List of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
The Roberts Court, 2010
Back row (left to right): Sonia Sotomayor, Stephen G. Breyer, Samuel A. Alito, and Elena Kagan. Front row (left to right): Clarence Thomas, Antonin Scalia, Chief Justice John G. Roberts, Anthony Kennedy, and Ruth Bader Ginsburg

The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States. Its membership consists of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight associate justices. The justices are nominated by the President of the United States and appointed after confirmation by the United States Senate. Justices of the Supreme Court have life tenure[1] and receive a salary which is set at $223,500 per year for the chief justice and at $213,900 per year for each associate justice.[2][3] On August 7, 2010, Justice Elena Kagan became the 112th justice to serve on the Court.[4]

The Supreme Court was created in 1789 by Article III of the United States Constitution, which stipulates that the "judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court" together with any lower courts Congress may establish.[1] Congress organized the Court that year with the passage of the Judiciary Act of 1789. It specified the Court's original and appellate jurisdiction, created thirteen judicial districts, and fixed the number of justices at six (one chief justice and five associate justices).[5][6]

Since the passage of the Judiciary Act, Congress has occasionally altered the size of the Supreme Court, historically in response to the country's own expansion in size. Membership was decreased in 1801 to five, then increased to seven members in 1807, to nine in 1837, and to ten in 1863. It was then reduced to seven in 1866. In 1869, Congress set the Court's size to nine members, where it has remained since.[7] While the justices of the Supreme Court are appointed for life, some choose to leave the Court before their death: a total of 54 have retired or resigned. The average age of newly appointed justices is about 53 years old. Historically, the average length of service on the Court has been less than 15 years; however, since 1970 the average length of service has increased to about 26 years.[8]

List of justices[edit]

The following lists all justices aside from Edwin Stanton, who died before taking office.

