List of Khitan inscriptions

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Bronze mirror from Korea with a Khitan small script inscription comprising 28 characters.

The list of Khitan inscriptions comprises a list of the corpus of known inscriptions written in the Khitan large script and the Khitan small script. These two scripts were used by the Khitan people in northern China during the 10th through 12th centuries for writing the extinct Khitan language. The Khitan language was in use during the Liao Dynasty (907–1125), the Kara-Khitan Khanate (1124–1218) and the Jin Dynasty (1115–1234), but the last recorded Khitan speaker, Yelü Chucai, died in 1243, and the language probably became extinct soon afterwards.[1]

There are no surviving examples of printed texts in the Khitan language, and aside from five example Khitan large characters with Chinese glosses in a book on calligraphy, Shūshǐ huìyào 書史會要, written by Tao Zongyi (陶宗儀) in the mid 14th century, there are no Chinese glossaries or dictionaries of Khitan.[2] The Khitan language is therefore little understood, and the two Khitan writing systems are only partially deciphered.[3]

The main source of Khitan texts are monumental inscriptions, mostly comprising memorial tablets buried in the tombs of Khitan nobility.[4] Only one monument in a Khitan script was known before the 20th century, the Record of the Younger Brother of the Emperor of the Great Jin Dynasty (Langjun xingji 郎君行記), which has stood in front of the tomb of Empress Wu of Tang since at least 1618. Until the 1920s it was believed to be written in the Jurchen script. Only after the discovery of the memorial tablets of Emperor Xingzong of Liao and his consort was it realized that the Record of the Younger Brother of the Emperor and the Liao-dynasty memorial tablets were both written in a Khitan script.[5] Several more memorial tablets in the same script were discovered during the 1930s, including memorials for Emperor Daozong of Liao and his consort. Initially it was not clear whether the script inscribed on these memorial tablets was the Khitan large script, recorded to have been devised in 920, or the Khitan small script, recorded to have been devised about 925. A different, unknown script, which appeared more similar to Chinese (incorporating many characters borrowed directly from Chinese), had been discovered on a temple monument in 1935, as well as on a memorial to Xiao Xiaozhong in 1951; and in 1962 Jin Guangping suggested that these two monuments were written using the Khitan large script, and that the Record of the Younger Brother of the Emperor and the imperial memorial tablets were written using the Khitan small script.[6] This identification of the two Khitan scripts is now widely accepted.

Detail of Khitan small script on the epitaph of Yelü Dilie (1026-1092).

There are about 15 known monuments with inscriptions in the Khitan large script, ranging in date from 986 to 1176, and about 40 known monuments with inscriptions in the Khitan small script, ranging in date from 1053 to 1171.[7] The two scripts are mutually exclusive (never occurring together on the same monument), but it is not known why the Khitan people used two different scripts, or what determined the choice of which script to use.

In addition to monumental inscriptions, short inscriptions in both Khitan scripts have also been found on tomb murals and rock paintings, and on various portable artefacts such as mirrors, amulets, paiza (tablets of authority given to officials and envoys), and special non-circulation coins. A number of bronze official seals with the seal face inscribed in the Khitan large script are also known. The Khitan characters on these seals are engraved in a convoluted calligraphic style that imitates the Chinese "nine-fold" seal script style of calligraphy.

Monumental inscriptions in the Khitan large script[edit]

