List of Jewish Nobel laureates

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Sign on Nobel Laureates Boulevard in Rishon LeZion saluting Jewish Nobel Laureates.

The Nobel Prize is an annual, international prize first awarded in 1901 for achievements in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace. An associated prize in Economics has been awarded since 1969.[1] Nobel Prizes have been awarded to over 850 individuals,[2] of whom at least 20% were Jews or of Jewish descent, although Jews comprise less than 0.2% of the world's population,[3] (or 1 in every 500 people). Overall, Jews have won a total of 41% of all the Nobel Prizes in economics, 28% of medicine, 26% of Physics, 19% of Chemistry, 13% of Literature and 9% of all peace awards.[4]

Jews have been recipients of all six awards. The first Jewish recipient, Adolf von Baeyer, was awarded the prize in Chemistry in 1905. As of 2013, the most recent Jewish recipients were James Rothman and Randy Schekman (Medicine); Arieh Warshel, Michael Levitt and Martin Karplus (Chemistry); and François Englert (Physics), all in 2013. Jewish laureates Elie Wiesel and Imre Kertész survived the extermination camps during the Holocaust,[5] while François Englert survived by being hidden in orphanages and children's homes.[6] Others, such as Walter Kohn, Otto Stern, Albert Einstein, Hans Krebs and Martin Karplus had to flee Nazi Germany to avoid persecution.[7][8][9] Still others, including Rita Levi-Montalcini, Herbert Hauptman, Robert Furchgott, Arthur Kornberg, and Jerome Karle experienced significant antisemitism in their careers.[8][10]

The oldest ever Nobel laureate was Leonid Hurwicz, a Polish-American Jew who received the 2007 prize in Economics when he was 90 years old.[11] Rita Levi-Montalcini was, until her death at age 103, the oldest living Nobel laureate. Boris Pasternak was forced to decline the 1958 prize in Literature.

Literature[edit]

Year Laureate Country Rationale
1910 Adolf Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel 042.jpg Paul Heyse[12][13][14] Germany "as a tribute to the consummate artistry, permeated with idealism, which he has demonstrated during his long productive career as a lyric poet, dramatist, novelist and writer of world-renowned short stories"[15]
1927 Bergson-Nobel-photo.jpg Henri Bergson[13][14] France "in recognition of his rich and vitalizing ideas and the brilliant skill with which they have been presented"[16]
1958 Boris Pasternak cropped.jpg Boris Pasternak[13][14] Soviet Union "for his important achievement both in contemporary lyrical poetry and in the field of the great Russian epic tradition"[17]
1966 Agnon.jpg Shmuel Yosef Agnon[13][14] Israel "for his profoundly characteristic narrative art with motifs from the life of the Jewish people"[18]
Nelly Sachs 1966.jpg Nelly Sachs[13][14] Germany "for her outstanding lyrical and dramatic writing, which interprets Israel's destiny with touching strength"[18]
1976 Saul Bellow, 1990.jpg Saul Bellow[13][14] United States "for the human understanding and subtle analysis of contemporary culture that are combined in his work"[19]
1978 Isaac Bashevis Singer crop.jpg Isaac Bashevis Singer[13][14] United States "for his impassioned narrative art which, with roots in a Polish-Jewish cultural tradition, brings universal human conditions to life"[20]
1981 Elias Canetti 2.jpg Elias Canetti[13][14] United Kingdom "for writings marked by a broad outlook, a wealth of ideas and artistic power"[21]
1987 Joseph Brodsky 1988.jpg Joseph Brodsky[13][14] United States "for an all-embracing authorship, imbued with clarity of thought and poetic intensity"[22]
1991 Nadine Gordimer 01.JPG Nadine Gordimer[13][14] South Africa "who through her magnificent epic writing has – in the words of Alfred Nobel – been of very great benefit to humanity"[23]
2002 Imre Kertész (1929-) Hungarian writer II. by Csaba Segesvári.JPG Imre Kertész[13][24][25] Hungary "for writing that upholds the fragile experience of the individual against the barbaric arbitrariness of history"[26]
2004 Elfriede jelinek 2004 small.jpg Elfriede Jelinek[27] Austria "for her musical flow of voices and counter-voices in novels and plays that with extraordinary linguistic zeal reveal the absurdity of society's clichés and their subjugating power"[28]
2005 Harold-pinter-atp.jpg Harold Pinter[13][29] United Kingdom "who in his plays uncovers the precipice under everyday prattle and forces entry into oppression's closed rooms"[30]

