List of Jews born in the former Russian Empire

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
This List of Jews contains individuals who, in accordance with Wikipedia's verifiability and no original research policies, have been identified as Jews by reliable sources.

The following is a list of Jews born in the territory of the former Russian Empire. It is geographically defined, so it also includes people born after the dissolution of the Russian Empire in 1922 and its successor the Soviet Union in 1991.

A few years before The Holocaust, the Jewish population of the Soviet Union (excluding Western Ukraine and the Baltic states who were not part of the Soviet Union then) stood at over 5 million, most of whom were Ashkenazic as opposed to Sephardic, with some Karaite minorities. It is estimated that over half died directly as a result of the Shoah. Many more emigrated to Israel, USA, Argentina, and Germany, though Russia and Ukraine still have among the larger Jewish populations in the world today (440,000 in Russia, 300,000 in Ukraine).

Historical figures[edit]

Politicians[edit]

Israeli politicians[edit]

Israeli military persons[edit]

Soviet Soldiers and Revolutionaries[edit]

Others[edit]

Business figures[edit]

Scientists[edit]

Natural scientists[edit]

Mathematicians[edit]

Social scientists[edit]

Cultural figures[edit]

Musicians[edit]

Performing and fine artists[edit]

Writers and poets[edit]

Sport figures[edit]

Chess[edit]

Boxing[edit]

Canoeing[edit]

Fencing[edit]

Figure skating[edit]

Football (American)[edit]

Gymnastics[edit]

Ice hockey[edit]

Judo[edit]

Rugby league[edit]

Sailing[edit]

  • Valentyn Mankin, Soviet/Ukraine, only sailor in Olympic history to win gold medals in three different classes (yachting: finn class, tempest class, and star class), silver (yachting, tempest class)

Shooting[edit]

Soccer (association football)[edit]

Speed skating[edit]

  • Rafayel Grach, USSR, Olympic silver (500-meter), bronze (500-meter)

Swimming[edit]

  • Vadim Alexeev, Kazakhstan-born Israeli, breaststroke[171]
  • Semyon Belits-Geiman, USSR, Olympic silver (400-m freestyle relay) and bronze (800-m freestyle relay); world record in men's 800-m freestyle
  • Lenny Krayzelburg, Ukrainian-born US, 4x Olympic champion (100-m backstroke, 200-m backstroke, twice 4x100-m medley relay); 3x world champion (100-m and 200-m backstroke, 4×100-m medley) and 2x silver (4×100-m medley, 50-m backstroke); 3 world records (50-, 100-, and 200-m backstroke)

Table tennis[edit]

Track and field[edit]

Volleyball[edit]

Water polo[edit]

Weightlifting[edit]

  • Moisei Kas’ianik, Ukrainian-born USSR, world champion[169]
  • Grigory Novak, Soviet, Olympic silver (middle-heavyweight); world champion
  • Rudolf Plyukfelder, Soviet, Olympic champion, 2x world champion (light heavyweight)[180]
  • David Rigert, Kazakh-born USSR, Olympic champion, 5x world champion (light-heavyweight and heavyweight), 68 world records[181]
  • Igor Rybak, Ukrainian-born USSR, Olympic champion (lightweight)
  • Valery Shary, Byelorussian-born USSR, Olympic champion (light-heavyweight)

Wrestling[edit]

Other sports[edit]