Monument Date Place of discovery Year of discovery Current Location Description
Commemoration of a battle victory by Hutenu (Yelü Zhaosan 耶律趙三) 1084 Salbar Mountains, Mörön, Khentii Province
Mongolia
47°24′N 110°18′E / 47.40°N 110.30°E / 47.40; 110.30 (Commemoration of a battle victory by Hutenu)
1950s In situ 4 lines, 25 characters.[8]
Inscribed sarcophagous Gengzhangzi Village, Jianchang County
Liaoning
40°46′N 119°49′E / 40.76°N 119.82°E / 40.76; 119.82 (Inscribed sarcophagous)
1977 Jianchang County Museum 8 lines, 19 characters (badly damaged as the sarcophagous was cut into three pieces).[9]
Memorial at Jing'an Temple (靜安寺) erected by the Lady of Lanling Commandery (蘭陵郡夫人), the wife of Yelü Changyun 1072 Ruins of Jing'an Temple, Ningcheng County
Inner Mongolia
42°05′13″N 119°06′29″E / 42.087°N 119.108°E / 42.087; 119.108 (Jing'an Temple memorial inscription)
1935 Liao Zhongjing Museum 40 lines, 70 characters (very worn, and almost illegible).[10][7]
Epitaph for an unknown person 1056 Unknown (only known from a photograph of a rubbing shown to Liu Fengzhu) before 1997 Unknown 27 lines.[11]
Epitaph for Court Attendant Dorlipun 多羅里本郎君 (1037–1080) 1081 Unknown 1999 Ar Horqin Banner Museum 21 lines, 800 characters.[12][7]
Epitaph for Court Attendant Li Ai 李爱郎君[note 1] 1176 Unknown (only known from a rubbing) before 1985 Unknown 16 lines, 470 characters.[14]
Epitaph for the Grand Preceptor (太師) 1056 Unknown (only known from a rubbing) before 1939 Unknown 40 lines, 1,800 characters.[15][16]
Epitaph for the Grand Prince of the North 北大王 (Yelü Wanxin 耶律萬辛, 972–1041) 1041 Kundu Township, Ar Horqin Banner
Inner Mongolia
43°50′N 121°07′E / 43.83°N 121.12°E / 43.83; 121.12 (Epitaph for the Prince of the North)
1975 Ar Horqin Banner Museum 27 lines, 783 characters.[15][17][7]
Epitaph for the Princess of Yongning Commandery 永寧郡公主 (1033–1091) 1092 Wangjiagou Village, Bairin Left Banner
Inner Mongolia
44°04′12″N 119°28′30″E / 44.07°N 119.475°E / 44.07; 119.475 (Epitaph for the Princess of Yongning)
2000 Liao Shangjing Museum 36 lines, 1,486 characters.[11][7]
Epitaph for Xiao Paolu 蕭袍魯 (1018–1089) 1090 Qianshan Village, Faku County
Liaoning
42°35′N 123°34′E / 42.58°N 123.56°E / 42.58; 123.56 (Epitaph for Xiao Paolu)
1965 Liaoning Provincial Museum 15 lines, 323 characters.[11]
Epitaph for Xiao Xiaozhong 蕭孝忠 (d.1089) 1089 Xigu Mountain, Huludao,
Liaoning
40°53′46″N 120°29′53″E / 40.896°N 120.498°E / 40.896; 120.498 (Epitaph for Xiao Xiaozhong)
1951 Liaoning Provincial Museum 18 lines, 540 characters.[15][18]
Epitaph for Yelü Changyun 耶律昌允 (1000–1061) 1062 Ta Mountain, Yuanbaoshan District
Inner Mongolia
42°05′N 119°06′E / 42.09°N 119.10°E / 42.09; 119.10 (Epitaph for Yelu Changyun)
2000 Chifeng City Yuanbaoshan District Office of Cultural Relics 30 lines, 878 characters.[11][7]
Epitaph for Yelü Qi 耶律褀 or Yelü Asi 耶律阿思 (1033–1108) 1108 Tsogt Mountain, Guriban Hushu Gacha, Ar Horqin Banner
Inner Mongolia
44°27′N 120°10′E / 44.45°N 120.17°E / 44.45; 120.17 (Epitaph for Yelü Qi)
1993 Institute of Cultural and Historical Relics and Archaeology of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous region 46 lines, 2,845 characters.[11][7]
Epitaph for Yelü Xinie 耶律習涅 (1063–1114) 1114 Xiaohan Mountain, Bairin Left Banner
Inner Mongolia
44°36′N 119°21′E / 44.60°N 119.35°E / 44.60; 119.35 (Epitaph for Yelü Xinie)
1987 Liao Shangjing Museum 37 lines, 1,608 characters.[11][7]
Epitaph for Yelü Yanning 耶律延寧 (946–985) 986 Baimu Mountain, Chaoyang County
Liaoning
41°38′N 120°12′E / 41.63°N 120.20°E / 41.63; 120.20 (Epitaph for Yelü Yanning)
1964 Liaoning Provincial Museum 19 lines, 271 characters.[15][19]
Memorial from the mausoleum of Emperor Taizu of Liao (r.916–926) Shifangzi Village, Bairin Left Banner
Inner Mongolia
43°53′N 119°08′E / 43.88°N 119.13°E / 43.88; 119.13 (Memorial from the mausoleum of Emperor Taizu of Liao)
1966 and later Inner Mongolia Museum and Liao Shangjing Museum Ten fragments from a broken memorial stone, with 78 characters in total.[14][20]
Memorial from the ruins of the Liao capital Shangjing Lindong Township, Bairin Left Banner
Inner Mongolia
43°58′N 119°23′E / 43.96°N 119.39°E / 43.96; 119.39 (Memorial from the ruins of the Liao capital Shangjing)
1965 Liao Shangjing Museum Two fragments from a broken memorial stone: A) 10 lines, 64 characters; B) 8 lines, 52 characters.[14][20]
Monumental stone inscription 1058 Dornogovi Province
Mongolia
44°53′N 110°09′E / 44.88°N 110.15°E / 44.88; 110.15 (Dornogovi monument)
2010 National Museum of Mongolian History, Ulan Bator 7 lines, about 150 characters.[21][22]

Other inscriptions in the Khitan large script[edit]