Chemistry[edit]

Year Laureate Country Rationale
1905 Adolf von Baeyer (1905).jpg Adolf von Baeyer[14][31][32][33][34] Germany "[for] the advancement of organic chemistry and the chemical industry, through his work on organic dyes and hydroaromatic compounds"[35]
1906 Henri Moissan.jpg Henri Moissan[14][31][32][33][34][36] France "[for his] investigation and isolation of the element fluorine, and for [the] electric furnace called after him"[37]
1910 Voit 168 Otto Wallach.jpg Otto Wallach[14][31][32][33][34] Germany "[for] his services to organic chemistry and the chemical industry by his pioneer work in the field of alicyclic compounds"[38]
1915 Richard Willstätter.jpg Richard Willstätter[14][31][32][33][34] Germany "for his researches on plant pigments, especially chlorophyll"[39]
1918 Fritz Haber.png Fritz Haber[14][31][32][33][34][40] Germany "for the synthesis of ammonia from its elements"[41]
1943 George de Hevesy.jpg George de Hevesy[14][31][32][33][34] Hungary "for his work on the use of isotopes as tracers in the study of chemical processes"[42]
1961 Melvin Calvin Melvin Calvin[14][31][32][33][34] United States "for his research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants"[43]
1962 Max Perutz.jpg Max Perutz[14][31][32][33][34][44] United Kingdom "for their studies of the structures of globular proteins"[45]
1972 Christian B. Anfinsen Christian B. Anfinsen[31][34][46] United States "for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation"[47]
William Howard Stein[14][31][32][34] United States "for their contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule"[47]
1977 Ilya Prigogine[14][31][32][34][48] Belgium "for his contributions to non-equilibrium thermodynamics, particularly the theory of dissipative structures"[49]
1979 Herbert C. Brown[14][31][32][34][50] United States "for their development of the use of boron- and phosphorus-containing compounds, respectively, into important reagents in organic synthesis"[51]
1980 Paul Berg in 1980.jpg Paul Berg[14][31][32][34][52] United States "for his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA"[53]
Walter Gilbert Walter Gilbert[14][31][32][34] United States "for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids"[53]
1981 Roald Hoffmann.jpg Roald Hoffmann[14][31][32][34] United States "for their theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions"[54]
1982 Aaron Klug 1979.jpg Aaron Klug[14][31][32][34] United Kingdom "for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nucleic acid-protein complexes"[55]
1985 Jerome Karle Jerome Karle[10][14][31][32][34][56][57] United States "for their outstanding achievements in developing direct methods for the determination of crystal structures"[58]
Herbert Hauptman Herbert A. Hauptman[8][14][31][32][34][59][60][61] United States
1989 Sidney Altman crop.jpg Sidney Altman[14][31][32][34] Canada
United States
"for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA"[62]
1992 Prof. Dr. Rudolph A. Marcus.jpg Rudolph A. Marcus[14][31][32][34] United States "for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems"[63]
1994 George Andrew Olah George Andrew Olah[12][31][34] Hungary "for his contribution to carbocation chemistry"[64]
1996 Harold Kroto 1c389 8471.sweden.jpg Harry Kroto[34][65] England "for the discovery of fullerenes"[66]
1998 Walter Kohn Walter Kohn[7][8][14][31][34][67] United States "for his development of the density-functional theory"[68]
2000 Alan J. Heeger[14][31][32][34][69] United States "for the discovery and development of conductive polymers"[70]
2004 Nobel2004chemistrylaurets-Ciehanover.jpg Aaron Ciechanover[34][71][72] Israel "for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation"[73]
Nobel2004chemistrylaurets-Hershko.jpg Avram Hershko[34][71] Israel
Nobel2004chemistrylaurets-Rose.jpg Irwin Rose[34][74][75] United States
2006 Roger.Kornberg.JPG Roger D. Kornberg[71][76][77] United States "for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription"[78][79]
2008 Martin Chalfie-press conference Dec 07th, 2008-4.jpg Martin Chalfie[80] United States "for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP".[81]
2009 AdaYonath.jpg Ada Yonath[71] Israel "for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome"[82]
2011 Shechtman.jpg Dan Shechtman[83] Israel "for the discovery of quasicrystals"[84]
2012 Lefkowitz3.jpg Robert Lefkowitz[85] United States "for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors"[86]
2013 AW TW PS.jpg Arieh Warshel[9][87] Israel "for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems"[88]
Michael Levitt.jpg Michael Levitt[9][87] United States, Britain, Israel [89][90]
Martin Karplus[9][87] United States, Austria [91]

