List of Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves recipients (1945)

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The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross (German: Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes) and its variants were the highest awards in the military of the Third Reich during World War II. This military decoration was awarded for a wide range of reasons and across all ranks, from a senior commander for skilled leadership of his troops in battle to a low-ranking soldier for a single act of extreme gallantry. The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves (Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes mit Eichenlaub) was introduced on 3 June 1940 to further distinguish those who had already received the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross and who continued to show merit in combat bravery or military success. A total of 7 awards were made in 1940, 50 in 1941, 111 in 1942, 192 in 1943, 328 in 1944, and 194 in 1945, giving a total of 882 recipients—excluding the 8 foreign recipients of the award.

This total is based on the analysis and acceptance of the order commission of the Association of Knight's Cross Recipients (AKCR),[1] but author and historian Veit Scherzer has challenged the validity of 27 of these listings.[2] With the exception of Hermann Fegelein, all of the disputed recipients received the award in 1945, when the deteriorating situation of the Third Reich during the final days of World War II left a number of nominations incomplete and pending in various stages of the approval process. Hermann Fegelein received the Oak Leaves in 1942, but was sentenced to death by Adolf Hitler and executed by SS-Gruppenführer Johann Rattenhuber's Reichssicherheitsdienst (RSD) on 28 April 1945 after a court-martial led by SS-Brigadeführer and Generalmajor of the Waffen-SS Wilhelm Mohnke. The sentence was carried out the same day. The death sentence, according to German law, resulted in the loss of all orders and honorary signs.[3]

Background[edit]

The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross and its higher grades were based on four separate enactments. The first enactment Reichsgesetzblatt I S. 1573, of 1 September 1939 instituted the Iron Cross (Eisernes Kreuz) and the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross.[4] As the war progressed, some of the recipients distinguished themselves further and a higher grade, the Oak Leaves to Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross, was instituted. The Oak Leaves, as they were commonly referred to, were based on the enactment Reichsgesetzblatt I S. 849 of 3 June 1940.[5] In 1941, two higher grades of the Knight's Cross were instituted. The enactment Reichsgesetzblatt I S. 613 of 28 September 1941 introduced the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords (Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes mit Eichenlaub und Schwertern) and the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves, Swords and Diamonds (Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes mit Eichenlaub, Schwertern und Brillanten).[6] At the end of 1944 the final grade, the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Golden Oak Leaves, Swords, and Diamonds (Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes mit goldenem Eichenlaub, Schwertern und Brillanten), based on the enactment Reichsgesetzblatt 1945 I S. 11 of 29 December 1944, concluded the variants of the Knight's Cross.[7]

Recipients of 1945[edit]

Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves
Year   Number of presentations Posthumous presentations
1940
7
0
1941
50
3
1942
111
7
1943
192
17
1944
328
46
1945
194
19

The Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (Supreme Command of the Armed Forces) kept separate Knight's Cross lists for each of the three military branches—Heer (Army), Kriegsmarine (Navy), and Luftwaffe (Air Force)—and also for the Waffen-SS. Within each of these lists a unique sequential number was assigned to each recipient. The same numbering was applied to the higher grades of the Knight's Cross, one list per grade.[8] Of the 194 awards made in 1945, 19 presentations were made posthumously. Heer members received 127 of the medals, 5 went to the Kriegsmarine, 37 to the Luftwaffe, and 25 to the Waffen-SS.[9]

The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords was awarded to one of the 194 Oak Leaves recipients of 1945.[1] However, Viet Scherzer has disputed the listing of General der Infanterie Hermann Niehoff on the basis of poor record keeping associated with the deteriorating situation of the Third Reich during the final days of World War II.[10] The sequential numbers greater than 843 for the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and 143 for the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords are unofficial and were assigned by the Association of Knight's Cross Recipients (AKCR) and are therefore denoted in parentheses.[11] The recipients are ordered and numbered chronologically. The rank listed is the recipient's rank at the time the Knight's Cross with Oak Leaves was awarded.

      This along with the * (asterisk) indicates that the Knight's Cross was awarded posthumously.
      This along with the ? (question mark) indicates that historian Veit Scherzer has expressed doubt regarding the veracity or formal correctness of the listing.