Object Date Place of discovery Year of discovery Current Location Description
Rock inscription Agui Cave, Jarud Banner
Inner Mongolia
45°06′N 120°43′E / 45.10°N 120.72°E / 45.10; 120.72 (Agui Cavern)
7 Khitan large characters painted on the outside of a cave.[23]
Two wooden tablets from a Liao dynasty tomb Daiqin Tala Sumu, Horqin Right Middle Banner
Inner Mongolia
45°13′N 121°31′E / 45.22°N 121.52°E / 45.22; 121.52 (Two wooden tablets)
1999 Two wooden tablets inscribed with inventories.[24]
Bronze, silver or gold non-circulation coin Various examples have been found in different locations. Four character Khitan inscription on the obverse, interpreted as meaning tiāncháo wànshùn 天朝萬順 in Chinese[25]
Silver non-circulation coin Ruins of the Liao capital Shangjing, Lindong Township, Bairin Left Banner
Inner Mongolia
43°58′N 119°23′E / 43.96°N 119.39°E / 43.96; 119.39 (Silver coin)
1977 Liao Shangjing Museum Four character Khitan inscription (tiāncháo wànshùn 天朝萬順) on the obverse, with an eight character Khitan inscription scratched onto the reverse[9][26]
Bronze mirror White Pagoda in the ruins of Qingzhou City, Bairin Right Banner
Inner Mongolia
44°12′07″N 118°30′50″E / 44.202°N 118.514°E / 44.202; 118.514 (Bronze mirror)
1958 Inner Mongolia Museum Five Khitan characters engraved on along the edge of the mirror[26][27]
Bronze Daoist amulet Acheng District
Harbin
Heilongjiang
45°33′N 127°00′E / 45.55°N 127.0°E / 45.55; 127.0 (Bronze Daoist amulet)
Heilongjiang Museum Daoist charm on one side, and 2 lines (18 characters) of Khitan large script on the other.[28][29]
Bronze Daoist amulet Bairin Right Banner Museum Daoist charm on one side, and 3 lines (28 characters) of Khitan large script on the other.[28][29]
Silver paiza Chengde
Hebei
41°00′N 117°34′E / 41.00°N 117.56°E / 41.00; 117.56 (Silver paiza)
Institute of East Asian History, Kyoto University Chinese inscription (天賜成吉思皇帝聖旨疾 "Bestowed by Heaven, the imperial edict of Emperor Chinggis. Urgent.") on one side, and two Khitan large characters meaning "running horse" (Chinese 走馬) on the back.[29]
Metal tag Unknown Unknown Three Khitan large characters.[30]
Silver spoon Wangfugou, Jianping County
Liaoning
42°14′N 119°29′E / 42.23°N 119.48°E / 42.23; 119.48 (Silver spoon)
1956 Liaoning Province Museum Four Chinese characters (太付太太) followed by five Khitan large characters.[29]
Bronze seal 1094 Panshan County
Liaoning
41°15′N 122°00′E / 41.25°N 122.00°E / 41.25; 122.00 (Bronze Seal)
1986 Panjin Museum Seal face inscription is in Chinese ("Seal of the Prince of Qian" 汧王之印), but the upper surface of the seal has two lines of Khitan large characters that have been interpreted as meaning Yixin Ning Dawang 乙辛寧大王 ("Prince Yixinning") and Liao Da'an Shinian 遼大安十年 (10th year of the Liao dynasty Da'an era").[31][32]

Khitan large script seals[edit]

Object Date Place of discovery Year of discovery Current Location Description
Bronze seal Naiman Banner
Inner Mongolia
42°51′N 120°39′E / 42.85°N 120.65°E / 42.85; 120.65 (Bronze seal)
1957 Inner Mongolia Museum Five seal script characters.[33][34]
Bronze seal Dongtai Village, Ongniud Banner
Inner Mongolia
42°57′N 119°03′E / 42.95°N 119.05°E / 42.95; 119.05 (Bronze seal)
1965 Chifeng Museum Five seal script characters. The inscription on the face of the seal is repeated on the side as a single column of ordinary Khitan characters engraved in outline.[9][33][35]
Bronze seal Ruins of the Liao capital Shangjing, Lindong Township, Bairin Left Banner
Inner Mongolia
43°58′N 119°23′E / 43.96°N 119.39°E / 43.96; 119.39 (Bronze seal)
1975 Togtoh Museum [33][36]
Bronze seal Baiyingou, Bairin Left Banner
Inner Mongolia
43°55′N 119°33′E / 43.92°N 119.55°E / 43.92; 119.55 (Bronze seal)
1966 Unknown [33]
Bronze seal White Pagoda in the ruins of Qingzhou City, Bairin Right Banner
Inner Mongolia
44°12′07″N 118°30′50″E / 44.202°N 118.514°E / 44.202; 118.514 (Bronze seal)
1973 Chifeng Museum [33][35]
Bronze seal Fengcheng
Liaoning
40°27′N 124°03′E / 40.45°N 124.05°E / 40.45; 124.05 (Bronze seal)
1964 Liaoning Province Museum Five seal script characters.[33][37]
Bronze seal Jianchang County
Liaoning
40°48′N 119°51′E / 40.80°N 119.85°E / 40.80; 119.85 (Bronze seal)
1980 Liaoning Province Museum [33][38]
Bronze seal Guliyingzi, Taonan
Jilin
45°21′N 122°48′E / 45.35°N 122.80°E / 45.35; 122.80 (Bronze seal)
1937 Unknown [33]
Bronze seal Unknown Jilin Museum [33]
Bronze octagonal seal Unknown Jilin Museum [33]
Bronze seal Weichang County
Hebei
41°57′N 117°45′E / 41.95°N 117.75°E / 41.95; 117.75 (Bronze seal)
Inner Mongolia Museum [33]
Bronze seal Unknown Tianjin Museum [33]
Bronze seal Xayar County
Xinjiang
41°15′N 82°48′E / 41.25°N 82.80°E / 41.25; 82.80 (Bronze seal)
1952 National Museum of China [33]
Bronze seal Ili County
Xinjiang
43°54′N 81°18′E / 43.90°N 81.30°E / 43.90; 81.30 (Bronze seal)
1958 National Museum of China [33]
Bronze seal Unknown National Museum of China Seal script inscription interpreted as meaning "Seal of the Right Vice Commander of the Marshal of the Army" (元帥右都監印).[33]
Bronze seal Unknown (impression owned by Luo Fuyi 羅福頤) Unknown [30][33]
Bronze seal Unknown (impression owned by Luo Fuyi 羅福頤) Unknown [30][33]
Bronze seal 1004 Xiuyan County
Liaoning
40°17′N 123°17′E / 40.28°N 123.28°E / 40.28; 123.28 (Bronze seal)
1980 Xiuyan Museum Date inscription on top of the seal.[33]
Bronze seal Harqin Left Wing County
Liaoning
41°08′N 119°45′E / 41.13°N 119.75°E / 41.13; 119.75 (Bronze seal)
1973 Harqin Left Wing County Museum Five seal script characters.[31]