Physiology or Medicine[edit]

Year Laureate Country Rationale
1908 Ilya Mechnikov nobel.jpg Élie Metchnikoff[14][33][34][92] Russia "in recognition of their work on immunity"[93]
Paul Ehrlich.png Paul Ehrlich[14][33][34][92] Germany
1914 Robert Barany.jpg Robert Bárány[14][33][34][92] Austria-Hungary "for his work on the physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus"[94]
1922 Otto Fritz Meyerhof.jpg Otto Fritz Meyerhof[14][33][34][92] Germany "for his discovery of the fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the metabolism of lactic acid in the muscle"[95]
1930 Karl Landsteiner nobel.jpg Karl Landsteiner[14][33][34][92] Austria "for his discovery of human blood groups"[96]
1931 Otto Warburg.jpg Otto Heinrich Warburg[14][33][34] Germany "for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme"[97]
1936 Otto Loewi nobel.jpg Otto Loewi[14][33][34][92] Austria "for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses"[98]
1944 Joseph Erlanger nobel.jpg Joseph Erlanger[14][33][34][92][99] United States "for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres"[100]
Herbert Spencer Gasser nobel.jpg Herbert Spencer Gasser[14][33][34]
1945 Ernst Boris Chain 1945.jpg Ernst Boris Chain[14][33][34][92] United Kingdom "for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases"[101]
1946 Hermann Joseph Muller.jpg Hermann Joseph Muller[14][33][34][92] United States "for the discovery of the production of mutations by means of X-ray irradiation"[102]
1947 Gerty Theresa Cori.jpg Gerty Cori[34][92] United States "for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen"[103]
1950 Thadeus Reichstein ETH-Bib Portr 10137.jpg Tadeusz Reichstein[14][33][34][92] Switzerland / Poland "for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects"[104]
1952 Selman Waksman NYWTS.jpg Selman Waksman[14][33][34][92] United States "for his discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis"[105]
1953 Hans Adolf Krebs.jpg Hans Adolf Krebs[8][14][33][34][92] United Kingdom "for his discovery of the citric acid cycle"[106]
Portrait of Fritz Albert Lipmann (1899-1986), Biochemist (2551001689).jpg Fritz Albert Lipmann[14][92] United States "for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism"[106]
1958 Joshua Lederberg.jpg Joshua Lederberg[14][33][34][92] United States "for his discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of the genetic material of bacteria"[107]
1959 Arthur Kornberg.jpg Arthur Kornberg[10][14][33][34][92] United States "for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid"[108]
1964 Konrad Bloch.JPG Konrad Emil Bloch[14][33][34][92][109] United States "for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism"[110]
1965 François Jacob nobel.jpg François Jacob[14][33][34][92] France "for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis"[111]
André Lwoff nobel.jpg André Michel Lwoff[14][33][34][92]
1967 George Wald nobel.jpg George Wald[14][33][34][92] United States "for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye"[112]
1968 MNirenberg.jpg Marshall Warren Nirenberg[14][33][34][92] United States "for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis"[113]
1969 Salvador E. Luria ca.1969.jpg Salvador Luria[14][33][34][92] United States "for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses"[114]
1970 Axelrod01.jpg Julius Axelrod[14][34][92] United States "for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation"[115]
Bernard Katz[14][33][34][92] United Kingdom
