List of Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross recipients (I)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross (German: Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes) and its variants were the highest awards in the military of the Third Reich during World War II. The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross was awarded for a wide range of reasons and across all ranks, from a senior commander for skilled leadership of his troops in battle to a low-ranking soldier for a single act of extreme gallantry.[1] A total of 7,321 awards were made between its first presentation on 30 September 1939 and its last bestowal on 17 June 1945.[Note 1] This number is based on the analysis and acceptance of the order commission of the Association of Knight's Cross Recipients (AKCR). Presentations were made to members of the three military branches of the Wehrmacht—the Heer (Army), Kriegsmarine (Navy) and Luftwaffe (Air Force)—as well as the Waffen-SS, the Reichsarbeitsdienst (RAD—Reich Labour Service) and the Volkssturm (German national militia). There were also 43 recipients in the military forces of allies of the Third Reich.[3]

These recipients are listed in the 1986 edition of Walther-Peer Fellgiebel's book, Die Träger des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939–1945 – Die Inhaber der höchsten Auszeichnung des Zweiten Weltkrieges aller WehrmachtsteileThe Bearers of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939–1945 — The Owners of the Highest Award of the Second World War of all Wehrmacht Branches. Fellgiebel was the former chairman and head of the order commission of the AKCR. In 1996 a second edition of this book was published with an addendum delisting 11 of these original recipients. Author and historian Veit Scherzer has cast doubt on a further 193 of these listings. The majority of the disputed recipients had received the award in 1945, when the deteriorating situation of the Third Reich during the final days of World War II left a number of nominations incomplete and pending in various stages of the approval process.[4] Scherzer wrote his book in cooperation with the German Federal Archives. The book was chosen by Prof. Dr. Franz W. Seidler for the library of the Bundeswehr University Munich and Deutsche Dienststelle (WASt) and is considered an accepted reference there.[5][6] For many years Fellgiebel's book was considered the main reference work on this topic, and it has now been succeeded by Scherzer's work.

Listed here are the 26 Knight's Cross recipients whose last names start with "I",[7] ordered alphabetically. The rank listed is the recipient's rank at the time the Knight's Cross was awarded.

Background[edit]

The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross and its higher grades were based on four separate enactments. The first enactment Reichsgesetzblatt I S. 1573 of 1 September 1939 instituted the Iron Cross (Eisernes Kreuz) and the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross.[8] As the war progressed, some of the recipients distinguished themselves further and a higher grade, the Oak Leaves to Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross, was instituted. The Oak Leaves, as they were commonly referred to, were based on the enactment Reichsgesetzblatt I S. 849 of 3 June 1940.[9] In 1941, two higher grades of the Knight's Cross were instituted. The enactment Reichsgesetzblatt I S. 613 of 28 September 1941 introduced the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords (Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes mit Eichenlaub und Schwertern) and the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves, Swords and Diamonds (Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes mit Eichenlaub, Schwertern und Brillanten).[10] At the end of 1944 the final grade, the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Golden Oak Leaves, Swords, and Diamonds (Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes mit goldenem Eichenlaub, Schwertern und Brillanten), based on the enactment Reichsgesetzblatt 1945 I S. 11 of 29 December 1944, became the final variant of the Knight's Cross authorized.[11]

Recipients[edit]

The Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (Supreme Command of the Armed Forces) kept separate Knight's Cross lists for the Heer (Army), Kriegsmarine (Navy), Luftwaffe (Air Force) and Waffen-SS. Within each of these lists a unique sequential number was assigned to each recipient. The same numbering paradigm was applied to the higher grades of the Knight's Cross, one list per grade.[12] Of the 26 awards made to servicemen whose last name starts with "I", one was later awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords and one presentation was made posthumously. Heer members received 16 of the medals, one went to the Kriegsmarine, and nine to the Luftwaffe.[7]

      This along with the + (plus) indicates that a higher grade of Knight's Cross was awarded as well.
      This along with the * (asterisk) indicates that the Knight's Cross was awarded posthumously.