Monumental inscriptions in the Khitan small script[edit]

Monument Date Place of discovery Year of discovery Current Location Description
Epitaph for an unknown person Haitangshan, Fuxin
Liaoning
41°56′06″N 121°51′00″E / 41.935°N 121.850°E / 41.935; 121.850 (Epitaph for an unknown person)
1991 Fuxin Museum 13 lines, 300 characters (the monument is missing the right side, and has been reused for engraving a Buddhist image on its reverse side).[11][39]
Epitaph for Court Attendant Yelü Yongning 耶律永寧郎君 (1059–1087)[note 2] 1088 Beigou, Harqin Banner
Inner Mongolia
43°25′01″N 118°19′12″E / 43.417°N 118.320°E / 43.417; 118.320 (Epitaph for Yelü Yongning)
1995 Harqin Banner Museum 43 lines, 1,062 characters.[11][40][7]
Epitaph for Deputy Administrator Yelü 耶律副部署 (Yelü Wumo 耶律兀没, 1031–1077), the brother or nephew of Yelü Qi 1102 Tsogt Mountain, Guriban Hushu Gacha, Ar Horqin Banner
Inner Mongolia
44°27′N 120°10′E / 44.45°N 120.17°E / 44.45; 120.17 (Epitaph for Yelü Fushu)
1996 Inner Mongolia Museum 51 lines, 2,000 characters.[11][39][7]
Epitaph for Emperor Daozong of Liao 道宗 (1032–1101) 1101 Mausoleum of Emperor Daozong, Bairin Right Banner
Inner Mongolia
44°22′N 118°30′E / 44.36°N 118.50°E / 44.36; 118.50 (Epitaph for Emperor Daozong)
1930 Liaoning Provincial Museum 37 lines, 1,134 characters; and 6 lines, 36 characters in seal script calligraphy on the lid.[39][41]
Epitaph for Emperor Xingzong of Liao 興宗 (1015–1054) 1055 Mausoleum of Emperor Xingzong, Bairin Right Banner
Inner Mongolia
44°22′N 118°31′E / 44.36°N 118.51°E / 44.36; 118.51 (Epitaph for Emperor Xingzong)
1922 Buried in an unknown location at the Imperial Mausoleum. 36 lines, 861 characters.[23][40][7]
Epitaph for Empress Renyi 仁懿皇后 (?–1076) 1076 Mausoleum of Emperor Xingzong, Bairin Right Banner
Inner Mongolia
44°22′N 118°31′E / 44.36°N 118.51°E / 44.36; 118.51 (Epitaph for Empress Renyi)
1922 Buried in an unknown location at the Imperial Mausoleum. 32 lines, 575 characters.[42][43]
Epitaph for Empress Xuanyi 宣懿皇后 (1040–1075) 1101 Mausoleum of Emperor Daozong, Bairin Right Banner
Inner Mongolia
44°22′N 118°30′E / 44.36°N 118.50°E / 44.36; 118.50 (Epitaph for Empress Xuanyi)
1930 Liaoning Provincial Museum 30 lines, 620 characters; and 4 lines, 16 characters in seal script calligraphy on the lid.[40][44]
Epitaph for Gu Shizhong (1015–1090) 1091 2009 Ethnic Museum of Inner Mongolia University 33 lines, 1,700 characters.[7]
Epitaph for Madam Han 韓氏, second wife of the imperial son-in-law, Xiao Temei 蕭特每 1078 Unknown Unknown 35 lines, 814 characters.[40]
Epitaph for Madam Yelü 耶律氏 (Yelü Tabuye 耶律挞不也) (1081–1115), the daughter of Yelü Dilie 耶律敵烈 1115 Shanzuizi, Ongniud Banner
Inner Mongolia
42°52′05″N 118°58′12″E / 42.868°N 118.970°E / 42.868; 118.970 (Epitaph for Madam Yelü)
1962 Chifeng Museum 25 lines, 699 characters.[39][45][7]
Epitaph for the Grand Preceptor Shilu 室魯太師 or Salan Shilu Taishi 撒懶室魯太師 1100 Yihebei Village, Jarud Banner
Inner Mongolia
44°40′N 121°01′E / 44.67°N 121.02°E / 44.67; 121.02 (Epitaph for the Grand Preceptor Shilu)
2000 Institute of Cultural and Historical Relics and Archaeology of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous region 15 lines, 150 characters.[11][43][7]
Epitaph for Hudujin Shenmi 胡睹堇審密 or Xiao Hudujin 萧胡睹堇 (1041–1091), the nephew of Xiao Tuguci 1091 Private museum at Lindong, Bairin Left Banner 39 lines, 1,500 characters.[7]