1972 Gerald Edelman[14][34][92] United States "for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies"[116]
1975 DavidBaltimore2008.JPG David Baltimore[14][34][92] United States "for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumor viruses and the genetic material of the cell"[117]
Howard Martin Temin[14][34][92] United States
1976 Baruch Samuel Blumberg by Tom Trower (NASA).jpg Baruch Samuel Blumberg[14][34][92] United States "for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases"[118]
1977 Schally portrait.jpg Andrew Schally[34][92][119][120] United States "for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain"[121]
Rosalyn Yalow.jpg Rosalyn Sussman Yalow[14][34][52][92] United States "for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones"[121]
1978 Daniel Nathans[14][34][92] United States "for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics"[122]
1980 Baruj Benacerraf[14][34][92] United States "for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions"[123]
1984 Milstein lnp.jpg César Milstein[14][34][52][92] Argentina
"for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies"[124]
1985 Mike Brown 2003.jpg Michael Stuart Brown[14][34][92] United States "for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism"[125]
Joe Goldstein.JPG Joseph L. Goldstein[14][34][92] United States
1986 Stanley Cohen-Biochemist.jpg Stanley Cohen[14][34][52][92] United States "for their discoveries of growth factors"[126]
Rita Levi Montalcini.jpg Rita Levi-Montalcini[14][34][92][127] Italy
1988 Nci-vol-8236-300 Gertrude Elion.jpg Gertrude B. Elion[14][34][92] United States "for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment"[128]
1989 Varmus, Harold Elliot (1939).jpg Harold E. Varmus[14][34][52][92] United States "for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes"[129]
1994 Alfred G. Gilman[14][34][92] United States "for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells"[130]
Rodbell, Martin (1925-1998).jpg Martin Rodbell[14][34][92]
1997 Prusiner 1.JPG Stanley B. Prusiner[14][34][92] United States "for his discovery of prions – a new biological principle of infection"[131]
1998 Drfurchgott.jpg Robert F. Furchgott[8][34][92] United States "for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system"[132]
2000 Paul Greengard.jpg Paul Greengard[34][92] United States "for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system"[133]
Eric Richard Kandel.jpg Eric Kandel[14][34][92] United States
2002 Sydney Brenner[34][92] United Kingdom "for their discoveries concerning 'genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'"[134]
H. Robert Horvitz[34][92] United States
2004 Richard Axel.jpg Richard Axel[34][92][99][135] United States "for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system"[136]
2006 Andrew Fire, Stanford University.jpg Andrew Fire[92] United States "for his discovery of RNA interference – gene silencing by double-stranded RNA"[137]
2011 Ralph M. Steinman[83][92][138][139][140] Canada for "his discovery of the dendritic cell and its role in adaptive immunity"[141]
Nobel Prize 2011-Press Conference KI-DSC 7512.jpg Bruce Beutler[83][92][142] United States "for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity"
2013 James E. Rothman[9][143][144] United States for "their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells"[145]
Randy Schekman 8 February 2012.jpg Randy Schekman[9][143][144] United States

Physics[edit]

