List of Khitan rulers

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The period of the Ancient Eight Tribes[edit]

  • Hechen (何辰) a Khitan chieftain (mofuhe) (契丹莫弗贺) (ca.470)
  • Mer-gan (Hanzi : 勿于 pinyin : Wuyu) another mohfuhe (ca. 479)
  • Duomi Khagan (多彌可汗) (ca. 585)

The Dahe Tribal Confederation (618-730) (大賀氏)[edit]

Governor-general of Songmo (松漠都督)[edit]

Name of the clan (Khitan or granted Chinese)
First name
Period of reign
Chinese
characters
Westernized Chinese
characters
Westernized
大賀氏 Dahe 咄羅/咄罗 Duoluo 618/622-627
大賀氏 Dahe 摩會/摩会 Mohui 627-644
大賀氏 Dahe 窟哥 (Li) Kuge 644-653/658
Unknown Unknown 阿不固/阿卜固 Abugu 653/658-660
Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown 660-675
大賀氏 Dahe 李盡忠 Li Jinzhong 675-696
内稽氏 Neiji tribe 孫萬榮 Sun Wanrong 696-697
大賀氏 Dahe 李失活 (Li) Shihuo 697-717
大賀氏 Dahe 李娑固 (Li) Suogu 718-720
大賀氏 Dahe (李鬱干)/鬱于/郁于 (Li) (Yugan)/Yuyu 720-722/724
大賀氏 Dahe (李吐干)/吐于 (Li) (Tugan)/Tuyu 722/724-725
大賀氏 Dahe 李邵固 (Li) Shaogu 725-730

Prefecture of Xuanzhou (玄州)[edit]

Khitans tribes who did not belong to the Dahe confederation but living at the same period

Name of the clan (Khitan or granted Chinese)
First name
Period of reign
Chinese
characte rs
Westernized Chinese
characters
Westernized
(李)去閭 (Li) Qulü
據曲/曲據 Juqu /Quju 646-648

Other Khitan chieftains (酋長)[edit]

  • Tanmozhe (貪沒折) (ca. 630)

The Yaonian Tribal Confederation (730-906) (遥辇氏)[edit]

The supreme chieftain of the Khitan (khagans)[edit]

Title name (Khitan or granted Chinese)
First name
Period of reign
Chinese
characters
Westernized Chinese
characters
Westernized
洼可汗 Wa khaghan 屈列 Julü (Qulie) 730-734
北平郡王 Prince of Beiping 过折/過折 (Li) Guozhe 735
阻午可汗 Zuwu Khagan 遥辇俎里
(李懷節/李怀秀/李懷秀)
Dinian Zuli
Li Huaixiu/Li Huaijie
735-745
胡剌可汗 Hula khaghan 楷洛/楷落 Kailuo 746-778
苏可汗/蘇可汗 Su khaghan Unknown Unknown 778-800
巴刺可汗 Bala khaghan Unknown Unknown 800-820
昭古可汗 Zhaogu khaghan Unknown Unknown 820-842
耶谰可汗 Yelan khaghan 屈戌 Qushu 842-860
鮮質可汗 Xianzhi khaghan 習爾 Xi'er /Xi'erzhi 860-882
痕德廑可汗 Hendeji khaghan 钦德/欽德 Qinde 882-906

Khitan Empire (907-1125)[edit]

There were nine emperors of the Liao Dynasty, which at its height ruled over an area composing modern day Mongolia and northern China for over two hundred years. The emperors of the Liao Dynasty were Khitans from Yelü clan.

Liao Dynasty 907-1125
Temple Names ( Miao Hao 廟號 miàohào) Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao 諡號 shìhào) Birth Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號 niánhào) and their according range of years
Convention: "Liao" + temple name except Liao Tianzuodi who is referred using "Liao" + posthumous name
Taizu (太祖 Tàizǔ) Shen Tian Huangdi Yelü Abaoji (耶律阿保機 Yēlǜ Ābǎojī) 907-926 Shence (神冊 Shéncè) 916-922[1]
Tianzan (天贊 Tiānzàn) 922-926[2]
Taizong (太宗 Tàizōng) Xiao Wu Huangdi Yelü Deguang (耶律德光 Yēlǜ Déguāng) 926-947 Tianxian (天顯 Tiānxiǎn) 926-937[3]
Huitong (會同 Huìtóng) 937-947[4]
Datong (大同 Dàtóng) 947[5]
Shizong (世宗 Shìzōng) Tian Shou Huangdi Yelü Ruan (耶律阮 Yēlǜ Ruǎn) 947-951 Tianlu (天祿 Tiānlù) 947-951[6]
Muzong (穆宗 Mùzōng) Yelü Jing (耶律璟 Yēlǜ Jǐng) 951-969 Yingli (應曆 Yìnglì) 951-969[7]
Jingzong (景宗 Jǐngzōng) Yelü Xian (耶律賢 Yēlǜ Xián) 969-982 Baoning (保寧 Bǎoníng) 969-979[8]
Qianheng (乾亨 Qiánhēng) 979-982[9]
Shengzong (聖宗 Shèngzōng) Wen Wu Da Xiao Xuan Huangdi Yelü Longxu (耶律隆緒 Yēlǜ Lóngxù) 982-1031 Qianheng (乾亨 Qiánhēng) 982[9]
Tonghe (統和 Tǒnghé) 983-1012[10]
Kaitai (開泰 Kāitài) 1012-1021[11]
Taiping (太平 Tàipíng) 1021-1031[12]
Xingzong (興宗 Xīngzōng) Xiao Zheng Huangdi Yelü Zongzhen (耶律宗真 Yēlǜ Zōngzhēn) 1031–1055 Jingfu (景福 Jǐngfú) 1031-1032[13]
Chongxi (重熙 Chóngxī) 1032-1055[14]
Daozong (道宗 Dàozōng) Yelü Hongji (耶律洪基 Yēlǜ Hóngjī) 1055–1101 Qingning (清寧 Qīngníng) 1055-1064[15]
Xianyong (咸雍 Xiányōng) 1065-1074[16]
Taikang (太康 Tàikāng) or Dakang (大康 Dàkāng) 1075-1084[17]
Da'an (大安 Dà'ān) 1085-1094[18]
Shouchang (壽昌 Shòuchāng) or Shoulong (壽隆 Shòulóng) 1095-1101[19]
Tianzuodi (天祚帝 Tiānzuòdì) Yelü Yanxi (耶律延禧 Yēlǜ Yánxǐ) 1101–1125 Qiantong (乾統 Qiántǒng) 1101-1110[20]
Tianqing (天慶 Tiānqìng) 1111-1120[21]
Baoda (保大 Bǎodà) 1121-1125[22]

