List of Japanese era names

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Main article: Japanese era name

The List of Japanese era names is the result of a periodization system which was established by Emperor Kōtoku in 645. The system of Japanese era names (年号, nengō,?, lit. "year name") was irregular until the beginning of the 8th century.[1] After 701, sequential era names developed without interruption across a span of centuries.[2]

Conversion table[edit]

To convert a Japanese year to a Western or Gregorian calendar year, find the first year of the nengō (the nengō = the era name, see list below). When found, subtract 1, and add the number of the Japanese year. For example, the 23rd year of the Showa Era (Showa 23) corresponds to 1926 + 23 − 1 = Common Era 1948.

TABLE: Western calendar dates and equivalent nengō dates
Western calendar Kanji Romanization of Japanese Notes
Asuka period (538–710)
498 Earliest date for which recorded shi-nengō are identified; "Unofficial nengō system" section below
645[3] 大化 Taika Emperor Kōtoku, 645–654.[4]
650[5] 白雉 Hakuchi also Hakuhō[6]
654 Era not named; see "Non-Nengō periods" section below
686[7] 朱鳥 Shuchō also Suchō, Akamitori or Akamidori; Emperor Temmu, 672–686.[8]
686 Era not named; see "Non-Nengō periods" section below
701[9] 大宝 Taihō also Daihō; Emperor Mommu, 697–707.[10]
704 慶雲 Keiun also Kyōun; Empress Gemmei, 707–715.[11]
708 和銅 Wadō
Nara period (710–794)
715 霊亀 Reiki Empress Genshō, 715–724.[12]
717 養老 Yōrō
724 神亀 Jinki also Shinki; Emperor Shōmu, 724–749.[13]
729 天平 Tenpyō also Tenbyō or Tenhei
749 天平感宝 Tenpyō-kanpō also Tenbyō-kanpō
749 天平勝宝 Tenpyō-shōhō also Tenbyō-shōbō or Tenpei-shōhō; Empress Kōken, 749–758.[14]
757 天平宝字 Tenpyō-hōji also Tenbyō-hōji or Tenpei-hōji; Emperor Junnin, 758–764;[15] Empress Shōtoku, 764–770.[16]
765 天平神護 Tenpyō-jingo also Tenbyō-jingo or Tenhei-jingo
767 神護景雲 Jingo-keiun
770 宝亀 Hōki Emperor Kōnin, 770–781.[17]
781 天応 Ten'ō Emperor Kammu, 781–806.[18]
782 延暦 Enryaku
Heian period (794–1192)
806 大同 Daidō Emperor Heizei, 806–809;[19] Emperor Saga, 809–823.[20]
810 弘仁 Kōnin Emperor Junna, 823–833.[21]
824 天長 Tenchō Emperor Ninmyō, 833–850.[22]
834 承和 Jōwa also Shōwa or Sōwa
848 嘉祥 Kashō also Kajō; Emperor Montoku, 850–858.[23]
851 仁寿 Ninju
854 斉衡 Saikō
857 天安 Ten'an also Tennan; Emperor Seiwa, 858–876.[24]
859 貞観 Jōgan Emperor Yōzei, 876–884.[25]
877 元慶 Gangyō also Gankyō or Genkei; Emperor Kōkō, 884–887.[26]
885 仁和 Ninna also Ninwa; Emperor Uda, 887–897.[27]
889 寛平 Kanpyō also Kanpei or Kanbyō or Kanbei or Kanhei; Emperor Daigo, 887–930.[28]
898 昌泰 Shōtai
901 延喜 Engi
923 延長 Enchō Emperor Suzaku, 930–946.[29]
931 承平 Jōhei also Shōhei