Legend

  † Chief justice 
* Recess appointment
  Currently serving justice 

# Judge State Born/Died Active service Chief Justice Retirement Appointed by Reason for
termination
1 Wilson, JamesJames Wilson PA 174209141742–1798 178910051789–1798
(9 years)
Washington Death
2 Jay, JohnJohn Jay NY 174512121745–1829 178909261789–1795
(6 years)
178909261789–1795 Washington Resignation
3 Cushing, WilliamWilliam Cushing MA 173203011732–1810 179002021789–1810
(21 years)
Washington Death
4 Blair, JohnJohn Blair, Jr. VA 17320000<1732–1800 179002021789–1795
(6 years)
Washington Resignation
5 Rutledge, JohnJohn Rutledge SC 173909181739–1800 179002151789–1791
(2 years)
Washington Resignation[n 1]
6 Iredell, JamesJames Iredell NC 175110051751–1799 179005121790–1799
(9 years)
Washington Death
7 Johnson, ThomasThomas Johnson* MD 173211041732–1819 179208061792–1793
(1 years)
Washington Resignation
8 Paterson, WilliamWilliam Paterson NJ 174512241745–1806 179303111793–1806
(13 years)
Washington Death
5 Rutledge, JohnJohn Rutledge*† SC 173909181739–1800 179506301795–1795
(0 years)
179512281795 Washington Rejection
9 Chase, SamuelSamuel Chase MD 174104171741–1811 179602041796–1811
(15 years)
Washington Death
10 Ellsworth, OliverOliver Ellsworth CT 174504291745–1807 179603081796–1800
(4 years)
179603081796–1800 Washington Resignation
11 Washington, BushrodBushrod Washington VA 176206051762–1829 179902041798–1829
(31 years)
Adams, J. Death
12 Moore, AlfredAlfred Moore NC 175505211755–1810 180004211800–1804
(4 years)
Adams, J. Resignation
13 Marshall, JohnJohn Marshall VA 175509241755–1835 180102041801–1835
(34 years)
180102041801–1835 Adams, J. Death
14 Johnson, WilliamWilliam Johnson SC 177112271771–1834 180405071804–1834
(30 years)
Jefferson Death
15 Livingston, Henry BrockholstHenry Brockholst Livingston NY 175711251757–1823 180701201807–1823
(16 years)
Jefferson Death
16 Todd, ThomasThomas Todd KY 176501231765–1826 180705041807–1826
(19 years)
Jefferson Death
17 Duvall, GabrielGabriel Duvall MD 175212061752–1844 181111231811–1835
(24 years)
Madison Resignation
18 Story, JosephJoseph Story MA 177909181779–1845 181202031812–1845
(33 years)
Madison Death
19 Thompson, SmithSmith Thompson* NY 176801171768–1843 182309011823–1843
(20 years)
Monroe Death
20 Trimble, RobertRobert Trimble KY 177611171776–1828 182606161826–1828
(2 years)
Adams, J. Q. Death
21 McLean, JohnJohn McLean OH 178503111785–1861 183001111830–1861
(31 years)
Jackson Death
22 Baldwin, HenryHenry Baldwin PA 178001141780–1844 183001181830–1844
(14 years)
Jackson Death
23 Wayne, James MooreJames Moore Wayne GA 17900000<1790–1867 183501141835–1867
(32 years)
Jackson Death
24 Taney, Roger B.Roger B. Taney MD 177703171777–1864 183603281836–1864
(28 years)
183603281836–1864 Jackson Death
25 Barbour, Philip PendletonPhilip Pendleton Barbour VA 178305251783–1841 183605121836–1841
(5 years)
Jackson Death
26 Catron, JohnJohn Catron TN 17860000<1786–1865 183705011837–1865
(28 years)
Jackson Death
27 McKinley, JohnJohn McKinley AL 178005011780–1852 183801091837–1852
(15 years)
Van Buren Death
28 Daniel, Peter VivianPeter Vivian Daniel VA 178404241784–1860 184201101842–1860
(18 years)
Van Buren Death
29 Nelson, SamuelSamuel Nelson NY 179211101792–1873 184502271845–1872
(27 years)
Tyler Retirement
30 Woodbury, LeviLevi Woodbury* NH 178912221789–1851 184509231845–1851
(6 years)
Polk Death