Khar Khitan (1124/1125-1221)[edit]

Sovereigns of Kara-Khitan Khanate 1124 or 1125-1221
Temple Names ( Miao Hao 廟號 miàohào) Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao 諡號 shìhào) Birth Names Convention[citation needed] Period of Reign Era Names (Nian Hao 年號 niánhào) and their according range of years
Dezong (德宗 Dézōng) Tianyouwuliedi (天祐武烈帝 Tiānyòuwǔlièdì) Yelü Dashi (耶律大石 Yēlǜ Dàshí or 耶律達實 Yēlǜ Dáshí) 1 use birth name 1124-1144 Yanqing (延慶 Yánqìng) 1124 or 1125-1134

Kangguo (康國 Kāngguó) 1134-1144

Did not exist Gantianhou (感天后 Gǎntiānhòu) Tabuyan (塔不煙 Tǎbùyān) "Xi Liao" + posthumous name 1144-1150 Xianqing (咸清 Xiánqīng) 1144-1150
Emperor Renzong of Western Liao (仁宗 Rénzōng) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Yelü Yilie (耶律夷列 Yēlǜ Yíliè) "Xi Liao" + temple name 1150-1164 Shaoxing (紹興 Shàoxīng) or Xuxing (Xùxīng 續興)2 1150-1164
Did not exist Chengtianhou (承天后 Chéngtiānhòu) Yelü Pusuwan (耶律普速完 Yēlǜ Pǔsùwán) "Xi Liao" + posthumous name 1164-1178 Chongfu (崇福 Chóngfú) 1164-1178
Did not exist Mozhu (末主 Mòzhǔ) or Modi (末帝 Mòdì) Yelü Zhilugu (耶律直魯古 Yēlǜ Zhílǔgǔ) use birth name 1178-1211 Tianxi (天禧 Tiānxī) 1178-1218
Did not exist Did not exist Kuchlug (Ch. 屈出律 Qūchūlǜ) use birth name 1211-1218

1 "Dashi" might be the Chinese title "Taishi", meaning "vizier"; or, it could mean "Stone" in Turkish, as the Chinese transliteration suggests.
2 Recently discovered Western Liao coins have the era name "Xuxing", suggesting that the era name "Shaoxing" recorded in Chinese sources may be incorrect.[23]

Khar Khitan's Kermanid state[edit]

Remarks[edit]

The family name Li is a "rewarded" name being similar to the Emperor's name Li of Tang Empire.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bo (1977) 842-845.
  2. ^ Bo (1977), pp. 845-849.
  3. ^ Bo (1977), pp. 849-856.
  4. ^ Bo (1977), pp. 856-863.
  5. ^ Bo (1977), p. 863.
  6. ^ Bo (1977), pp. 863-867.
  7. ^ Bo (1977), pp. 867-879.
  8. ^ Bo (1977), pp. 879-882.
  9. ^ a b Bo (1977), pp. 882-883.
  10. ^ Bo (1977), pp. 883-893.
  11. ^ Bo (1977), pp. 893-895.
  12. ^ Bo (1977), pp. 895-896.
  13. ^ Bo (1977), p. 896.
  14. ^ Bo (1977), pp. 896-905.
  15. ^ Bo (1977), pp. 905-908.
  16. ^ Bo (1977), pp. 908-913.
  17. ^ Bo (1977), pp. 913-917.
  18. ^ Bo (1977), pp. 918-921.
  19. ^ Bo (1977), pp. 922-927.
  20. ^ Bo (1977), pp. 927-929.
  21. ^ Bo (1977), pp. 929-932.
  22. ^ Bo (1977), pp. 933-935.
  23. ^ Belyaev, V.A.; Nastich, V.N.; Sidorovich, S.V. (2012). "The coinage of Qara Khitay: a new evidence (on the reign title of the Western Liao Emperor Yelü Yilie)". Proceedings of the 3rd Simone Assemani Symposium, September 23–24, 2011, Rome. 

External links[edit]