Name Service Rank Role and unit[Note 2] Date of award Notes Image
Ibel, MaxMax Ibel Luftwaffe 17-LOberst[13] Geschwaderkommodore of Jagdgeschwader 27[13][14] 22 August 1940[13]
Iden, ArthurArthur Iden Heer 10-HOberwachtmeister[13] Leader of an assault gun in the fortress Schneidemühl[13][14] 10 February 1945[13]
Iffland, UlrichUlrich Iffland Heer 17-HOberst[13] Commander of Füssilier-Regiment 22[13][14] 3 October 1943[13]
Ihde, Dr. RudolfDr. Rudolf Ihde Heer 15-HMajor[15] Commander of the I./Sturm-Regiment 195[14][15] 23 September 1943[15]
Ihlefeld, HerbertHerbert Ihlefeld+ Luftwaffe 13-LOberleutnant[15] Pilot in the I./Jagdgeschwader 77[14][Note 3] 13 September 1940[15] Awarded 16th Oak Leaves 27 June 1941
9th Swords 24 April 1942[15]
Ihrig, Ernst-WilhelmErnst-Wilhelm Ihrig Luftwaffe 13-LOberleutnant[15] Staffelführer of the 3./Kampfgeschwader 3 "Lützow"[14][15] 23 August 1941[Note 4]
Ilk, IroIro Ilk Luftwaffe 13-LOberleutnant[15] Pilot in the 1.(K)/Lehrgeschwader 1[14][15] 21 October 1942[15]
Illg, Wilhelm-FriedrichWilhelm-Friedrich Illg Luftwaffe 10-LOberfeldwebel[Note 5] Pilot and board mechanic in the 9./Kampfgeschwader 76[14][Note 5] 1 October 1940[15] At the same time promoted to Leutnant of the Reserves[14]
Imgenberg, FritzFritz Imgenberg Heer 11-HStabsfeldwebel[15] Platoon leader in the Stabskompanie/Grenadier-Regiment 671[14][15] 9 June 1944[15]
Imminger, BernhardBernhard Imminger Heer 10-HOberfeldwebel[15] Platoon leader in the 3./Panzergrenadier-Regiment 67[15][16] 4 October 1944[15]
Indlekofer, FritzFritz Indlekofer Heer 14-HHauptmann[15] Commander of the II./Grenadier-Regiment 1050[15][17] 27 July 1944[15]
Ingenhoven, PeterPeter Ingenhoven Luftwaffe 14-LHauptmann of the Reserves[15] Deputy Gruppenkommandeur in Kampfgeschwader z.b.V. 103[15][17] 11 May 1940[15]
Ingram, Hermann Ritter vonHermann Ritter von Ingram Heer 06-HUnteroffizier[15] Company troop leader in the 4.(MG)/Infanterie-Regiment 309[17][Note 6] 16 June 1940[15]
Ippisch, JosefJosef Ippisch Heer 09-HFeldwebel[15] Platoon leader in the 12.(MG)/Grenadier-Regiment 123[17][Note 7] 10 May 1943[15]
Isachsen, HerbertHerbert Isachsen Luftwaffe 10-LOberfeldwebel[18] Pilot in the 3.(K)/Lehrgeschwader 1[17][Note 8] 3 September 1943[18]
Isczinsky, RichardRichard Isczinsky Heer 10-HOberfeldwebel[18] Platoon leader in the 3./Divisions-Füsilier-Bataillon (A.A.) 102[Note 9] 17 March 1945[18]
Iselhorst, OttoOtto Iselhorst Heer 06-HUnteroffizier[18] Group leader in the Stabskompanie/Jäger-Regiment 24 (L)[17][18] 14 April 1945[18]
Isken, EduardEduard Isken Luftwaffe 10-LOberfeldwebel[18] Pilot in the 13./Jagdgeschwader 53[17][18] 14 January 1945[18]
Issbrücker, Heinz-JürgenHeinz-Jürgen Ißbrücker Heer 13-HOberleutnant[18] Chief of the 3./Panzer-Aufklärungs-Abteilung 7[17][18] 12 September 1941[18]
Isselhorst, WilhelmWilhelm Isselhorst Heer 13-HOberleutnant[Note 10] Chief of the 7./Grenadier-Regiment 258[17][18] 21 February 1944[18]
Issermann, FriedrichFriedrich Issermann Heer 14-HHauptmann[18] Commander of the I./Grenadier-Regiment 102[17][18] 8 February 1944[18]
Ites, [Dr.] Otto[Dr.] Otto Ites[Note 11] Kriegsmarine 13-KOberleutnant zur See[18] Commander of U-94[17][18] 28 March 1942[18]
Itzen, DirkDirk Itzen Luftwaffe 12-LLeutnant[18] Reconnaissance officer in the 3./Flak-Regiment "General Göring" (motorized)[17][Note 12] 23 November 1941*[18] Died of wounds 13 July 1941[18]
Ivers, Hans-HenningHans-Henning Ivers Heer 13-HOberleutnant[18] Leader of the III./Infanterie-Regiment 46[17][18] 17 October 1942[18]
Iwand, FritzFritz Iwand Heer 16-HOberstleutnant[Note 13] Commander of I./Schützen-Regiment 10[17][18] 15 May 1940[18]
Iwannek, OttoOtto Iwannek Heer 04-HObergefreiter[18] Messenger in the 2./Grenadier-Regiment 45[17][18] 17 March 1945[18]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Großadmiral and President of Germany Karl Dönitz, Hitler's successor as Head of State (Staatsoberhaupt) and Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces, had ordered the cessation of all promotions and awards as of 11 May 1945 (Dönitz-decree). Consequently the last Knight's Cross awarded to Oberleutnant zur See of the Reserves Georg-Wolfgang Feller on 17 June 1945 must therefore be considered a de facto but not de jure hand-out.[2]
  2. ^ For an explanation of the various naming schemes used by the Luftwaffe, Heer, Kriegsmarine and Waffen-SS refer to nomenclature used by the Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS.
  3. ^ According to Scherzer in the I.(J)/Lehrgeschwader 2[15]
  4. ^ According to Scherzer on 14 August 1941.[15]
  5. ^ a b According to Scherzer as Leutnant of the Reserves and pilot in the 9./Kampfgeschwader 76.[15]
  6. ^ According to Scherzer as company troop leader in the 4./Infanterie-Regiment 309.[15]
  7. ^ According to Scherzer as company troop leader in the 12./Grenadier-Regiment 123.[15]
  8. ^ According to Scherzer as pilot in the 2.(K)/Lehrgeschwader 1.[18]
  9. ^ According to Scherzer as platoon leader in the 3./Divisions-Füsilier-Bataillon 102.[18]
  10. ^ According to Scherzer as Oberleutnant of the Reserves.[18]
  11. ^ The brackets around the doctor title [Dr.] denotes that the academic title was attained after the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross was awarded.
  12. ^ According to Scherzer as Reconnaissance officer in the 3./(Flak-)Regiment "General Göring".[18]
  13. ^ According to Scherzer as Major.[18]