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Russian Jewish Encyclopedia". Jewishgen.org. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f "Russian Jews". Spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk. 1918-07-10. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  3. ^ "Russian Jewish Encyclopedia". Jewishgen.org. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  4. ^ (half-Jewish)[1]: "Russian Jew named prime minister ... If approved, Fradkov would be the first identified Jew to serve as Russia's prime minister".
  5. ^ Albert S. Lindemann. Esau's Tears: Modern Anti-Semitism and the Rise of the Jews, Cambridge University Press, 1997, ISBN 0-521-79538-9 (pbk), p.430
  6. ^ a b c d e f g http://www.judaica.com.br/materias/020_04a10.htm
  7. ^ "Encyclopædia Britannica". Britannica.com. 1991-07-25. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Russian Jewish Encyclopedia". Jewishgen.org. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  9. ^ Jews and Jewish life in Russia and ... - Yaacov Ro'i - Google Boeken. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  10. ^ a b c "FJC | News | A Jewish Renaissance in Russia". Fjc.ru. 2005-05-03. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  11. ^ Churchill and the Baltics - The Churchill Centre
  12. ^ a b c "Russian Jewish Encyclopedia". Jewishgen.org. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  13. ^ "j. - Russian Jewish reformist moves up Kremlin ladder". Jewishsf.com. 1997-03-21. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  14. ^ a b c d e "Russian Jewish Encyclopedia". Jewishgen.org. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  15. ^ a b c d e "Russian Jewish Encyclopedia". Jewishgen.org. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  16. ^ a b "Russian Jewish Encyclopedia". Jewishgen.org. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  17. ^ "Trotsky was born of Jewish parents in the S Ukraine." "Trotsky, Leon", The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05.
  18. ^ "His father was a prosperous Jewish farmer. After attending a Jewish primary school, Trotsky became a student at a state school in the city of Odesa (Odessa) in 1888..." "Leon Trotsky", Encarta, 2007. Archived 2009-10-31.
  19. ^ a b "Russian Jewish Encyclopedia". Jewishgen.org. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  20. ^ Zvi Gitelman. A Century of Ambivalence: The Jews of Russia and the Soviet Union, 1881 to the Present, 2nd expanded edition, Indiana University Press, 1988, 2001, ISBN 0-253-21418-1
  21. ^ a b c "Russian Jewish Encyclopedia". Jewishgen.org. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  22. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica: Zinovyev was born to lower middle-class Jewish parents"
  23. ^ Zhirinovsky admits Jewish roots BBC News
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Russian Jewish Encyclopedia". Jewishgen.org. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  25. ^ "Menachem Begin". Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. 1992-03-09. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  26. ^ "Yitzhak Ben­Zvi". Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. 1963-04-23. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  27. ^ "Shemuel Dayan". Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  28. ^ a b "Russian Jewish Encyclopedia". Jewishgen.org. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  29. ^ "Levi Eshkol". Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. 1969-02-26. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  30. ^ "Russian Jewish Encyclopedia". Jewishgen.org. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  31. ^ "Office of the President". Mfa.gov.il. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  32. ^ "Knesset Member, Avigdor Liberman". Knesset.gov.il. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  33. ^ "Russian Jewish Encyclopedia". Jewishgen.org. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  34. ^ "Golda Meir". Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. 1973-10-06. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  35. ^ "Shimon Peres". Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  36. ^ "Yitzhak Shamir". Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  37. ^ "Online NewsHour: Natan Sharansky - July 22, 1997". Pbs.org. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  38. ^ "Moshe Sharett". Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  39. ^ "Zalman Shazar". Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  40. ^ "Russian Jewish Encyclopedia". Jewishgen.org. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  41. ^ "Chaim Weizmann (1874-1952)". Jafi.org.il. 2005-05-15. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  42. ^ "The Pintov/ Dori Family". Eilatgordinlevitan.com. 1949-11-09. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  43. ^ "Russian Jewish Encyclopedia". Jewishgen.org. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  44. ^ "Ze'ev (Vladimir) Jabotinsky". Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. 1940-08-04. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  45. ^ "Haim Laskov". Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  46. ^ "Born in Lublin, Poland, Sadeh began his military career in the Russian army during the First World War. He was decorated for bravery and rose to be a battalion commander. He emigrated to Erez Israel in 1920, upon hearing of the death of Joseph Trumpeldor, whom he had met three years earlier". Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  47. ^ Slutsky, Yehuda. "Trumpeldor, Joseph." Encyclopaedia Judaica Vol. 20. 2nd ed. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. 159-160
  48. ^ "Knesset Member, Zvi Tsur". Knesset.gov.il. 1965-12-08. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  49. ^ "Road to Revolution". Ditext.com. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  50. ^ Pavel Axelrod JEWish - My library - Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  51. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Russian Jewish Encyclopedia". Jewishgen.org. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  52. ^ "World Battlefronts: BATTLE OF RUSSIA: Stage Wait". Time. 1944-08-28. Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  53. ^ a b c d e "Russian Jewish Encyclopedia". Jewishgen.org. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  54. ^ "Deutsch, Leo" Encyclopaedia Judaica. Eds. Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik. Vol. 5. 2nd ed. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA
  55. ^ "Review: German scholar's view of Dunayevskaya's Luxemburg". Newsandletters.org. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  56. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Russian Jewish Encyclopedia". Jewishgen.org. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  57. ^ http://www1.yadvashem.org/odot_pdf/Microsoft%20Word%20-%206288.pdf
  58. ^ "Microsoft Word - 041cover.doc" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  59. ^ "Russian Jewish Encyclopedia". Jewishgen.org. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  60. ^ "Mavi Boncuk". Maviboncuk.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  61. ^ Andrew Cook, M: Mi5's First Spymaster (Revealing History), 2004, Tempus Publishing, ISBN 0-7524-2896-9.
  62. ^ a b c "Russian Jewish Encyclopedia". Jewishgen.org. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  63. ^ a b c Salpeter, Eliahu (2008-04-02). "TheMarker.com". Haaretz.com. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  64. ^ Friday, Jan. 25, 1963 (1963-01-25). "Time Magazine". Time.com. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  65. ^ "JCR-UK - Paper on Brighton Jewish Community". Jewishgen.org. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  66. ^ The Searchmeisters, page 2, Spring 2006 B'nai B'rith Magazine[dead link]
  67. ^ East End history, London history, End End of London, Bernard Delfont, london vacation, Lew Grade, Spitalfields[dead link]
  68. ^ "Profile: Russian Jewish Leader Arcadi Gaydamak". NCSJ. 2005-06-28. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  69. ^ "Celebrities say farewell to Grade". BBC News. 1998-12-16. Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  70. ^ "Producers". Space1999.net. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  71. ^ "FRONTLINE/WORLD . Moscow - Rich in Russia . How to Make a Billion Dollars - Vladimir Gusinsky". PBS. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  72. ^ "The Role of Politics in Contemporary Russian Antisemitism by Betsy Gidwitz". Jcpa.org. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  73. ^ Fost, Dan (2006-02-28). "Max Levchin likes the edge / Starting another company was the natural thing to do for PayPal co-founder". The San Francisco Chronicle. 
