List of Jewish monarchs
House of Saul
According to the Bible, before the united monarchy, the Israelite tribes lived as a confederation under ad hoc charismatic leaders called Judges. In around 1020 BCE, under extreme threat from foreign peoples, the tribes united to form the first united Kingdom of Israel. Samuel anointed Saul from the tribe of Benjamin as the first king.
House of David
After Rehoboam reigned three years (1 Chronicles 11:17), the kingdom was divided in two - the northern kingdom of Israel with its capital, first in Shechem (Nablus), then Tirzah, and finally Samaria, and ruled by a series of dynasties beginning with Jeroboam; and the southern kingdom of Judah with its capital still at Jerusalem and still ruled by the House of David. The following list contains the kings of Judah with the kings of Israel in the summaries:
- Abijah c. 915 – 913 BCE
- Asa - under whose reign, the following were kings in Israel: Nadab, Baasha, Elah, Zimri, Omri, and Ahab.
- Jehoshaphat - under whose reign, Ahaziah and Yehoram reigned in Israel.
- Yehoram ben Yehoshaphat
- Ahaziah ben Yehoram - under whose reign, Jehu ruled in Israel.
- Yehoash - under whose reign, Yehoahaz and another Yehoash ruled in Israel.
- Amaziah - under whose reign, Jeroboam II ruled in Israel.
- Uzziah - under whose reign, the following ruled over Israel: Zachariah, Shallum, Menahem, Pekahiah, and Pekah.
- Ahaz - under whose reign, Hoshea ruled as the last king of Israel.
- Hezekiah - under his reign, the Assyrian Empire conquered and destroyed the northern kingdom 722 BCE leaving only the southern kingdom of Judah.
- Zedekiah - last king to rule over, and in, Judah. Overthrown by Babylonia (which succeeded Assyria) and exiled, along with most of the rest of the population, to that kingdom, where he was executed.
- Yachin resumed the throne as king-in-exile (II Kings 25:27–30) and Gedaliah became governor over the remnant of Judah in their homeland. He was assassinated the next year.