31 Grier, Robert CooperRobert Cooper Grier PA 179403051794–1870 184608101846–1870
(24 years)
Polk Retirement
32 Curtis, Benjamin RobbinsBenjamin Robbins Curtis* MA 180911041809–1874 185110101851–1857
(6 years)
Fillmore Resignation
33 Campbell, John ArchibaldJohn Archibald Campbell AL 181106241811–1889 185304111853–1861
(8 years)
Pierce Resignation
34 Clifford, NathanNathan Clifford ME 180308181803–1881 185801211858–1881
(23 years)
Buchanan Death
35 Swayne, Noah HaynesNoah Haynes Swayne OH 180412071804–1884 186201271862–1881
(19 years)
Lincoln Retirement
36 Miller, Samuel FreemanSamuel Freeman Miller IA 181604051816–1890 186207211862–1890
(28 years)
Lincoln Death
37 Davis, DavidDavid Davis* IL 181503091815–1886 186212101862–1877
(15 years)
Lincoln Resignation
38 Field, Stephen JohnsonStephen Johnson Field CA 181611041816–1899 186305201863–1897
(34 years)
Lincoln Retirement
39 Chase, Salmon P.Salmon P. Chase OH 180801131808–1873 186412151864–1873
(9 years)
186412151864–1873 Lincoln Death
40 Strong, WilliamWilliam Strong PA 180805061808–1895 187003141870–1880
(10 years)
Grant Retirement
41 Bradley, Joseph PhiloJoseph P. Bradley NJ 181303141813–1892 187003231870–1892
(22 years)
Grant Death
42 Hunt, WardWard Hunt NY 181006141810–1886 187301091873–1882
(9 years)
Grant Retirement
43 Waite, MorrisonMorrison Waite OH 181611291816–1888 187403041874–1888
(14 years)
187403041874–1888 Grant Death
44 Harlan, John MarshallJohn Marshall Harlan KY 183306011833–1911 187712101877–1911
(34 years)
Hayes Death
45 Woods, William BurnhamWilliam Burnham Woods AL 182408031824–1887 188101051881–1887
(6 years)
Hayes Death
46 Matthews, StanleyStanley Matthews OH 182407211824–1889 188105171881–1889
(8 years)
Garfield Death
47 Gray, HoraceHorace Gray MA 182803241828–1902 188201091882–1902
(20 years)
Arthur Death
48 Blatchford, SamuelSamuel Blatchford NY 182003091820–1893 188204031882–1893
(11 years)
Arthur Death
49 Lamar, Lucius Quintus CincinnatusLucius Quintus
Cincinnatus Lamar
MS 182509171825–1893 188801181888–1893
(5 years)
Cleveland Death
50 Fuller, MelvilleMelville Fuller IL 183302111833–1910 188810081888–1910
(22 years)
188810081888–1910 Cleveland Death
51 Brewer, David JosiahDavid Josiah Brewer KS 183706201837–1910 189001061890–1910
(20 years)
Harrison, B. Death
52 Brown, Henry BillingsHenry Billings Brown MI 183603021836–1913 189101051891–1906
(15 years)
Harrison, B. Retirement
53 Shiras, George Jr.George Shiras, Jr. PA 183201261832–1924 189210101892–1903
(11 years)
Harrison, B. Retirement
54 Jackson, Howell EdmundsHowell Edmunds Jackson TN 183204081832–1895 189303041893–1895
(2 years)
Harrison, B. Death
55 White, Edward DouglassEdward Douglass White LA 184511031845–1921 189403121894–1921
(27 years)
191012121910–1921 Cleveland (associate)
Taft (chief)[n 2]
Death
56 Peckham, Rufus WheelerRufus Wheeler Peckham NY 183811081838–1909 189601061896–1909
(13 years)
Cleveland Death
57 McKenna, JosephJoseph McKenna CA 184308101843–1926 189801261898–1925
(27 years)
1921 (acting)[n 3] McKinley Retirement
58 Holmes, Oliver Wendell Jr.Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. MA 184103081841–1935 190212081902–1932
(30 years)
1930 (acting)[n 4] Roosevelt, T. Retirement
59 Day, William R.William R. Day OH 184904071849–1923 190303021903–1922
(19 years)
Roosevelt, T. Retirement
60 Moody, William HenryWilliam Henry Moody MA 185312231853–1917 190612171906–1910
(4 years)