  74. ^ Lane Darnton (1977-05-02). "Checker Origin & History". Darnton.ws. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  75. ^ Personality of the Week - Marks[dead link]
  76. ^ Union of Councils for Soviet Jews: Jews of Former Soviet Countries Create International Council[dead link]
  77. ^ "Louis B. Mayer". Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  78. ^ Nevzlin[dead link]
  79. ^ "Who Made America? | Innovators | Ida Rosenthal". Pbs.org. 2004-06-30. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  80. ^ "David Sarnoff". Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. 1912-04-14. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  81. ^ http://www.hightech-mag.com/index.php/vip/2005/06/alexei-alexeyevich-abrikosov-2003-nobel-prize-in-physics/[dead link]
  82. ^ JINFO. "Jewish Nobel Prize Winners in Physics". Jinfo.org. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  83. ^ The Russian Scientist Today - William Shelton [2][dead link]
  84. ^ The Encyclopedia of Russian Jewry, Biographies A-I, edited by Herman Branover (Jason Aronson, Northvale, NJ, 1998, pp. 351-352)
  85. ^ "Microsoft Word - frenkel-bio.doc" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  86. ^ Russian Jew wins physics Nobel - JTA, Jewish & Israel News[dead link]
  87. ^ "Emanuel Goldberg Page". People.ischool.berkeley.edu. 2009-03-09. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  88. ^ http://arxiv.org/pdf/physics/9801025
  89. ^ a b The Jewish Quarterly[dead link]
  90. ^ Unknown[dead link]
  91. ^ "CJO - Abstract - The dilemmas of seditious men: the Crowther–Hessen correspondence in the 1930s". Journals.cambridge.org. 2004-01-05. doi:10.1017/S0007087403005156. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  92. ^ "Citizen Kurchatov - Ioffe". Pbs.org. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  93. ^ "JewishJournal.com". JewishJournal.com. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  94. ^ "Obituary: Yuli Khariton". Independent, The (London). [dead link]
  95. ^ "Belarus Newsletter". Jewishgen.org. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  96. ^ Family Lines Sketched in the Portrait of Lev Landau - Physics Today February 2004[dead link]
  97. ^ Levich
  98. ^ "John Templeton Foundation". Templeton.org. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  99. ^ Dr. Selman Waksman
  100. ^ "This day in Jewish history / A self-taught nuclear physicist is born". Haaretz. 8 March 2013. Retrieved 8 November 2013. 
  101. ^ Ашдод:лента ежедневных событий
  102. ^ [3]: "Following is a list of Jewish or Israeli recipients of Turing Prize, Fields Medal and other Mathematical Prizes to date:" Accessed 8 Apr 2007
  103. ^ Abramowitz, Michael J. (1983-02-25). "The Harvard Crimson :: News :: A Refugee at Harvard". Thecrimson.com. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  104. ^ "Brudno in Moscow". Computerhistory.org. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  105. ^ "Hermann Minkowski biogaphy". 
  106. ^ "Buber, Solomon:". JewishEncyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  107. ^ Oxford Dictionary of National Biography: "born in Kharkov, Ukraine ... the only child of prosperous Jewish parents"
  108. ^ "Virtual Jewish Library, list of Nobel Prizewinners". Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  109. ^ JINFO. "Jewish Economists". Jinfo.org. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  110. ^ Jewish Year Book, 1990, p. 202
  111. ^ "Lera Auerbach may have defected to the US in the dying days of the Cold War, but her music’s quixotic personality is shaped decisively by her Russian upbringing and Jewish heritage.”[dead link]
  112. ^ Bloom, Nate (2006-12-19). "The Jews Who Wrote Christmas Songs". InterfaithFamily. Retrieved 2006-12-19. 
  113. ^ Lazar Naumovich Berman was born to Jewish parents in what was then Leningrad on February 26 1930.
  114. ^ [4] "Jascha Heifetz, Fritz Kreisler, Mischa Elman... were all Jews, too"
  115. ^ a b c "Russian Jewish Encyclopedia". Jewishgen.org. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  116. ^ [5] "Anthony Federov: I'm like half Christian, half Jewish. I'm like a mix."