Epitaph for the Imperial Consort of Song and Wei 宋魏國妃 (1056–1080), the wife of Yelü Hongben 1110 Mausoleum of Emperor Xingzong, Bairin Right Banner
Inner Mongolia
44°22′N 118°30′E / 44.36°N 118.50°E / 44.36; 118.50 (Epitaph for the Imperial Consort of Song-Wei)
1997 Bairin Right Banner Museum 24 lines, 670 characters.[11][43][7]
Epitaph for the Jin Dynasty Defense Commissioner of Bozhou 金代博州防禦使 or the Jin Dynasty Superior General of Zhenguo Circuit 金代鎮國上將軍 (1079–1142) 1171 Laohugou Village, Aohan Banner
Inner Mongolia
42°06′29″N 119°56′17″E / 42.108°N 119.938°E / 42.108; 119.938 (Epitaph for the Jin Dynasty Defense Commissioner of Bozhou)
1993 Aohan Banner Museum 51 lines, 1,570 characters.[11][46][7]
Epitaph for the Prefect of Zezhou 澤州刺史 (or the Prefect of Zhuozhou 涿州刺史) (?–1107) 1108 Nangou Village, Bairin Left Banner
Inner Mongolia
44°24′00″N 119°27′54″E / 44.400°N 119.465°E / 44.400; 119.465 (Epitaph for the Inspector of Zezhou)
1993 Liao Shangjing Museum 26 lines, 230 characters. Incomplete inscription because of damage to the stone (top right missing).[11][40][7]
Epitaph for the Prince of Liang 梁國王[note 3] 1107 Guan Mountain, Fuxin
Liaoning
42°09′25″N 121°57′25″E / 42.157°N 121.957°E / 42.157; 121.957 (Epitaph for the Prince of Liang)
2001 [47]
Epitaph for the Prince of Xu 許王 1105 Wofenggou, Fuxin
Liaoning
41°49′12″N 121°36′00″E / 41.820°N 121.600°E / 41.820; 121.600 (Epitaph for the Prince of Xu)
1977 Fuxin Cultural Center 64 lines, 2,163 characters; 1 line, 6 characters.[40][48]
Epitaph for Prince Wotela 斡特剌 (1073–1099), the grandson of Gu Shizhong 1099 2009 Ethnic Museum of Inner Mongolia University 22 lines, 1,000 characters.[7]
Epitaph for Xiao Dilu 蕭敵魯 (1061–?), the nephew of Xiao Hudujin 1114 2007 Ethnic Museum of Inner Mongolia University 51 lines, 1,100 characters.[7]
Epitaph for Xiao Linggong 蕭令公 (Xiao Fuliu 蕭富留) 1057 Xishan Village, Fuxin
Liaoning
41°45′50″N 121°22′48″E / 41.764°N 121.380°E / 41.764; 121.380 (Epitaph for Xiao Linggong)
1950 Liaoning Provincial Museum 32 lines, 594 characters.[43][48]
Epitaph for Xiao Taishan 蕭太山 and Princess Yongqing 永清公主 2003 32 lines, 1,373 characters.[40]
Epitaph for Xiao Tuguci 蕭圖古辭 1068 Fuxin
Liaoning
42°01′N 121°39′E / 42.01°N 121.65°E / 42.01; 121.65 (Epitaph for Xiao Tuguci)
2000 26 lines, 739 characters.[40]
Epitaph for Xiao Zhonggong 蕭仲恭 1150 Xinglong County
Hebei
40°24′N 117°30′E / 40.40°N 117.50°E / 40.40; 117.50 (Epitaph for Xiao Zhonggong)
1942 Hebei Province Office of Cultural Relics 50 lines, 2,442 characters; 3 lines, 9 characters on the lid.[49][50]
Epitaph for Yelü Jiuli 耶律糺里 or Yelü Gui 耶律貴 (1061–1102)[note 4] 1102 Unknown 2002 (probably robbed from a tomb in the 1990s) 31 lines, 1,020 characters.[51][7]
Epitaph for Yelü Cite 耶律慈特 (1043–1081) 1082 Baiyinwendu, Ar Horqin Banner
Inner Mongolia
43°36′N 120°24′E / 43.60°N 120.40°E / 43.60; 120.40 (Epitaph for Yelü Cite)
1997 Ar Horqin Banner Museum 30 lines, 930 characters.[11][39][7]
Epitaph for Yelü Dilie 耶律迪烈 or Han Dilie 韓迪烈 (1026–1092) 1092 Gahaitu Township, Jarud Banner
Inner Mongolia
44°55′N 121°04′E / 44.92°N 121.06°E / 44.92; 121.06 (Epitaph for Yelü Dilie)
1995 Liao and Jin City Wall Museum, Beijing 32 lines, 1,740 characters; 9 lines on the lid.[11][39]
Epitaph for Yelü Dilie 耶律敵烈 or Han Dilie 韓敵烈 (1034–1100) 1101 Baiyinhan Mountain, Baiyinwula, Bairin Left Banner
Inner Mongolia
44°22′N 118°53′E / 44.37°N 118.89°E / 44.37; 118.89 (Epitaph for Han Dilie)
1996 Liao Shangjing Museum 34 lines, 1,350 characters.[11][39][7]