Roosevelt, T. Retirement[n 5]
61 Lurton, Horace HarmonHorace Harmon Lurton TN 184402261844–1914 191001031910–1914
(4 years)
Taft Death
62 Hughes, Charles EvansCharles Evans Hughes NY 186204111862–1948 191010101910–1916
(6 years)
Taft Resignation[n 1]
63 Van Devanter, WillisWillis Van Devanter WY 185904171859–1941 191101031911–1937
(26 years)
193706021937–1941
(4 years)
Taft Retirement
64 Lamar, Joseph RuckerJoseph Rucker Lamar GA 185710141857–1916 191101031911–1916
(5 years)
Taft Death
65 Pitney, MahlonMahlon Pitney NJ 185802051858–1924 191203181912–1922
(10 years)
Taft Resignation
66 McReynolds, James ClarkJames Clark McReynolds TN 186202031862–1946 191410121914–1941
(27 years)
194101311941–1946
(5 years)
Wilson Retirement[n 6]
67 Brandeis, Louis DembitzLouis Brandeis MA 185611131856–1941 191606051916–1939
(23 years)
193902131939–1941
(2 years)
Wilson Retirement[n 6]
68 Clarke, John HessinJohn Hessin Clarke OH 185709181857–1945 191610091916–1922
(6 years)
Wilson Resignation
69 Taft, William HowardWilliam Howard Taft OH 185709151857–1930 192107111921–1930
(9 years)
192107111921–1930 Harding Resignation[n 7]
70 Sutherland, GeorgeGeorge Sutherland UT 186203251862–1942 192210021922–1938
(16 years)
193801171938–1942
(4 years)
Harding Retirement[n 6]
71 Butler, PiercePierce Butler MN 186603171866–1939 192301021923–1939
(16 years)
Harding Death
72 Sanford, Edward TerryEdward Terry Sanford TN 186507231865–1930 192302191923–1930
(7 years)
Harding Death
73 Stone, Harlan F.Harlan F. Stone NY 187210111872–1946 192503021925–1946
(21 years)
194107031941–1946[n 8] Coolidge (associate)
Roosevelt, F. (chief)[n 2]
Death
62 Hughes, Charles EvansCharles Evans Hughes NY 186204111862–1948 193002241930–1941
(11 years)
193002241930–1941 Hoover Retirement
74 Roberts, Owen Owen Roberts PA 187505021875–1955 193006021930–1945
(15 years)
Hoover Resignation
75 Cardozo, Benjamin N.Benjamin N. Cardozo NY 187005241870–1938 193203141932–1938
(6 years)
Hoover Death
76 Black, HugoHugo Black AL 188602271886–1971 193708191937–1971
(34 years)
1946 (acting)
1953 (acting)[n 9][n 10]
197109171971–1971
(0 years)
Roosevelt, F. Retirement[n 6]
77 Reed, Stanley FormanStanley Forman Reed KY 188412311884–1980 193801311938–1957
(19 years)
195702251957–1980
(23 years)
Roosevelt, F. Retirement[n 6]
78 Frankfurter, FelixFelix Frankfurter MA 188211151882–1965 193901301939–1962
(23 years)
196208281962–1965
(3 years)
Roosevelt, F. Retirement[n 6]
79 Douglas, William O.William O. Douglas CT 189810161898–1980 193904171939–1975
(36 years)
197511121975–1980
(5 years)
Roosevelt, F. Retirement[n 6]
80 Murphy, FrankFrank Murphy MI 189004131890–1949 194002051940–1949
(9 years)
Roosevelt, F. Death
81 Byrnes, James F.James F. Byrnes SC 187905021882–1972 194107081941–1942
(1 years)
Roosevelt, F. Resignation
82 Jackson, Robert H.Robert H. Jackson NY 189202131892–1954 194107111941–1954
(13 years)
Roosevelt, F. Death
83 Rutledge, Wiley BlountWiley Blount Rutledge IA 189407201894–1949 194302151943–1949
(6 years)
Roosevelt, F. Death
84 Burton, Harold HitzHarold Hitz Burton OH 188806221888–1964 194510011945–1958
(13 years)
195810131958–1964
(6 years)
Truman Retirement[n 6]
85 Vinson, Fred M.Fred M. Vinson KY 189001221890–1953 194606241946–1953
(7 years)
194606241946–1953 Truman Death
86 Clark, Tom C.Tom C. Clark TX 189909231899–1977 194908241949–1967
(18 years)
196706121967–1977
(10 years)