938 天慶 Tengyō also Tenkei or Tenkyō; Emperor Murakami, 946–967.[30]
947 天暦 Tenryaku also Tenreki
957 天徳 Tentoku
961 応和 Ōwa
964 康保 Kōhō Emperor Reizei, 967–969.[31]
968 安和 Anna also Anwa; Emperor En'yū, 969–984.[32]
970 天禄 Tenroku
973 天延 Ten'en
976 貞元 Jōgen also Teigen
978 天元 Tengen
983 永観 Eikan also Yōkan; Emperor Kazan, 984–986.[33]
985 寛和 Kanna also Kanwa; Emperor Ichijō, 986–1011.[34]
987 永延 Eien also Yōen
988 永祚 Eiso also Yōso
990 正暦 Shōryaku also Jōryaku or Shōreki
995 長徳 Chōtoku
999 長保 Chōhō
1004 寛弘 Kankō Emperor Sanjō, 1011–1016.[35]
1012 長和 Chōwa Emperor Go-Ichijō, 1016–1036.[36]
1017 寛仁 Kannin
1021 治安 Jian also Chian
1024 万寿 Manju
1028 長元 Chōgen Emperor Go-Suzaku, 1036–1045.[37]
1037 長暦 Chōryaku also Chōreki
1040 長久 Chōkyū
1044 寛徳 Kantoku Emperor Go-Reizei, 1045–1068.[38]
1046 永承 Eishō also Eijō or Yōjō
1053 天喜 Tengi also Tenki
1058 康平 Kōhei
1065 治暦 Jiryaku also Chiryaku
1069 延久 Enkyū Emperor Go-Sanjō, 1068–1073.[39]
1074 承保 Jōhō also Shōhō or Shōho; Emperor Shirakawa, 1073–1086.[40]
1077 承暦 Jōryaku also Shōryaku or Shōreki
1081 永保 Eihō also Yōhō
1084 応徳 Ōtoku
1087 寛治 Kanji Emperor Horikawa, 1087–1107.[41]
1094 嘉保 Kahō
1096 永長 Eichō also Yōchō
1097 承徳 Jōtoku also Shōtoku
1099 康和 Kōwa
1104 長治 Chōji
1106 嘉承 Kajō also Kashō or Kasō; Emperor Toba, 1107–1123.[42]
1108 天仁 Tennin
1110 天永 Ten'ei also Ten'yō
1113 永久 Eikyū also Yōkyū
1118 元永 Gen'ei
1120 保安 Hōan Emperor Sutoku, 1123–1142.[43]
1124 天治 Tenji also Tenchi
1126 大治 Daiji also Taiji
1131 天承 Tenshō also Tenjō
1132 長承 Chōshō also Chōjō
1135 保延 Hōen
1141 永治 Eiji
1142 康治 Kōji Emperor Konoe, 1142–1155.[44]
1144 天養 Ten'yō also Tennyō
1145 久安 Kyūan
1151 仁平 Ninpei also Ninpyō or Ninbyō or Ninhyō or Ninhei
1154 久寿 Kyūju Emperor Go-Shirakawa, 1155–1158.[45]
1156 保元 Hōgen also Hogen; Emperor Nijō, 1158–1165.[46]
1159 平治 Heiji also Byōji
1160 永暦 Eiryaku also Yōryaku
1161 応保 Ōhō
1163 長寛 Chōkan also Chōgan
1165 永万 Eiman also Yōman; Emperor Rokujō, 1165–1168.[47]
1166 仁安 Nin'an also Ninnan; Emperor Takakura, 1168–1180.[47]
1169 嘉応 Kaō
1171 承安 Jōan also Shōan
1175 安元 Angen
1177 治承 Jishō also Jijō or Chishō; Emperor Antoku, 1180–1185.[48]
1181 養和 Yōwa
1182 寿永 Juei Emperor Go-Toba, 1183–1198.[49]
1184 元暦 Genryaku
1185 文治 Bunji also Monchi
1190 建久 Kenkyū Emperor Tsuchimikado, 1198–1210.[50]
Kamakura period (1192–1333)
1199 正治 Shōji
1201 建仁 Kennin
1204 元久 Genkyū
1206 建永 Ken'ei also Ken'yō
1207 承元 Jōgen also Shōgen; Emperor Juntoku, 1210–1221.[51]
1211 建暦 Kenryaku
1213 建保 Kenpō also Kenhō
1219 承久 Jōkyū also Shōkyū; Emperor Chūkyō, 1221.[52] Emperor Go-Horikawa, 1221–1232.[53]
1222 貞応 Jōō also Teiō
1224 元仁 Gennin
1225 嘉禄 Karoku
1227 安貞 Antei also Anjō
1229 寛喜 Kangi also Kanki
1232 貞永 Jōei also Teiei; Emperor Shijō, 1232–1242.[54]