Year Laureate Country Rationale
1907 Albert Abraham Michelson2.jpg Albert Abraham Michelson[14][32][33][146] United States "for his optical precision instruments and the spectroscopic and metrological investigations carried out with their aid"[147]
1908 G lippmann.jpg Gabriel Lippmann[14][32][33][146] France "for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference"[148]
1921 Einstein1921 by F Schmutzer 4.jpg Albert Einstein[14][32][33][146][149] Germany "for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect"[150]
1922 Niels Bohr.jpg Niels Bohr[14][32][33][146] Denmark "for his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them"[151]
1925 James Franck.jpg James Franck[14][32][146] Germany "for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom"[152]
Gustav Hertz.jpg Gustav Hertz[14][32][33] Germany
1943 Otto Stern.jpg Otto Stern[14][32][146] United States "for his contribution to the development of the molecular ray method and his discovery of the magnetic moment of the proton"[153]
1944 Isidor Isaac Rabi.jpg Isidor Isaac Rabi[14][32][33][146] United States "for his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei"[154]
1945 Wolfgang Pauli young.jpg Wolfgang Pauli[14][146][155] Austria "for the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called the Pauli principle"[156]
1952 Felix Bloch, Stanford University.jpg Felix Bloch[14][32][33][146] United States "for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith"[157]
1954 Max Born.jpg Max Born[14][32][33][146] United Kingdom "for his fundamental research in quantum mechanics, especially for his statistical interpretation of the wavefunction"[158]
1958 Ilya Frank.jpg Ilya Frank[14][146] Soviet Union "for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect"[159]
Igor Tamm.jpg Igor Tamm[14][32][33][146][160] Soviet Union
1959 Segre.jpg Emilio Gino Segrè[14][32][33][146] Italy "for their discovery of the antiproton"[161]
1960 Donald Glaser.jpg Donald A. Glaser[14][32][33][146] United States "for the invention of the bubble chamber"[162]
1961 Robert Hofstadter.jpg Robert Hofstadter[14][32][33][146] United States "for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the structure of the nucleons"[163]
1962 Landau.jpg Lev Landau[14][32][33][146][164] Soviet Union "for his pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium"[165][166]
1963 Wigner.jpg Eugene Wigner[14][146][167] United States "for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles"[168]
1965 Richard Feynman.png Richard Feynman[14][32][33][146][169] United States "for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles"[170]
Schwinger.jpg Julian Schwinger[14][32][33][146] United States
1967 Hans Bethe.jpg Hans Bethe[14][146] United States "for his contributions to the theory of nuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars"[171]
1969 Murray Gell-Mann.jpg Murray Gell-Mann[14][32][33][146][172] United States "for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions"[173]
1971 Dennis Gabor[14][32][146] United Kingdom "for his invention and development of the holographic method"[174]
1972 Leon Cooper 1972.jpg Leon Cooper[146][146][175][176] United States "for his jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory"[177]
1973 Brian David Josephson[14][32] United Kingdom "for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as the Josephson effect"[178]
1975 Mottelson,Ben 1963 Kopenhagen.jpg Ben Roy Mottelson[14][32][146] Denmark "for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection"[179]
1976 Burton Richter - charm quark.jpg Burton Richter[14][32][146] United States "for his pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind"[180]
1978 Arno Penzias.jpg Arno Allan Penzias[14][32][146] United States "for his discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation"[181]
1979 Sheldon Glashow at Harvard.jpg Sheldon Lee Glashow[14][32][146] United States "for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current"[182]
Steven-weinberg.jpg Steven Weinberg[14][32][146] United States
1987 Karl Alexander Mueller.jpg Karl Alexander Müller[146] Switzerland "for their important breakthrough in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials"[183]
1988 Leon M. Lederman.jpg Leon M. Lederman[14][32][52][146] United States "for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino"[184]
Melvin Schwartz[14][32][146] United States
Jack-Steinberger-2008.JPG Jack Steinberger[14][32][146] United States
1990 Jerome Isaac Friedman[14][146] United States "for his pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics"[185]
1992 CHARPAK Georges-24x50-2005 cropped.JPG Georges Charpak[14][146] France / Poland "for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber"[186]
1995 Martin Perl - tau.jpg Martin Lewis Perl[14][146] United States "for the discovery of the tau lepton" and "for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics"[187]
Frederick Reines.jpg Frederick Reines[14][146] United States "for the detection of the neutrino" and "for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics"[187]
1996 David M Lee Dec 2008.jpg David Morris Lee[12][146] United States "for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3"[188]
Douglas Osheroff.jpg Douglas D. Osheroff[12] United States
1997 Claude Cohen-Tannoudji.JPG Claude Cohen-Tannoudji[14][146] France "for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light"[189]
2000 Zhores Alferov.jpg Zhores Alferov[12][146] Russia "for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and optoelectronics"[190]
2003 AA Abrikosov ANL1.jpg Alexei Alexeyevich Abrikosov[146] Russia
United States
"for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids"[191]
Виталий Лазаревич Гинзбург.jpg Vitaly Ginzburg[146] Russia
2004 David Gross cropped.JPG David Gross[71][146][192] United States "for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction"[193]
H. David Politzer[146] United States
2005 Roy Glauber Dec 10 2005.jpg Roy J. Glauber[146] United States "for his contribution to the quantum theory of optical coherence"[194]
2010 Andre Geim 2010-1.jpg Andre Geim[195] Russia
Netherlands
"for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene"[196]
2011 Adam Riess Agr cover.jpg Adam Riess[83][146][197][198][199] United States "for providing evidence that the expansion of the universe is accelerating"[194]
Nobel Prize 2011-Press Conference KVA-DSC 7744.jpg Saul Perlmutter[83][146][200][201] United States
2012 Serge Haroche - Théâtre de la Commune d'Aubervilliers - 4 mai 2009.jpg Serge Haroche[202] France "for ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems"[194]
2013 Francois Englert.jpg François Englert[6][9][203][204] Belgium "for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider"[205]