Truman Retirement[n 6]
87 Minton, ShermanSherman Minton IN 189010201890–1965 194910121949–1956
(7 years)
195610151956–1965
(9 years)
Truman Retirement[n 6]
88 Warren, EarlEarl Warren*† CA 189103191891–1974 195310051953–1969
(16 years)
195310051953–1969 196906231969–1974
(5 years)
Eisenhower Retirement[n 6]
89 Harlan, John Marshall IIJohn Marshall Harlan II NY 189905201899–1971 195503281955–1971
(16 years)
197109231971–1971
(0 years)
Eisenhower Retirement[n 6]
90 Brennan, William J.William J. Brennan, Jr.* NJ 190604251906–1997 195610161956–1990
(34 years)
199007201990–1997
(7 years)
Eisenhower Retirement[n 6]
91 Whittaker, Charles EvansCharles Evans Whittaker MO 190102221901–1973 195703251957–1962
(5 years)
196203311962–1965
(3 years)
Eisenhower Resignation
92 Stewart, PotterPotter Stewart* OH 191501231915–1985 195810141958–1981
(23 years)
198107031981–1985
(4 years)
Eisenhower Retirement
93 White, ByronByron White CO 191706081917–2002 196204161962–1993
(31 years)
199306281993–2002
(9 years)
Kennedy Retirement[n 6]
94 Goldberg, ArthurArthur Goldberg IL 190808081908–1990 196210011962–1965
(3 years)
Kennedy Resignation
95 Fortas, AbeAbe Fortas TN 191006191910–1982 196510041965–1969
(4 years)
Johnson, L. Resignation
96 Marshall, ThurgoodThurgood Marshall NY 190807021908–1993 196710021967–1991
(24 years)
199110011991–1993
(2 years)
Johnson, L. Retirement[n 6]
97 Burger, Warren E.Warren E. Burger VA 190709171907–1995 196906231969–1986
(17 years)
196906231969–1986 198609261986–1995
(9 years)
Nixon Retirement[n 6]
98 Blackmun, HarryHarry Blackmun MN 190811121908–1999 197006091970–1994
(24 years)
199408031994–1999
(5 years)
Nixon Retirement[n 6]
99 Powell, Lewis F.Lewis F. Powell, Jr. VA 190709191907–1998 197201071972–1987
(15 years)
198706261987–1998
(11 years)
Nixon Retirement[n 6]
100 Rehnquist, WilliamWilliam Rehnquist AZ
VA[n 11]
192410011924–2005 197201071972–2005
(33 years)
198609261986–2005 Nixon (associate)
Reagan (chief)[n 2]
Death
101 Stevens, John PaulJohn Paul Stevens IL 192004201920– 197512191975–2010
(35 years)
2005 (acting)[n 12] 201060292010–present
(4 years)
Ford Retirement
102 O'Connor, Sandra DaySandra Day O'Connor AZ 193003261930– 198109251981–2006
(25 years)
200601312006–present
(8 years)
Reagan Retirement
103 Scalia, AntoninAntonin Scalia VA 193603111936– 198609261986–present
(28 years)
Reagan Currently serving
104 Kennedy, AnthonyAnthony Kennedy CA 193607231936– 198802181988–present
(26 years)
Reagan Currently serving
105 Souter, DavidDavid Souter NH 193909171939– 199010091990–2009
(19 years)
200906292009–present
(5 years)
Bush, G. H. W. Retirement
106 Thomas, ClarenceClarence Thomas GA 194806231948– 199110231991–present
(23 years)
Bush, G. H. W. Currently serving
107 Ginsburg, RuthRuth Bader Ginsburg NY 193303151933– 199308101993–present
(21 years)
Clinton Currently serving
108 Breyer, StephenStephen Breyer MA 193808151938– 199408031994–present
(20 years)
Clinton Currently serving
109 Roberts, John G.John G. Roberts MD 195501271955– 200509292005–present
(9 years)
200509292005–present Bush, G. W. Currently serving
110 Alito, SamuelSamuel Alito NJ 195004011950– 200601312006–present
(8 years)
Bush, G. W. Currently serving
111 Sotomayor, SoniaSonia Sotomayor NY 195406251954– 200908082009–present
(5 years)
Obama Currently serving
112 Kagan, ElenaElena Kagan MA 196004281960– 201008052010–present
(4 years)
Obama Currently serving