References[edit]

Citations
  1. ^ Williamson and Bujeiro 2004, pp. 3–4.
  2. ^ Fellgiebel 2000, p. 4.
  3. ^ Fellgiebel 2000, pp. 113–460, 483, 485–487, 492, 494, 498–499, 501, 503, 509.
  4. ^ Scherzer 2007, pp. 117–186.
  5. ^ "Stimmen zum Buch "Ritterkreuzträger 1939–1945" von Veit Scherzer" (PDF). Scherzers Miltaer-Verlag (in German). Retrieved 10 December 2012. 
  6. ^ Scherzer 2007, cover.
  7. ^ a b Fellgiebel 2000, pp. 239–240.
  8. ^ "Reichsgesetzblatt Teil I S. 1573; 1 September 1939" (PDF). ALEX Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (in German). Reichsministerium des Inneren (Ministry of the Interior). Retrieved 21 February 2008. 
  9. ^ "Reichsgesetzblatt Teil I S. 849; 3 June 1940" (PDF). ALEX Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (in German). Reichsministerium des Inneren (Ministry of the Interior). Retrieved 21 February 2008. 
  10. ^ "Reichsgesetzblatt Teil I S. 613; 28 September 1941" (PDF). ALEX Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (in German). Reichsministerium des Inneren (Ministry of the Interior). Retrieved 21 February 2008. 
  11. ^ "Reichsgesetzblatt 1945 I S. 11; 29 December 1944" (PDF). ALEX Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (in German). Reichsministerium des Inneren (Ministry of the Interior). Retrieved 21 February 2008. 
  12. ^ Fellgiebel 2000, p. 112.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i Scherzer 2007, p. 412.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Fellgiebel 2000, p. 239.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag Scherzer 2007, p. 413.
  16. ^ Fellgiebel 2000, pp. 239, 493.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Fellgiebel 2000, p. 240.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak Scherzer 2007, p. 414.
Bibliography
  • Fellgiebel, Walther-Peer (2000). Die Träger des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939–1945 – Die Inhaber der höchsten Auszeichnung des Zweiten Weltkrieges aller Wehrmachtsteile [The Bearers of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939–1945 — The Owners of the Highest Award of the Second World War of all Wehrmacht Branches] (in German). Friedberg, Germany: Podzun-Pallas. ISBN 978-3-7909-0284-6. 
  • Scherzer, Veit (2007). Die Ritterkreuzträger 1939–1945 Die Inhaber des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939 von Heer, Luftwaffe, Kriegsmarine, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm sowie mit Deutschland verbündeter Streitkräfte nach den Unterlagen des Bundesarchives [The Knight's Cross Bearers 1939–1945 The Holders of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939 by Army, Air Force, Navy, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm and Allied Forces with Germany According to the Documents of the Federal Archives] (in German). Jena, Germany: Scherzers Miltaer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-938845-17-2. 
  • Williamson, Gordon and Bujeiro, Ramiro (2004). Knight's Cross and Oak Leaves Recipients 1939-40. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing Ltd. ISBN 1-84176-641-0.
Further reading
  • Berger, Florian (1999). Mit Eichenlaub und Schwertern. Die höchstdekorierten Soldaten des Zweiten Weltkrieges [With Oak Leaves and Swords. The Highest Decorated Soldiers of the Second World War] (in German). Vienna, Austria: Selbstverlag Florian Berger. ISBN 978-3-9501307-0-6. 
  • Fraschka, Günther (1994). Knights of the Reich. Atglen, Pennsylvania: Schiffer Military/Aviation History. ISBN 978-0-88740-580-8. 

External links[edit]