Peace[edit]

Year Laureate Country Rationale
1911 TMCasser.jpg Tobias Michael Carel Asser[14][206] The Netherlands "Initiator of the Conferences on International Private Law at the Hague; Cabinet Minister; Lawyer"[207]
Alfred Herrmann Fried Foto.jpg Alfred Hermann Fried[14][208] Austria "Journalist; Founder of Die Friedenswarte"[207]
1968 René Cassin nobel.jpg René Cassin[14] France "President of the European Court for Human Rights"[209]
1973 Henry Kissinger.jpg Henry A. Kissinger[14][210] United States "For the 1973 Paris agreement intended to bring about a cease-fire in the Vietnam War and a withdrawal of the American forces"[211][212]
1978 Menachem Begin 2.jpg Menachem Begin[14][213] Israel "for the Camp David Agreement, which brought about a negotiated peace between Egypt and Israel"[214]
1986 Elie Wiesel.jpg Elie Wiesel[14][215] United States "Chairman of "The President's Commission on the Holocaust""[216]
1994 Yitzhak Rabin (1986) cropped.jpg Yitzhak Rabin[14] Israel "to honour a political act which called for great courage on both sides, and which has opened up opportunities for a new development towards fraternity in the Middle East."[217]
Shimon Peres World Economic Forum 2007.jpg Shimon Peres[14] Israel
1995 Josef Rotblat ID badge.png Joseph Rotblat[14] United Kingdom
Poland
"for his efforts to diminish the part played by nuclear arms in international politics and, in the longer run, to eliminate such arms"[218]

Economics[edit]

Year Laureate Country Rationale
1970 Paul Samuelson.jpg Paul Samuelson[14][14][219][220] United States "for the scientific work through which he has developed static and dynamic economic theory and actively contributed to raising the level of analysis in economic science"