  117. ^ JINFO. "Jewish Pianists". Jinfo.org. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  118. ^ "Samuil Yevgen´yevich Feinberg (1890‚1962) was regarded as one the most gifted pianists of his day; his compositions, however, have only recently begun to be heard after many years of silence. His parents were of Jewish origin and in 1894 they moved to from Odessa to Moscow". Planettree.org. 1915-04-02. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  119. ^ [6] "His teacher was Joseph Gingold, and as Bell fondly recalled him, "He was a Russian Jewish violinist..."
  120. ^ "He was born Samuil Hilels in Odessa to a musical Jewish family; both his parents were musicians". Bach-cantatas.com. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  121. ^ [7] "Ukrainian Jewish singer is country's star" [8] "A Ukrainian Jewish woman, Tanya Liberman, who performs under the name Tina Karol, came in seventh."
  122. ^ [9]
  123. ^ Fleeing revolution torn Russia, internationally known pianist Leo Sirota, a Russian Jew, settled in Vienna where his only child, a daughter, was born.
  124. ^ "Regina Spektor, the Brooklyn-based, classically trained Jewish émigré whose family fled the Soviet Union for the Brooklyn when she was nine". Thisislondon.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  125. ^ "Jewish-American Hall of Fame - Virtual Tour". Amuseum.org. 2007-01-15. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  126. ^ a b "Чухрай Григорий Наумович". Sem40.ru. Retrieved 2012-01-30. 
  127. ^ a b http://www.rusfilm.pitt.edu/2005/pn/vera.htm
  128. ^ a b c d e http://www.yivoencyclopedia.org/article.aspx/Cinema
  129. ^ "All About Jewish Theatre - Abraham Goldfaden : A Theater Pioneer Gets His Due". Jewish-theatre.com. 2011-05-27. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  130. ^ Hoberman, J. "Cinema." YIVO Encyclopedia of Jews in Eastern Europe. 2 August 2010.<http://www.yivoencyclopedia.org/article.aspx/Cinema>. Accessed 4 July 2012.
  131. ^ "FJC | News | Jewish Life in Khabarovsk". Fjc.ru. 2003-12-08. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  132. ^ Jewish News Weekly: "One of the country's best-known entertainers has become president (of the Moscow Jewish Community). Comedian Gennady Khazanov, known as "Russia's Bob Hope," said he understood only recently the importance of being personally involved in the Jewish community. ... Last week, after the synagogue stabbing, Khazanov made several television appearances as president of the organization. Sporting a white silk kippah—something he had rarely done before—the comedian focused public attention on the incident. Khazanov isn't the only public figure who has been prompted by the stabbing incident to come out of the Jewish closet." Accessed 30 Oct 2006.
  133. ^ http://www.yivoencyclopedia.org/article.aspx/Kozintsev_Grigorii_Mikhailovich
  134. ^ H. Read, S. Thorndike, and others, Jacob Kramer: a memorial volume (1969)
  135. ^ [10][dead link]
  136. ^ "Ernst Neizvestny". Rogallery.com. 1945-04-22. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  137. ^ http://www.independent.co.uk/news/people/obituary-yuli-raizman-1569253.html
  138. ^ The Jewish Agency For Israel: Mag-Net[dead link]
  139. ^ Chernenko, Miron. "Romm, Mikhail Il’ich." YIVO Encyclopedia of Jews in Eastern Europe 19 November 2010. <http://www.yivoencyclopedia.org/article.aspx/Romm_Mikhail_Ilich>. Accessed 4 July 2012.
  140. ^ "JEWISHERITAGE Peinture". Jewisheritage.blogspot.com. 2004-02-26. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  141. ^ Murray-Brown, Jeremy. "Esfir Il’inishna Shub." Jewish Women: A Comprehensive Historical Encyclopedia. 1 March 2009. Jewish Women's Archive.<http://jwa.org/encyclopedia/article/shub-esfir>. Accessed June 23, 2012.
  142. ^ Chernenko, Miron. "Trauberg, Leonid Zakharovich." YIVO Encyclopedia of Jews in Eastern Europe 28 October 2010.<http://www.yivoencyclopedia.org/article.aspx/Trauberg_Leonid_Zakharovich>. Accessed 4 July 2012.
  143. ^ Hoberman, J. "Vertov, Dziga." YIVO Encyclopedia of Jews in Eastern Europe 2 November 2010. <http://www.yivoencyclopedia.org/article.aspx/Vertov_Dziga>. Accessed 4 July 2012.
  144. ^ Solomon Volkov and Antonina Bouis, St. Petersburg: A Cultural History (Simon and Schuster, 1997) p. 454.
  145. ^ John F. Canu. "ART / 4 / 2DAY". Safran-arts.com. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  146. ^ "Russian Jewish Encyclopedia". Jewishgen.org. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  147. ^ ru:Владимир Гальперин