1233 天福 Tenpuku also Tenfuku
1234 文暦 Bunryaku also Monryaku or Monreki
1235 嘉禎 Katei
1238 暦仁 Ryakunin also Rekinin
1239 延応 En'ō also Ennō
1240 仁治 Ninji also Ninchi; Emperor Go-Saga, 1242–1246.[55]
1243 寛元 Kangen Emperor Go-Fukakusa, 1246–1260.[56]
1247 宝治 Hōji
1249 建長 Kenchō
1256 康元 Kōgen Emperor Kameyama, 1260–1274.[57]
1257 正嘉 Shōka
1259 正元 Shōgen
1260 文応 Bun'ō also Bunnō
1261 弘長 Kōchō
1264 文永 Bun'ei Emperor Go-Uda, 1274–1287.[58]
1275 建治 Kenji
1278 弘安 Kōan Emperor Fushimi, 1287–1298.[59]
1288 正応 Shōō
1293 永仁 Einin Emperor Go-Fushimi, 1298–1301.[60]
1299 正安 Shōan Emperor Go-Nijō, 1301–1308.[61]
1302 乾元 Kengen
1303 嘉元 Kagen
1306 徳治 Tokuji
1308 延慶 Enkyō also Engyō or Enkei; Emperor Hanazono, 1308–1318.[62]
1311 応長 Ōchō
1312 正和 Shōwa
1317 文保 Bunpō also Bunhō; Emperor Go-Daigo, 1318–1339.[63]
1319 元応 Gen'ō also Gennō
1321 元亨 Genkō
1324 正中 Shōchū
1326 嘉暦 Karyaku
1329 元徳 Gentoku
1331 元弘 Genkō
Nanboku-chō period (1334–1392)
*Nanboku-chō Southern Court
1334 建武 Kenmu also Kenbu
1336 延元 Engen
1340 興国 Kōkoku
1346 正平 Shōhei
1370 建徳 Kentoku
1372 文中 Bunchū
1375 天授 Tenju
1381 弘和 Kōwa
1384 元中 Genchū Genchū 9 becomes Meitoku 3 in post Nanboku-chō reunification
*Nanboku-chō Northern Court
1332 正慶 Shōkei also Shōkyō
1334 建武 Kenmu also Kenbu
1338 暦応 Ryakuō also Rekiō
1342 康永 Kōei
1345 貞和 Jōwa also Teiwa
1350 観応 Kannō also Kan'ō
1352 文和 Bunna also Bunwa
1356 延文 Enbun
1361 康安 Kōan
1362 貞治 Jōji also Teiji
1368 応安 Ōan
1375 永和 Eiwa
1379 康暦 Kōryaku
1381 永徳 Eitoku
1384 至徳 Shitoku
1387 嘉慶 Kakei also Kakyō
1389 康応 Kōō
1390 明徳 Meitoku Meitoku 3 replaces Genchū 9 in post-Nanboku-chō reunification
Muromachi period (1392–1573)
1394 応永 Ōei Emperor Shōkō, 1412–1428.[64]
1428 正長 Shōchō Emperor Go-Hanazono, 1428–1464.[65]
1429 永享 Eikyō also Eikō
1441 嘉吉 Kakitsu also Kakichi
1444 文安 Bun'an also Bunnan
1449 宝徳 Hōtoku
1452 享徳 Kyōtoku
1455 康正 Kōshō
1457 長禄 Chōroku
1460 寛正 Kanshō Emperor Go-Tsuchimikado, 1464–1500.[66]
1466 文正 Bunshō also Monshō
1467 応仁 Ōnin
1469 文明 Bunmei
1487 長享 Chōkyō
1489 延徳 Entoku
1492 明応 Meiō Emperor Go-Kashiwabara, 1500–1526.[67]
1501 文亀 Bunki
1504 永正 Eishō
1521 大永 Daiei Emperor Go-Nara, 1526–1557.[68]
1528 享禄 Kyōroku
1532 天文 Tenbun also Tenmon
1555 弘治 Kōji Emperor Ōgimachi, 1557–1586.[69]
1558 永禄 Eiroku
1570 元亀 Genki
Azuchi-Momoyama period (1573–1603)
1573 天正 Tenshō Emperor Go-Yōzei, 1586–1611.[70]
1592 文禄 Bunroku
1596 慶長 Keichō also Kyōchō; Emperor Go-Mizunoo, 1611–1629.[71]
Edo period (1603–1867)
1615 元和 Genna also Genwa
1624 寛永 Kan'ei Empress Meishō, 1629–1643;[72] Emperor Go-Kōmyō, 1643–1654.[73]
1644 正保 Shōhō
1648 慶安 Keian also Kyōan
1652 承応 Jōō also Shōō; Emperor Go-Sai, 1655–1663.[74]
1655 明暦 Meireki also Myōryaku or Meiryaku
1658 万治 Manji