[221]

1971 Simon Kuznets[14][219][222] United States "for his empirically founded interpretation of economic growth which has led to new and deepened insight into the economic and social structure and process of development"[223]
1972 Kenneth Arrow, Stanford University.jpg Kenneth Arrow[14][219][224] United States "for his pioneering contributions to general economic equilibrium theory and welfare theory"[225]
1973 Wassily Leontief[219] Russia
Germany
United States
"for the development of the input-output method and for its application to important economic problems"[226]
1975 Leonid Kantorovich 1975.jpg Leonid Kantorovich[14][219] Soviet Union "for his contributions to the theory of optimum allocation of resources"[227]
1976 Portrait of Milton Friedman.jpg Milton Friedman[14][219][224][228] United States "for his achievements in the fields of consumption analysis, monetary history and theory and for his demonstration of the complexity of stabilization policy"[229]
1978 Herbert A. Simon[14][219][230] United States "for his pioneering research into the decision-making process within economic organizations"[231]
1980 Lawrence Klein[14][219][230] United States "for the creation of econometric models and the application to the analysis of economic fluctuations and economic policies"[232]
1985 Franco Modigliani.jpg Franco Modigliani[14][219][220] Italy
United States
"for his pioneering analyses of saving and of financial markets"[233]
1987 Solow natmedal.jpg Robert Solow[14][219] United States "for his contributions to the theory of economic growth""[234]
1990 Harry Markowitz[14][219][230] United States "for their pioneering work in the theory of financial economics""[235]
Merton Miller[219][230] United States
1992 GaryBecker-May24-2008.jpg Gary Becker[14][219][230] United States "for having extended the domain of microeconomic analysis to a wide range of human behaviour and interaction, including nonmarket behaviour""[236]
1993 Robert William Fogel.jpg Robert Fogel[14][219][230] United States "for having renewed research in economic history by applying economic theory and quantitative methods in order to explain economic and institutional change"[237]
1994 John Harsanyi[219][230][238] Hungary "for their pioneering analysis of equilibria in the theory of non-cooperative games"[239]
1997 Myron Scholes 2008 in Lindau.png Myron Scholes[14][219][230][240] Canada "for a new method to determine the value of derivatives"[241][242]
2001 Joseph E. Stiglitz - cropped.jpg Joseph Stiglitz[219][230] United States "for their analyses of markets with asymmetric information"[243]
George Akerlof.jpg George Akerlof[244] United States
2002 Daniel KAHNEMAN.jpg Daniel Kahneman[219][230] Israel
United States
"for having integrated insights from psychological research into economic science, especially concerning human judgment and decision-making under uncertainty"[245]
2005 ישראל אומן 2010.jpg Robert Aumann[219][246] Israel
United States
"for having enhanced our understanding of conflict and cooperation through game-theory analysis"[247]
2007 Leonid Hurwicz.jpg Leonid Hurwicz[219][248][249][250][251] United States
Poland
"For having laid the foundations of mechanism design theory"[252]
05N3441 emaskin.jpg Eric Maskin[219][251][253] United States
Myerson roger b print.jpg Roger Myerson[219][251] United States
2008 Paul Krugman-press conference Dec 07th, 2008-8.jpg Paul Krugman[219][254] United States "for his analysis of trade patterns and location of economic activity"[255]
2010 Peter Diamond cropped.jpg Peter Diamond[256][257] United States "for his analysis of markets with search frictions"[258]
2012 Alvin E. Roth 3 2012.jpg Alvin E. Roth[259] United States "for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design" [260]

Forced to decline prize[edit]

Boris Pasternak, a Russian Jew, winner of the 1958 prize for literature, initially accepted the award, but—after intense pressure from Soviet authorities—subsequently declined it.[261][262][263][264]

Nobel Laureates Boulevard[edit]

Monument and plaque honoring 2002 Economics Laureate Daniel Kahneman on Nobel Laureates Boulevard/Promenade in Rishon LeZion Israel.

