "Time digital 50", 19. Leonardo Chiariglione, Father of Mp3. Time Magazine. September 27, 1999.
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  12. ^ [3], Transactions of the Newcomen Society, 2005, Luigi Negrelli, Engineer, 1799–1858: Planner of The Suez Canal.
  13. ^ [4], The Marconi Society, Federico Faggin, Awarded the Marconi Prize in 1988.
  14. ^ "Machines" Le macchine di Leonardo da Vinci. Web. 2 March 2011.
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