Graphic timeline[edit]

The graphic below is a timeline depicting the progression of the justices in the United States Supreme Court. Information regarding their seat number, predecessors, successors and fellow justices, as well as their tenure on the court can be gleaned from the timeline. Additionally, the progression of presidents (with the number of justices they nominated) is shown at the top of the timeline to give a more detailed historical context. Three presidents (Taft, F. Roosevelt, Reagan), in addition to successfully nominating several justices to the court, elevated an associate justice to chief justice. These elevations are counted as nominations, and are designated with a caret (^). Several justices began their terms on the bench after the inauguration of a new president.

This graphical representation of the progression of the High Court allows some otherwise obscure information to be easily noted. For example, Joseph Story (in the early 19th century) and Stephen Breyer (in the late 20th and early 21st centuries) are each noteworthy for serving over 11 years as the court's most junior member. Samuel Blatchford (in the 1880s) served the third longest as the court's most junior member at less than 6 years. Thomas Johnson (1790s), Robert Trimble (1820s) and Arthur Goldberg (1960s) are the only justices to leave the court while still being the court's most junior member. William Rehnquist is unique in that he is the only justice to witness all of his more senior justices leave the court, without witnessing any of his more junior justices leave the court. Hugo Black, in addition to witnessing all eight of his predecessors leave the court, saw fourteen more junior members replaced on the court, meaning he worked beside a record thirty justices.

Elena Kagan Sonia Sotomayor Samuel Alito John G. Roberts Stephen Breyer Ruth Bader Ginsburg Clarence Thomas David Souter Anthony Kennedy Antonin Scalia Sandra Day O'Connor John Paul Stevens William Rehnquist Lewis F. Powell, Jr. Harry Blackmun Warren E. Burger Thurgood Marshall Abe Fortas Arthur Goldberg Byron White Potter Stewart Charles Evans Whittaker William J. Brennan, Jr. John Marshall Harlan II Earl Warren Sherman Minton Tom C. Clark Fred M. Vinson Harold Hitz Burton Wiley Blount Rutledge Robert H. Jackson James F. Byrnes Frank Murphy William O. Douglas Felix Frankfurter Stanley Forman Reed Hugo Black Benjamin N. Cardozo Owen Josephus Roberts Harlan Fiske Stone Edward Terry Sanford Pierce Butler (justice) George Sutherland William Howard Taft John Hessin Clarke Louis Brandeis James Clark McReynolds Mahlon Pitney Joseph Rucker Lamar Willis Van Devanter Charles Evans Hughes Horace Harmon Lurton William Henry Moody William R. Day Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. Joseph McKenna Rufus Wheeler Peckham Edward Douglass White Howell Edmunds Jackson George Shiras, Jr. Henry Billings Brown David Josiah Brewer Melville Weston Fuller Lucius Q. C. Lamar Samuel Blatchford Horace Gray Thomas Stanley Matthews William Burnham Woods John Marshall Harlan Morrison Remick Waite Ward Hunt Joseph Philo Bradley William Strong Salmon Portland Chase Stephen Johnson Field David Davis Samuel Freeman Miller Noah Haynes Swayne Nathan Clifford John Archibald Campbell Benjamin Robbins Curtis Robert Cooper Grier Levi Woodbury Samuel Nelson Peter Vivian Daniel John McKinley John Catron Philip Pendleton Barbour Roger Brooke Taney James Moore Wayne Henry Baldwin John McLean Robert Trimble Smith Thompson Joseph Story Gabriel Duvall Thomas Todd Henry Brockholst Livingston William Johnson (judge) John Marshall Alfred Moore Bushrod Washington Oliver Ellsworth Samuel Chase William Paterson (judge) Thomas Johnson (governor) James Iredell John Rutledge John Blair William Cushing John Jay (American statesman) James Wilson

See also[edit]