Epitaph for Yelü Gaoshi 耶律高十 or Han Gaoshi 韓高十 (1015–?) c.1076 Baiyinhan Mountain, Baiyinwula, Bairin Left Banner
Inner Mongolia
44°21′N 118°52′E / 44.35°N 118.87°E / 44.35; 118.87 (Epitaph for Han Gaoshi)
1995 Liao Shangjing Museum 26 lines, 750 characters. Lower half of inscription is missing.[11][39][7]
Epitaph for Yelü Hongben 耶律弘本 (1041–1110), the Imperial Grand Uncle 皇太叔祖 (1041–1110), the son of Emperor Xingzong and Empress Renyi 1110 Mausoleum of Emperor Xingzong, Bairin Right Banner
Inner Mongolia
44°22′N 118°31′E / 44.36°N 118.52°E / 44.36; 118.52 (Epitaph for Yelü Hongben)
1997 Bairin Right Banner Museum 25 lines, 807 characters; 3 lines, 15 characters in seal script on the lid.[11][43][7]
Epitaph for Yelü Hongbian 耶律弘辨 or Yelü Hongyong 耶律弘用 (1054–1086), the brother-in-law of the Imperial Consort of Song and Wei 1100 Orgon Tal, Jarud Banner
Inner Mongolia
44°46′41″N 120°43′37″E / 44.778°N 120.727°E / 44.778; 120.727 (Epitaph for Yelü Hongbian)
1996 Jarud Banner Cultural Relics Office 32 lines, 900 characters.[11][43][7]
Epitaph for Yelü Jue 耶律玦 (1014–1070) 1072 Private museum at Xinhui, Aohan Banner 46 lines, 2,000 characters.[7]
Epitaph for Yelü Nu 耶律奴 (1041–1098) 1099 Yaoyamen Village, Fuxin
Liaoning
41°58′30″N 121°54′00″E / 41.975°N 121.900°E / 41.975; 121.900 (Epitaph for Yelü Nu)
1999 Fuxin Museum 48 lines, 1,274 characters.[11][43]
Epitaph for Yelü Renxian 耶律仁先 1072 Lianhuashan Village, Beipiao
Liaoning
41°52′23″N 121°14′53″E / 41.873°N 121.248°E / 41.873; 121.248 (Epitaph for Yelü Renxian)
1983 Liaoning Cultural Relics and Archeology Research Institute 70 lines, 4,500 characters.[11][43]
Epitaph for Yelü Taishi 耶律太師 (1038–1101), the son of Yelü Xiangwen c.1101 2009 Ethnic Museum of Inner Mongolia University 26 lines, 1,000 characters.[7]
Epitaph for Yelü Xiangwen 耶律詳穩 (1010–1091), the father of Yelü Taishi 1091 2007 Ethnic Museum of Inner Mongolia University 48 lines, 1,600 characters.[7]
Epitaph for Yelü Zhixian 耶律智先 1094 Lianhuashan Village, Beipiao
Liaoning
41°52′23″N 121°15′00″E / 41.873°N 121.250°E / 41.873; 121.250 (Epitaph for Yelü Zhixian)
1998 Beipiao Museum 21 lines, 1,000 characters.[11][40]
Epitaph for Yelü Zongjiao 耶律宗教 (992–1053) 1053 Gaoqi Village, Beizhen
Liaoning
41°32′N 121°41′E / 41.53°N 121.68°E / 41.53; 121.68 (Epitaph for Yelü Zongjiao)
1991 Beizhen Cultural Relics Office 36 lines, 1,000 characters[11][50]
Record of the Younger Brother of the Emperor of the Great Jin Dynasty (Da Jin huangdi dutong jinglüe Langjun xingji 大金皇弟都統經略郎君行記) 1134 Qianling Mausoleum, Qian County
Shaanxi
34°34′30″N 108°13′12″E / 34.575°N 108.220°E / 34.575; 108.220 (Record of the Younger Brother of the Emperor of the Great Jin Dynasty)
first recorded in 1618 In front of the tomb of Empress Wu of the Tang at Qianling Mausoleum 5 lines, 97 characters on one side, with corresponding Chinese text on the other side (the only known bilingual Chinese-Khitan text).[43][52]
Record of the Younger Brother of the Emperor of the Great Jin Dynasty (incomplete copy) 1134 Qianling Mausoleum, Qian County
Shaanxi
34°34′30″N 108°13′12″E / 34.575°N 108.220°E / 34.575; 108.220 (Record of the Younger Brother of the Emperor of the Great Jin Dynasty)
1982 Qianling Mausoleum Museum A copy of the text of the memorial in front of the tomb of Empress Wu, recovered from the ruins of a sacrificial hall at the Qianling Mausoleum, but only one quarter of text remaining.[52]