1661 寛文 Kanbun Emperor Reigen, 1663–1687.[75]
1673 延宝 Enpō also Enhō
1681 天和 Tenna also Tenwa
1684 貞享 Jōkyō Emperor Higashiyama, 1687–1709.[76]
1688 元禄 Genroku
1704 宝永 Hōei Emperor Nakamikado, 1709–1735.[77]
1711 正徳 Shōtoku
1716 享保 Kyōhō Emperor Sakuramachi, 1735–1747.[78]
1736 元文 Genbun
1741 寛保 Kanpō also Kanhō
1744 延享 Enkyō Emperor Momozono, 1747–1762.[79]
1748 寛延 Kan'en
1751 宝暦 Hōreki also Hōryaku; Empress Go-Sakuramachi, 1762–1771.[80]
1764 明和 Meiwa Emperor Go-Momozono, 1771–1779.[81]
1772 安永 An'ei Emperor Kōkaku, 1780–1817.[82]
1781 天明 Tenmei
1789 寛政 Kansei
1801 享和 Kyōwa
1804 文化 Bunka Emperor Ninkō, 1817–1846.[83]
1818 文政 Bunsei
1830 天保 Tenpō also Tenhō
1844 弘化 Kōka Emperor Kōmei, 1846–1867.
1848 嘉永 Kaei
1854 安政 Ansei
1860 万延 Man'en
1861 文久 Bunkyū
1864 元治 Genji
1865 慶応 Keiō
Modern Japan (1868–present)
1868 明治 Meiji Emperor Meiji, 1868–1912.
1912 大正 Taishō Emperor Taishō, 1912–1926.
1926 昭和 Shōwa Emperor Shōwa, 1926–1989.
1989 平成 Heisei Akihito, 1989–present [the reigning emperor].

Non-nengo periods[edit]

Unofficial non-nengō periodization (shinengō) prior to 701 are called itsunengō (逸年号?).[84] Pre-Taika chronology intervals include:

  • Reign of Emperor Jimmu, 660–581 BC
  • Reign of Emperor Suizei, 581–548 BC
  • Reign of Emperor Annei, 548–510 BC
  • Reign of Emperor Itoku, 510–475 BC
  • Reign of Emperor Kōshō, 475–392 BC
  • Reign of Emperor Kōan, 392–290 BC
  • Reign of Emperor Kōrei, 290–214 BC
  • Reign of Emperor Kōgen, 214–157 BC
  • Reign of Emperor Kaika, 157–97 BC
  • Reign of Emperor Sujin, 97–29 BC
  • Reign of Emperor Suinin, 29 BC–AD 71
  • Reign of Emperor Keikō, 71–131 AD
  • Reign of Emperor Seimu, 131–192
  • Reign of Emperor Chūai, 192–201
  • Regency of Empress Jingū, 201–270
  • Reign of Emperor Ōjin, 270–313
  • Reign of Emperor Nintoku, 313–400
  • Reign of Emperor Richū, 400–406
  • Reign of Emperor Hanzei, 406–412
  • Reign of Emperor Ingyō, 412–454
  • Reign of Emperor Ankō, 454–457
  • Reign of Emperor Yūryaku, 457–480
  • Reign of Emperor Seinei, 480–485
  • Reign of Emperor Kenzō, 485–488
  • Reign of Emperor Ninken, 488–499
  • Reign of Emperor Buretsu, 499–507
  • Reign of Emperor Keitai, 507–534
  • Reign of Emperor Ankan, 534–536
  • Reign of Emperor Senka, 536–540
  • Reign of Emperor Kinmei, 540–572
  • Reign of Emperor Bidatsu, 572–586
  • Reign of Emperor Yōmei, 586–588
  • Reign of Emperor Sushun, 588–593
  • Reign of Emperor Suiko, 593–629[85]
  • Reign of Emperor Jomei, 629–645

Post-Taika chronology intervals not encompassed within the ambit of the nengō system include:

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Tsuchihashi, Paul. (1952). Japanese Chronological Tables from 601 to 1872, p. 16.