The Israeli town of Rishon LeZion has a street in it dedicated to honoring all Jewish Nobel Laureates. The street, called Tayelet Hatnei Pras Nobel (Nobel Laureates Boulevard/Promenade), has a monument with attached plaque for each Nobel Laureate.[61]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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    An additional award, the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, was established in 1968 by the Bank of Sweden and was first awarded in 1969

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    • "One-of-five Nobel Prize Laureates are Jewish". Israel High-Tech & Investment Report. December 2004. Retrieved 2010-02-15. 
    • "Jews make up less than 0.2% of mankind". ynetnews. October 0012. 
    • Shalev, Baruch (2005). 100 Years of Nobel Prizes. p. 57. "A striking fact involving religion is the high number of Laureates of the Jewish faith—over 20% of the total Nobel Prizes (138); including: 17% in Chemistry, 26% in Medicine and Physics, 40% in Economics and 11% in Peace and Literature each. These numbers are especially startling in light of the fact that only some 13.75 million people (0.2% of the world's population) are Jewish." 
    • Brooks, David (January 11, 2010). "The Tel Aviv Cluster". The New York Times. p. A23. "Jews are a famously accomplished group. They make up 0.2 percent of the world population, but 54 percent of the world chess champions, 27 percent of the Nobel physics laureates and 31 percent of the medicine laureates. Jews make up 2 percent of the U.S. population, but 21 percent of the Ivy League student bodies, 26 percent of the Kennedy Center honorees, 37 percent of the Academy Award-winning directors, 38 percent of those on a recent Business Week list of leading philanthropists, 51 percent of the Pulitzer Prize winners for nonfiction." 
    • Dobbs, Stephen Mark (October 12, 2001). "As the Nobel Prize marks centennial, Jews constitute 1/5 of laureates". j. Retrieved January 23, 2009. "Throughout the 20th century, Jews, more so than any other minority, ethnic or cultural group, have been recipients of the Nobel Prize – perhaps the most distinguished award for human endeavor in the six fields for which it is given. Remarkably, Jews constitute almost one-fifth of all Nobel laureates. This, in a world in which Jews number just a fraction of 1 percent of the population." 
    • Ted Falcon, David Blatner (2001). "28". Judaism for dummies. John Wiley & Sons. "Similarly, because Jews make up less than a quarter of one percent of the world's population, it's surprising that over 20 percent of Nobel prizes have been awarded to Jews or people of Jewish descent." 
    • Lawrence E. Harrison (2008). The Central Liberal Truth: How Politics Can Change a Culture and Save It. Oxford University Press. p. 102. "That achievement is symbolized by the fact that 15 to 20 percent of Nobel Prizes have been won by Jews, who represent two tenths of one percent of the world's population." 
    • Jonathan B. Krasner, Jonathan D. Sarna (2006). The History of the Jewish People: Ancient Israel to 1880's America. Behrman House, Inc. p. 1. "These accomplishments account for 20 percent of the Nobel Prizes awarded since 1901. What a feat for a people who make up only .2 percent of the world's population!" 
    • Murray, Charles (April 2007). "Jewish Genius". Commentary. "In the first half of the 20th century, despite pervasive and continuing social discrimination against Jews throughout the Western world, despite the retraction of legal rights, and despite the Holocaust, Jews won 14 percent of Nobel Prizes in literature, chemistry, physics, and medicine/physiology. In the second half of the 20th century, when Nobel Prizes began to be awarded to people from all over the world, that figure rose to 29 percent. So far, in the 21st century, it has been 32 percent. Jews constitute about two-tenths of one percent of the world’s population." 
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    • Magnus Ramage, Karen Shipp (2009). Systems Thinkers. Springer. p. 277. "Prigogine was born in January 1917 in Moscow... His family 'had a difficult relationship with the new regime' (Prigogine 1977), being both Jewish and merchants...
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Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]