Other inscriptions in the Khitan small script[edit]

Object Date Place of discovery Year of discovery Current Location Description
Bronze octagonal mirror owned by Wanyan Tong 完顏通 1140–1189 Da'an
Jilin
45°30′N 124°18′E / 45.50°N 124.30°E / 45.50; 124.30 (Bronze octagonal mirror owned by Wanyan Tong)
1971 Jilin Provincial Museum 5 lines, 16 characters.[53]
Bronze octagonal mirror Inner Mongolia Museum 4 Khitan characters on the reverse, and three Chinese characters (寶坻) along the edge.[54]
Bronze mirror Kaesŏng
North Korea
37°58′N 126°33′E / 37.96°N 126.55°E / 37.96; 126.55 (Bronze mirror)
pre-1912 National Museum of Korea, Seoul Khitan poem comprising 7 lines, 28 characters.[55]
"Shouchang" non-circulation lucky coin 4 characters on the reverse, interpreted as meaning 壽昌.[54]
Fish-shaped bronze tally Chinese character tóng 同, with one line of Khitan small characters.[54]
Fish-shaped bronze tally Chinese character tóng 同, with two lines of Khitan small characters.[54]
Jade cup 2 lines, 11 Khitan small characters on bottom of the cup.[56]
Yellow-glazed ceramic brush washer [54]
Inscriptions on a pagoda White Pagoda, Hohhot
Inner Mongolia
40°50′N 111°54′E / 40.84°N 111.90°E / 40.84; 111.90 (Inscriptions on a pagoda)
[57]
Inscriptions on the walls of a cave Balahada Cave (巴拉哈達洞), Horqin Right Middle Banner
Inner Mongolia
[58]
Inscriptions on a Liao dynasty tomb mural Bao Mountain, Ar Horqin Banner
Inner Mongolia
44°04′23″N 119°39′58″E / 44.073°N 119.666°E / 44.073; 119.666 (Inscriptions on a Liao dynasty tomb mural)
1996 Short inscription on a mural.[57]
Inscriptions on a painted wooden coffin Ongniud Banner
Inner Mongolia
42°56′N 119°02′E / 42.93°N 119.03°E / 42.93; 119.03 (Inscriptions on a painted wooden coffin)
Juu Uda League Cultural Relics Station 22 characters on the colour painting of a wooden coffin.[55]
Inscriptions at the Liao imperial mausoleum Bairin Right Banner
Inner Mongolia
44°22′N 118°30′E / 44.36°N 118.50°E / 44.36; 118.50 (Inscriptions at the Liao imperial mausoleum)
About 50 Khitan small character captions on murals at the east tomb.[55]

Khitan small script seals[edit]

Object Date Place of discovery Year of discovery Current Location Description
Bronze seal Gaizhou
Liaoning
40°24′N 122°22′E / 40.40°N 122.36°E / 40.40; 122.36 (Bronze seal)
1972 Liaoning Province Museum Seal script form Khitan small characters.[33][37]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ This monument was previously known as the Yingli period monument (Yingli bei 應歷碑), but the characters that were originally interpreted as meaning the Yingli 應歷 period (951–969) are now interpreted as meaning the Dading 大定 period (1161–1189), so what was once thought to be the earliest Khitan memorial in now thought to be the latest in date.[13]
  2. ^ Kane 2009 lists Khitan small script memorials for both Lord Yelü Yongning and a Lord Yelü, but the latter is not recorded in any other sources, and appears to be a synonym for the former.
  3. ^ The memorials for the Prince of Liang and his wife, the Imperial Consort of the State of Liang (梁國太妃), were found together, and although the memorial for the Imperial Consort is in Chinese, Kane 2009 incorrectly lists it as being in the Khitan small script.
  4. ^ The name of the official commemorated by this inscriptions has been variously given as Yelü Guiyexi 耶律貴也稀, Yelü Gui 耶律貴, Yelü Diligu 耶律迪里姑, Yelü Gui-Diligu 耶律貴·迪里姑 and Yelü Yiliyan 耶律夷里衍.