  2. ^ Brown, Delmer M. et al. (1979). Gukanshō, p. 32., p. 32, at Google Books
  3. ^ NengoCalc (645) 大化 Taika, online conversion of Japanese dates into their Western equivalents; calculation is based on tables from Tsuchihashi and Zöllner.
  4. ^ Brown, pp. 266–267, p. 266, at Google Books; Varley, Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki, pp. 132–133; Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du Japon, pp. 47–50., p. 47, at Google Books
  5. ^ NengoCalc (650) 白雉 Hakuchi
  6. ^ a b Murray, p. 402, p. 402, at Google Books; compare Nussbaum, "Hakuhō" at p. 280, p. 280, at Google Books; Hakuhou jidai, JAANUS (Japanese Architecture and Art Net Users System), 2001; retrieved 24 Jan 2011.
  7. ^ NengoCalc (686) 朱鳥 Suchō
  8. ^ Brown, pp. 268–269, p. 268, at Google Books; Varley, pp. 135–136; Titsingh, pp. 58–59., p. 58, at Google Books
  9. ^ NengoCalc (701) 大宝 Taihō
  10. ^ Brown, pp. 270–271, p. 270, at Google Books; Varley, pp. 137–140; Titsingh, pp. 60–63., p. 60, at Google Books
  11. ^ Brown, p. 271, p. 271, at Google Books; Varley, p. 140; Titsingh, pp. 63–65., p. 63, at Google Books
  12. ^ Brown, pp. 271–272, p. 271, at Google Books; Varley, pp. 140–141; Titsingh, pp. 65–67., p. 65, at Google Books
  13. ^ Brown, pp. 272–273, p. 272, at Google Books; Varley, pp. 141–143; Titsingh, pp. 67–73., p. 67, at Google Books
  14. ^ Brown, pp. 274–275, p. 274, at Google Books; Varley, p. 143; Titsingh, pp. 73–75., p. 73, at Google Books
  15. ^ Brown, p. 275, p. 275, at Google Books; Varley, pp. 143–144; Titsingh, pp. 75–78.
  16. ^ Brown, p. 276, p. 276, at Google Books; Varley, pp. 144–147; Titsingh, pp. 78–81., p. 78, at Google Books
  17. ^ Brown, pp. 276–277, p. 276, at Google Books; Varley, pp. 147–148; Titsingh, pp. 81–85., p. 81, at Google Books
  18. ^ Brown, pp. 277–279, p. 277, at Google Books; Varley, pp. 148–150; Titsingh, pp. 86–95., p. 86, at Google Books
  19. ^ Brown, pp. 279–280, p. 279, at Google Books; Varley, p. 151; Titsingh, pp. 96–97.