Number Name Service Rank Role and unit[Note 1] Date of award Notes Image
689 Behr, Heinrich Baron vonHeinrich Baron von Behr Heer 17-HOberst[12] Commander of Panzergrenadier-Regiment 200[12][13] 9 January 1945[12]
690 Mühlen, Kurt-Hermann Freiherr vonKurt-Hermann Freiherr von Mühlen Heer 18-HGeneralmajor[14] Commander of the 559. Volksgrenadier-Division[13][14] 9 January 1945[14]
691 Lucht, WalterWalter Lucht Heer 20-HGeneral der Artillerie[15] Commanding general of the LXVI. Armeekorps[13][15] 9 January 1945[15]
A man wearing a military uniform and peaked cap with an Iron Cross displayed at the front of his uniform collar.
692 Gravenreuth, Sigmund-Ulrich Freiherr vonSigmund-Ulrich Freiherr von Gravenreuth Luftwaffe 16-LOberstleutnant[16] Geschwaderkommodore of Kampfgeschwader 30[13][16] 9 January 1945*[16] Killed in flying accident 16 October 1944[13]
693 Gröschke, KurtKurt Gröschke Luftwaffe 16-LOberstleutnant[17] Commander of Fallschirmjäger-Regiment 15[13][17] 9 January 1945[17]
A man wearing a military uniform with an Iron Cross displayed at the front of his uniform collar.
694 Herzog, KurtKurt Herzog Heer 20-HGeneral der Artillerie[18] Commanding general of the XXXVIII. Armeekorps[13][18] 12 January 1945[18]
695 Eisele, AloisAlois Eisele Heer 15-HMajor[19] Commander of the III./Grenadier-Regiment 61[13][19] 12 January 1945[19]
696 Riedesel Freiherr zu Eisenbach, VolprechtVolprecht Riedesel Freiherr zu Eisenbach Luftwaffe 16-LOberstleutnant[20] Geschwaderkommodore of Kampfgeschwader 54 (J)[13][20] 14 January 1945[20]
697 Brendel, JoachimJoachim Brendel Luftwaffe 14-LHauptmann[21] Gruppenkommandeur of the III./Jagdgeschwader 51 "Mölders"[13][21] 14 January 1945[21]
698 Hasse, WilhelmWilhelm Hasse Heer 20-HGeneral der Infanterie[22] Commanding general of the II. Armeekorps[13][22] 14 January 1945[22]
699 Gollert-Hansen, Hans-DetlefHans-Detlef Gollert-Hansen Heer 14-HRittmeister of the Reserves[23] Commander of the II./Reiter-Regiment 31[13][23] 14 January 1945[23]
700 Breger, ClausClaus Breger Heer 14-HHauptmann[24] Commander of the I./Füsilier-Regiment 27[24][25] 14 January 1945*[24] Died of wounds on 17 December 1944[25]
701 Streckenbach, BrunoBruno Streckenbach Waffen-SS 19-WSS-Gruppenführer and Generalleutnant of the Waffen-SS[Note 2] Commander of the 19. Waffen-Grenadier Division der Waffen-SS (lett. Nr. 2)[25][26] 16 January 1945[26]
702 Reinwald, MaxMax Reinwald Heer 17-HOberst of the Reserves[27] Commander of Grenadier-Regiment 19 "List"[25][27] 18 January 1945[27]
703 Henze, RichardRichard Henze Heer 16-HOberstleutnant of the Reserves[28] Commander of Grenadier-Regiment 489[25][28] 18 January 1945[28]
704 Risse, WaltherWalther Risse Heer 19-HGeneralleutnant[29] Commander of the 225. Infanterie-Division[25][29] 18 January 1945[29]
705 Löhr, AlexanderAlexander Löhr Luftwaffe 21-LGeneraloberst[30] Commander-in-chief of Heeresgruppe E[25][30] 20 January 1945[30]
A man wearing a military uniform with an Iron Cross displayed at the front of his uniform collar.
706 Schmidhuber, GerhardGerhard Schmidhuber Heer 18-HGeneralmajor[31] Commander of the 13. Panzer-Division[25][31] 21 January 1945[31]
A man wearing a military uniform and peaked cap with an Iron Cross displayed at the front of his uniform collar.