Supreme Court of the United States
Other

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Was later reappointed as chief justice
  2. ^ a b c This individual was elevated from associate justice to chief justice. Unlike the inferior courts, the chief justice is separately nominated and subject to a separate confirmation process, regardless of whether or not he or she is already an associate justice.
  3. ^ Under 36 Stat. 1152, McKenna acted as chief justice from White's death on May 19, 1921 until Taft took office on July 11, 1921.
  4. ^ Under 36 Stat. 1152, Holmes acted as chief justice from Taft's departure on February 3, 1930 until Hughes took office on February 24, 1930.
  5. ^ There is some disagreement on how Moody exited office. According to the Federal Judicial Center, Moody resigned. According to the Supreme Court Historical Society, Moody retired. It turns out that the confusion comes from the fact that Moody was allowed to retire by special act of Congress in 1910 due to prolonged ill health. (Moody did not meet the minimum age and service requirements to retire without this waiver.)
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Beginning in the 20th century, many justices who left the Court voluntarily did so by retiring as Supreme Court justices without leaving the federal judiciary altogether. Some databases refer to this as an election by the justice of senior status, although the term "senior status" is used almost exclusively with regard to judges of lower federal courts, not the Supreme Court. A "retired justice", as the status is referred to in the United States Code, is no longer a member of the Supreme Court of the United States, but remains eligible to serve by designation as a judge of a U.S. Court of Appeals or District Court (and many retired justices have indeed served in these capacities). However, because the justice ceases to be a member of the Supreme Court as of the moment of retirement, the reason for these justices' leaving the Supreme Court is given as "retirement", although the reason for the justice's later leaving the federal judiciary altogether might be a subsequent act of (full) retirement or the justice's death.
  7. ^ There is some disagreement on how William Howard Taft exited office. According to some sources, such as the Supreme Court Historical Society, Taft retired. According to others, such as the Federal Judicial Center, Taft resigned.
  8. ^ Under 36 Stat. 1152, Stone acted as chief justice from Hughes's retirement on June 30, 1941 until Stone took the oath of office as chief justice three days later.
  9. ^ Under 36 Stat. 1152, Black acted as chief justice from Stone's death on April 22, 1946 until Vinson took office on June 24, 1946.
  10. ^ Under 62 Stat. 869, Black acted as chief justice from Vinson's death on September 8, 1953, until Warren took office on October 5, 1953. The Supreme Court was not in session during this brief period.
  11. ^ In 1971, Rehnquist was appointed from Arizona,[9] but in 1986, when elevated to chief justice, he was appointed from Virginia.[10]
  12. ^ Under 28 U.S.C. § 3, Stevens acted as chief justice from Rehnquist's death on September 3, 2005 until Roberts took office on September 29, 2005. The Supreme Court was not in session during this brief period.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Article III". Cornell University Law School. Retrieved February 17, 2010. 
  2. ^ Mears, Bill (January 1, 2010). "Chief Justice Roberts has little to say at year's end". CNN. Retrieved February 17, 2010. 
  3. ^ Barnes, Robert (January 1, 2010). "Supreme Court Chief Justice Roberts opts not to ask Congress to raise judicial salaries". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 17, 2010. 
  4. ^ "Elena Kagan sworn in by Roberts to become 112th Supreme Court Justice". Los Angeles Times. August 7, 2010. Retrieved August 7, 2010. 
  5. ^ "About The Supreme Court". Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts. Retrieved February 17, 2010. 
  6. ^ "Supreme Court Research Guide". Georgetown Law Library. Retrieved February 17, 2010. 
  7. ^ Smith, Jean Edward (July 26, 2007). "Stacking the Court". The New York Times. Retrieved February 17, 2010. 
  8. ^ Rosen, Jeffrey (February 26, 2008). "Dems' Choices For Bench Surprisingly Slim". CBS News. Retrieved February 17, 2010. 
  9. ^ United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on the Judiciary (1971). Nominations of William H. Rehnquist and Lewis F. Powell, Jr: Hearings, Ninety-second Congress, first session, on nominations of William H. Rehnquist, of Arizona, and Lewis F. Powell, Jr., of Virginia, to be Associate Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States. U.S. Govt. Print. Off. 
  10. ^ "Executive Session". Congressional Record. September 17, 1986. p. 23803.