  20. ^ Brown, pp. 280–282, p. 280, at Google Books; Varley, pp. 151–164; Titsingh, pp. 97–102., p. 97, at Google Books
  21. ^ Brown, pp. 282–283, p. 282, at Google Books; Varley, p. 164; Titsingh, pp. 103–106., p. 103, at Google Books
  22. ^ Brown, pp. 283–284, p. 283, at Google Books; Varley, pp. 164–165; Titsingh, pp. 106–112., p. 106, at Google Books
  23. ^ Brown, pp. 285–286, p. 285, at Google Books; Varley, p. 165; Titsingh, pp. 112–115., p. 112, at Google Books
  24. ^ Brown, pp. 286–288, p. 286, at Google Books; Varley, pp. 166–170; Titsingh, pp. 115–121., p. 115, at Google Books
  25. ^ Brown, pp. 288–289, p. 288, at Google Books; Varley, pp. 170–171; Titsingh, pp. 121–124., p. 121, at Google Books
  26. ^ Brown, p. 289, p. 289, at Google Books; Varley, pp. 171–175; Titsingh, pp. 124–125., p. 124, at Google Books
  27. ^ Brown, pp. 289–290, p. 289, at Google Books; Varley, pp. 175–179; Titsingh, pp. 125–129., p. 125, at Google Books
  28. ^ Brown, pp. 290–293, p. 290, at Google Books; Varley, pp. 179–181; Titsingh, pp. 129–134., p. 129, at Google Books
  29. ^ Brown, pp. 294–295, p. 294, at Google Books; Varley, pp. 181–183; Titsingh, pp. 134–138., p. 134, at Google Books
  30. ^ Brown, pp. 295–298, p. 295, at Google Books; Varley, pp. 183–190; Titsingh, pp. 139–142., p. 139, at Google Books
  31. ^ Brown, p. 298, p. 298, at Google Books; Varley, pp. 190–191; Titsingh, pp. 142–143., p. 142, at Google Books
  32. ^ Brown, pp. 299–300, p. 299, at Google Books; Varley, pp. 191–192; Titsingh, pp. 144–148., p. 144, at Google Books
  33. ^ Brown, pp. 300–302, p. 300, at Google Books; Varley, p. 192; Titsingh, pp. 148–149., p. 148, at Google Books
  34. ^ Brown, pp. 302–307, p. 302, at Google Books; Varley, pp. 192–195; Titsingh, pp. 150–154., p. 150, at Google Books
  35. ^ Brown, p. 307, p. 307, at Google Books; Varley, p. 195; Titsingh, pp. 154–155., p. 154, at Google Books
  36. ^ Brown, pp. 307–310, p. 307, at Google Books; Varley, pp. 195–196; Titsingh, pp. 156–160., p. 156, at Google Books
  37. ^ Brown, pp. 310–311, p. 310, at Google Books; Varley, p. 197; Titsingh, pp. 160–162., p. 160, at Google Books
  38. ^ Brown, pp. 311–314, p. 311, at Google Books; Varley, pp. 197–198; Titsingh, pp. 162–166., p. 162, at Google Books
  39. ^ Brown, pp. 314–315, p. 314, at Google Books; Varley, pp. 198–199; Titsingh, pp. 166–168., p. 166, at Google Books
  40. ^ Brown, pp. 315–317, p. 315, at Google Books; Varley, pp. 199–202; Titsingh, pp. 169–171., p. 169, at Google Books
  41. ^ Brown, pp. 317–320, p. 317, at Google Books; Varley, p. 202; Titsingh, pp. 172–178., p. 172, at Google Books
  42. ^ Brown, pp. 320–322, p. 320, at Google Books; Varley, pp. 203–204; Titsingh, pp. 178–181., p. 178, at Google Books
  43. ^ Brown, pp. 322–324, p. 322, at Google Books; Varley, pp. 204–205; Titsingh, pp. 181–185., p. 181, at Google Books
  44. ^ Brown, pp. 324–326, p. 324, at Google Books; Varley, p. 205; Titsingh, pp. 186–188., p. 186, at Google Books
  45. ^ Brown, pp. 326–327, p. 326, at Google Books; Varley, pp. 205–208; Titsingh, pp. 188–190., p. 188, at Google Books188–190.
  46. ^ Brown, pp. 327–329, p. 327, at Google Books; Varley, pp. 208–212; Titsingh, pp. 191–194., p. 191, at Google Books
  47. ^ a b Brown, pp. 329–330, p. 329, at Google Books; Varley, p. 212; Titsingh, pp. 194–195., p. 194, at Google Books
  48. ^ Brown, pp. 333–334, p. 333, at Google Books; Varley, pp. 214–215; Titsingh, pp. 20–207., p. 200, at Google Books
  49. ^ Brown, pp. 334–339, p. 334, at Google Books; Varley, pp. 215–220; Titsingh, pp. 207–221., p. 207, at Google Books
  50. ^ Brown, pp. 339–341, p. 339, at Google Books; Varley, pp 220; Titsingh, pp. 221–230., p. 221, at Google Books
  51. ^ Brown, pp. 341–343, p. 341, at Google Books; Varley, pp. 221–223; Titsingh, pp. 230–238., p. 230, at Google Books
  52. ^ Brown, pp. 343–344, p. 343, at Google Books; Varley, pp. 223–226; Titsingh, pp. 236–238.