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Kane 2009, p. 4
  2. ^ Kane 2009, pp. 169–170
  3. ^ Kane 2009, p. ix
  4. ^ Kane 2009, p. 4
  5. ^ Kane 2009, p. 1
  6. ^ Kane 2009, p. 2
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac Wu Yingzhe 2012
  8. ^ Sun Bojun 孫伯君 (2006). 蒙古國肯特省契丹大字刻石考釋. Shije Minzu 世界民族 (in Chinese) (4): 44–52. ISSN 1006-8287. 
  9. ^ a b c Liu Fengzhu & Yu Baolin 1990, p. 392
  10. ^ Yu Baolin 1985, p. 200
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Liu Pujiang 2003
  12. ^ Cong Yanshuang 叢艷雙; Liu Fengzhu 劉鳳翥; Chi Jianxue 池建學 (2005). 契丹大字《多蘿里本郎君墓誌銘》考釋. Minzu Yuwen 民族語文 (in Chinese) (4): 50–55. ISSN 0257-5779. 
  13. ^ Li Junyi 李俊義 (2009-09-26). 薪傳火繼,拯救絕學——契丹文字專家劉鳳翥先生來赤峰學院講學紀要 (in Chinese). Retrieved 2010-12-22. 
  14. ^ a b c Yu Baolin 1985, p. 202
  15. ^ a b c d Liu Fengzhu & Yu Baolin 1990, p. 391
  16. ^ Yu Baolin 1985, pp. 200–201
  17. ^ Yu Baolin 1985, pp. 202–203
  18. ^ Yu Baolin 1985, p. 201
  19. ^ Yu Baolin 1985, pp. 201–202
  20. ^ a b Liu Fengzhu & Yu Baolin 1990, p. 390
  21. ^ "Old manuscripts, sculpture found". Retrieved 2011-10-11. 
  22. ^ "New Trends in the Studies on Qidan Scripts". Research Institute for Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies. Retrieved 2011-10-11. 
  23. ^ a b Yu Baolin 1985, p. 205
  24. ^ Liu Fengzhu 劉鳳翥; Ding Yong 丁勇; Kong Qun 孔群; Bai Yu 白玉 (2006). 兩件契丹大字木牍之研究 [Research into two wooden boards with Khitan large script inscriptions]. Minzu Yuwen 民族語文 (in Chinese) (5): 62–66. ISSN 0257-5779. 
  25. ^ Sun Jimin 孫繼民 (1994). "內蒙古剋什剋騰旗發現契丹大字金銀錢". Kaogu 考古 (2): 179. ISSN 0453-2899. 
  26. ^ a b Yu Baolin 1985, p. 203
  27. ^ Liu Fengzhu & Yu Baolin 1990
  28. ^ a b Liu Fengzhu & Yu Baolin 1990, pp. 391–392
  29. ^ a b c d Yu Baolin 1985, p. 204
  30. ^ a b c Jin Yufu 1934
  31. ^ a b Li Yufeng 李宇峰 (1990). "遼寧盤山縣發現遼契丹大字銅印". Kaogu 考古 (12): 1143. ISSN 0453-2899. 
  32. ^ 辽铜印契丹文字被破译:年款"泄密"已九百岁 (in Chinese). Retrieved 2010-12-15. 
  33. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Yu Baolin 1985, pp. 203–204
  34. ^ Li Yiyou 李逸友 (1961). "內蒙古出土古代官印的新資料". Wenwu 文物 (9): 64–65. ISSN 0511-4772. 
  35. ^ a b Xiang Chunsong 項春松 (1983). "內蒙古昭烏達盟發現的一批古印資料". Wenwu 文物 (8): 76–82. ISSN 0511-4772. 
  36. ^ "#36834: Liao AE seal, Qidan seal script". Zeno Oriental Coins Database. Retrieved 2010-12-15. 
  37. ^ a b Wu Jiachang 武家昌 (1984). "遼寧近年出土、徵集的宋遼金官印選輯". Wenwu 文物 (9): 83–84. ISSN 0511-4772. 
  38. ^ Feng Yongqian 馮永謙; Deng Baoxue 鄧寶學 (1983). "遼寧建昌普查中發現的重要文物". Wenwu 文物 (9): 66–72. ISSN 0511-4772. 
  39. ^ a b c d e f g h Kane 2009, p. 9
  40. ^ a b c d e f g h i Kane 2009, p. 11
  41. ^ Yu Baolin 1985, p. 206
  42. ^ Yu Baolin 1985, pp. 205–206
  43. ^ a b c d e f g h i Kane 2009, p. 10
  44. ^ Yu Baolin 1985, pp. 206–207
  45. ^ Yu Baolin 1985, pp. 207–208
  46. ^ Kane 2009, pp. 8–9
  47. ^ Han Shiming 韩世明; Yoshimoto Chieko 吉本智慧子 (Aisin-Gioro Ulhicun) (2007). "梁國王墓誌銘文初釋" [Initial study of the memorial of the Prince of Liang]. Minzu Yanjiu 民族研究 (2). ISSN 0256-1891. 
  48. ^ a b Yu Baolin 1985, p. 207
  49. ^ Yu Baolin 1985, pp. 208–209
  50. ^ a b Kane 2009, p. 12
  51. ^ Liu Pujiang 劉浦江 (2009). 關於契丹小字《耶律糺裏墓誌銘》的若乾問題. Beida Shixue 北大史學 (in Chinese) (14). 
  52. ^ a b Yu Baolin 1985, pp. 208
  53. ^ Yu Baolin 1985, pp. 209–210
  54. ^ a b c d e Yu Baolin 1985, pp. 210
  55. ^ a b c Yu Baolin 1985, pp. 209
  56. ^ Yu Baolin 1985, pp. 210–211
  57. ^ a b Yu Baolin 1985, pp. 211
  58. ^ Chinggeltei 1985, p. 625

References[edit]