707 Schöning, WilhelmWilhelm Schöning Heer 15-HMajor of the Reserves[32] Leader of Panzergrenadier-Regiment 66[25][32] 21 January 1945[32]
708 Kündiger, HerbertHerbert Kündiger Heer 16-HOberstleutnant[33] Leader of Kampfgruppe of the 271. Volksgenadier-Division in the fortress Budapest[34][Note 3] 21 January 1945[33]
709 Henze, AlbertAlbert Henze Heer 18-HGeneralmajor[28] Commander of Gruppe Henze (Feld-Division 21 (L))[25][28] 21 January 1945[28]
710 Reuter, ErichErich Reuter Heer 18-HGeneralmajor[35] Commander of the 46. Infanterie-Division[25][35] 21 January 1945[35]
711 Dahlmann, KurtKurt Dahlmann Luftwaffe 15-LMajor[36] Geschwaderkommodore of Nachtschlachtgeschwader 20[25][36] 24 January 1945[36]
712 Plenzat, KurtKurt Plenzat Luftwaffe 12-LLeutnant[37] Pilot in the 2./Schlachtgeschwader 2 "Immelmann"[25][37] 24 January 1945[37]
713 Rollwage, HerbertHerbert Rollwage Luftwaffe 12-LLeutnant[38] Staffelkapitän of the 5./Jagdgeschwader 53[25][38] 24 January 1945[38]
714 Schafer, MaxMax Schäfer Waffen-SS 17-WSS-Standartenführer[Note 4] Corps pioneer leader of the III. SS-Panzerkorps[25][39] 25 January 1945[39]
715 Proll, KarlKarl Pröll Heer 16-HOberstleutnant[40] Commander of Panzergrenadier-Regiment 35[25][40] 25 January 1945[40]
716 Bohlke, HellmuthHellmuth Böhlke Heer 19-HGeneralleutnant[41] Commander of the 334. Infanterie-Division[25][41] 25 January 1945[41]
717 Suss, WalterWalter Süß Heer 10-HOberfeldwebel[42] Platoon leader in the Stabskompanie/Grenadier-Regiment 273[25][42] 25 January 1945[42]
718 Spindler, WilhelmWilhelm Spindler Heer 15-HMajor[43] Leader of Gebirgsjäger-Regiment 99[25][43] 31 January 1945[43] At the same time promoted to Oberstleutnant
719 Arndt, KarlKarl Arndt Heer 19-HGeneralleutnant[44] Commander of the 359. Infanterie-Division[25][44] 1 February 1945[44]
720 Wahl, KurtKurt Wahl Waffen-SS 15-WSS-Sturmbannführer[45] Commander of the SS-Panzer-Aufklärungs-Abteilung 17 "Götz von Berlichingen"[46][Note 5] 1 February 1945[45]
721 Rumohr, JoachimJoachim Rumohr Waffen-SS 18-WSS-Brigadeführer and Generalmajor of the Waffen-SS[47] Commander of the 8. SS-Kavallerie-Division "Florian Geyer"[46][47] 1 February 1945[47]
A man wearing a military uniform with an Iron Cross displayed at the front of his uniform collar.
722 Zehender, AugustAugust Zehender Waffen-SS 18-WSS-Brigadeführer and Generalmajor of the Waffen-SS[48] Commander of the 22. SS-Freiwilligen-Kavallerie-Division "Maria Theresia"[46][48] 1 February 1945[48]
A man wearing a military uniform and peaked cap with an Iron Cross displayed at the front of his uniform collar.
723 Pfeffer-Wildenbruch, KarlKarl Pfeffer-Wildenbruch Waffen-SS 20-WSS-Obergruppenführer and General of the Police and Waffen-SS[49] Commanding general of the IX. SS-Gebirgskorps[46][49] 1 February 1945[49]
A man wearing a military uniform.
724 Dahl, WaltherWalther Dahl Luftwaffe 15-LMajor[36] Geschwaderkommodore of Jagdgeschwader 300[36][46] 1 February 1945[36] At the same time promoted to Oberstleutnant[46]
725 Rossmann, KarlKarl Roßmann Luftwaffe 15-LMajor[50] Commander of Fallschirm-Panzer-Regiment 1 "Hermann Göring"[46][50] 1 February 1945[50]
726 Jansa, ErnstErnst Jansa Luftwaffe 17-LOberst[51] Commander of Flak-Sturm-Regiment 12[46][Note 6] 1 February 1945[51]
727 Harder, JürgenJürgen Harder Luftwaffe 15-LMajor[52] Geschwaderkommodore of Jagdgeschwader 11[46][52] 1 February 1945[52]