  53. ^ Brown, pp. 344–349; Varley, pp. 226–227; Titsingh, pp. 238–241., p. 238, at Google Books
  54. ^ Varley, p. 227; Titsingh, pp. 242–245., p. 242, at Google Books
  55. ^ Varley, pp. 228–231; Titsingh, pp. 245–247., p. 245, at Google Books
  56. ^ Varley, pp. 231–232; Titsingh, pp. 248–253., p. 248, at Google Books
  57. ^ Varley, pp. 232–233; Titsingh, pp. 253–261., p. 253, at Google Books
  58. ^ Varley, pp. 233–237; Titsingh, pp. 262–269., p. 262, at Google Books
  59. ^ Varley, pp. 237–238; Titsingh, pp. 269–274., p. 269, at Google Books
  60. ^ Varley, pp. 238–239; Titsingh, pp. 274–275., p. 274, at Google Books
  61. ^ Varley, p. 239; Titsingh, pp. 275–278., p. 275, at Google Books
  62. ^ Varley, pp. 239–241; Titsingh, pp. 278–281., p. 278, at Google Books
  63. ^ Varley, pp. 241–269; Titsingh, pp. 281–286., p. 281, at Google Books, pp. 290–294., p. 290, at Google Books
  64. ^ Titsingh, pp. 327–331., p. 327, at Google Books
  65. ^ Titsingh, pp. 331–351., p. 331, at Google Books
  66. ^ Titsingh, pp. 352–364., p. 352, at Google Books
  67. ^ Titsingh, pp. 364–372., p. 364, at Google Books
  68. ^ Titsingh, pp. 372–382., p. 372, at Google Books
  69. ^ Titsingh, pp. 382–402., p. 382, at Google Books
  70. ^ Titsingh, pp. 402–409., p. 402, at Google Books
  71. ^ Titsingh, pp. 410–411., p. 411, at Google Books
  72. ^ Titsingh, pp. 411–412., p. 411, at Google Books
  73. ^ Titsingh, pp. 412–413., p. 412, at Google Books
  74. ^ Titsingh, p. 413., p. 413, at Google Books
  75. ^ Titsingh, pp. 414–415., p. 414, at Google Books
  76. ^ Titsingh, pp. 415–416., p. 415, at Google Books
  77. ^ Titsingh, pp. 416–417., p. 416, at Google Books
  78. ^ Titsingh, pp. 417–418., p. 417, at Google Books
  79. ^ Titsingh, pp. 418–419., p. 418, at Google Books
  80. ^ Titsingh, p. 419., p. 419, at Google Books
  81. ^ Titsingh, pp. 419–420., p. 419, at Google Books
  82. ^ Titsingh, pp. 420–421., p. 420, at Google Books
  83. ^ Titsingh, p. 421., p. 421, at Google Books
  84. ^ A list of shinengō and more information can be seen in the Japanese Wikipedia page ja:私年号.
  85. ^ The National Diet Library (NDL) website explains that "Japan organized its first calendar in the 12th year of Suiko (604)", which was a pre-nengō time frame; Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Jikkan Jūnishi" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 420, p. 420, at Google Books; n.b., Louis-Frédéric is pseudonym of Louis-Frédéric Nussbaum, see Deutsche Nationalbibliothek Authority File
  86. ^ NengoCalc (655) 斉明 Saimei
  87. ^ a b c d e Murray, David. (1894). The Story of Japan, p. 402, p. 402, at Google Books, citing William Bramsen. (1880). Japanese Chronological Tables, pp. 54-55, p. 54, at Google Books; the system of counting from year-periods (nengō) do not ordinarily overlap with the reigns of the early monarchs; and generally, a new one was chosen whenever it was deemed necessary to commemorate an auspicious or ward off a malign event.
  88. ^ NengoCalc (622) 天智 Tenji
  89. ^ NengoCalc (672) 弘文 Kōbun
  90. ^ NengoCalc (673) 弘文 Temmu
  91. ^ NengoCalc (687) 持統 Jitō
  92. ^ NengoCalc (697) 文武 Mommu

References[edit]