  148. ^ a b c d e f g h "Russian Jewish Encyclopedia". Jewishgen.org. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  149. ^ a b "Russian Jewish Encyclopedia". Jewishgen.org. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  150. ^ "Russian Jewish Encyclopedia". Jewishgen.org. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  151. ^ "Shaul Tchernichovsky was born in Mikhailovka, Russia, and grew up in a religious home that was open to the ideas of the Enlightenment and Zionism. He attended a modern Hebrew school, where he studied mainly Hebrew and Bible, and at ten entered a Russian school.". Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  152. ^ a b "Russian Jewish Encyclopedia". Jewishgen.org. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  153. ^ a b c d e f g "Russian Jewish Encyclopedia". Jewishgen.org. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  154. ^ a b c d e "Russian Jewish Encyclopedia". Jewishgen.org. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  155. ^ a b c d e "Russian Jewish Encyclopedia". Jewishgen.org. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  156. ^ Gray, Geoffrey (December 27, 2003). "Jewish Boxers Are Looking to Make a Comeback". The New York Times. Retrieved May 25, 2010. 
  157. ^ "The 18th Maccabiah–Maccabiah Chai". JCC. Retrieved June 3, 2010. 
  158. ^ Johanna Ginsberg (June 9, 2005). "Oksana Baiul, figure skating champion, embraces Jewish roots". New Jersey Jewish News. Retrieved July 2, 2011. 
  159. ^ Elfman, Lois (December 8, 2004). "Jewish Ice Skaters". The Jewish Ledger. Retrieved July 1, 2010. 
  160. ^ David Pollack (February 8, 2002). "America's Hottest Jewish Olympic Hopefuls Are To Be Found on the Ice". The Forward. Retrieved July 1, 2010. 
  161. ^ Beverley Smith, Dan Diamond (1997). A Year in Figure Skating. McClelland & Stewart. ISBN 0-7710-2755-9. Retrieved July 1, 2010. 
  162. ^ Nate Bloom (February 16, 2006). "The Tribe goes to Torino: Sketches of Jewish Olympic-Bound Athletes". JWR. Retrieved July 1, 2010. 
  163. ^ Lionel Gaffen and Joe Eskenazi (February 9, 2006). "Jewish athletes in the Olympics—then and now". j. Retrieved July 1, 2010. 
  164. ^ Roiphe, Anne (July 13, 2009). "Maccabiah opens with fanfare in Ramat Gan". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved July 2, 2011. 
  165. ^ "Jews in Sports: Hockey". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved May 25, 2010. 
  166. ^ a b Jews and the Olympic Games: the ... - Paul Taylor - Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  167. ^ Jews and the Olympic Games: the ... - Paul Taylor - Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  168. ^ a b "19-year-old Jewish Prodigy Bound for the NRL". Bulldogs Rugby League Club. May 9, 2007. Retrieved September 28, 2010. 
  169. ^ a b c d "YIVO | Sport: Jews in Sport in the USSR". Yivoencyclopedia.org. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  170. ^ Peshkhatzki, Motti (June 9, 2006). "דינמו קייב לבית"ר: 220 אלף דולר על אנדריי אוברמקו" (in Hebrew). Retrieved July 6, 2008. 
  171. ^ "Pooling their Talent", Joel Gordin, The Jerusalem Post, July 2, 1993, Retrieved January 1, 2011
  172. ^ "Jews in Sports: Table Tennis". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved May 25, 2010. 
  173. ^ "Jews in Sports: Track & Field". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved May 25, 2010. 
  174. ^ Jews and the Olympic Games: the ... - Paul Taylor - Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  175. ^ Jews and the Olympic Games: the ... - Paul Taylor - Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  176. ^ Jews and the Olympic Games: the ... - Paul Taylor - Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  177. ^ Jews and the Olympic Games: the ... - Paul Taylor - Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  178. ^ Jews and the Olympic Games: the ... - Paul Taylor - Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  179. ^ Jews and the Olympic Games: the ... - Paul Taylor - Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  180. ^ Jews and the Olympic Games: the ... - Paul Taylor - Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  181. ^ Jews and the Olympic Games: the ... - Paul Taylor - Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  182. ^ "yivoencyclopedia.org". yivoencyclopedia.org. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 

External links[edit]