728 Vincon, OttoOtto Vincon Heer 15-HMajor of the Reserves[53] Commander of the I./Grenadier-Regiment 460[46][53] 5 February 1945[53]
729 Sander, JoachimJoachim Sander Heer 17-HOberst[54] Commander of Panzer-Regiment 31[46][54] 5 February 1945*[54] Killed in action 3 November 1944[54]
730 Plettenberg, Georg Graf vonGeorg Graf von Plettenberg Heer 14-HRittmeister[37] Commander of schwere Kavallerie-Abteilung 4[37][46] 5 February 1945[37]
731 Weichs, Maximilian vonMaximilian von Weichs Heer 22-HGeneralfeldmarschall[55] OB Südost (Commander-in-chief Heeresgruppe F)[46][55] 5 February 1945[55]
A man wearing a military uniform and glasses with an Iron Cross displayed at the front of his uniform collar.
732 Osterhold, WilhelmWilhelm Osterhold Heer 16-HOberstleutnant[56] Commander of Grenadier-Regiment 48[46][56] 10 February 1945[56]
733 Jauer, GeorgGeorg Jauer Heer 19-HGeneralleutnant[57] Commander of the 20. Panzergrenadier-Division[46][57] 10 February 1945[57]
734 Oesterwitz, Karl-HeinzKarl-Heinz Oesterwitz Heer 16-HOberstleutnant[58] Commander of Jäger-Regiment 2 "Brandenburg"[46][58] 10 February 1945[58]
735 Wittmann, HerbertHerbert Wittmann Luftwaffe 15-LMajor[59] Gruppenkommandeur of the II./Kampfgeschwader 53 "Legion Condor"[46][59] 11 February 1945[59]
736 Schramm, HerbertHerbert Schramm Luftwaffe 13-LOberleutnant[60] Staffelkapitän of the 5./Jagdgeschwader 27[60][61] 11 February 1945*[60] Killed in action 1 December 1943[60]
737 Frank, Anton-OttoAnton-Otto Frank Heer 14-HHauptmann[62] Commander of Heeres-Panzer-Jäger-Abteilung 743[61][62] 7 February 1945[62]
738 Müller, AntonAnton Müller Heer 14-HHauptmann[63] Commander of the II./Grenadier-Regiment 503[61][63] 14 February 1945[63]
739 Zorn, EduardEduard Zorn Heer 17-HOberst im Generalstab (in the general staff)[64] Leader of the 189. Infanterie-Division[61][64] 16 February 1945*[64] Killed in action 4 February 1945[64]
740 Schulke, WilliWilli Schülke Heer 14-HHauptmann[65] Commander of the III./Ski-Jäger-Regiment 1[61][65] 16 February 1945[65]
741 Blumentritt, GüntherGünther Blumentritt Heer 20-HGeneral der Infanterie[66] Acting commander (leader) of the 25. Armee[61][66] 18 February 1945[66]
742 Heichele, JosefJosef Heichele Heer 15-HMajor[67] Commander of Divisions-Füsilier-Bataillon 129[61][67] 17 February 1945[67]
743 Gebhardt, GeorgGeorg Gebhardt Heer 16-HOberstleutnant of the Reserves[68] Commander of Sturm-Regiment 195[61][68] 19 February 1945[68]
744 Knebel, ErnstErnst Knebel Heer 17-HOberst[69] Commander of the Armee-Waffenschule 3. Panzerarmee (AOK 3)[61][69] 19 February 1945[69]
745 Klasing, FritzFritz Klasing Heer 17-HOberst of the Reserves[70] Commander of Grenadier-Regiment 232[61][70] 19 February 1945[70]
746 Blaurock, EdmundEdmund Blaurock Heer 18-HGeneralmajor[71] Commander of the 56. Infanterie-Division[61][71] 19 February 1945[71]
747 Schulz, LudwigLudwig Schulz Luftwaffe 18-LGeneralmajor[72] Commander of a Kampfgruppe in the Luftkriegsschule 5[61][Note 7] 19 February 1945[72]
748 Hermichen, RolfRolf Hermichen Luftwaffe 15-LMajor[73] Gruppenkommandeur of the I./Jagdgeschwader 11[61][73] 19 February 1945[73]
749 Krebs, HansHans Krebs Heer 20-HGeneral der Infanterie[74] Chief of the Generalstab of Heeresgruppe B[61][74] 20 February 1945[74]
A man wearing a military uniform and peaked cap with an Iron Cross displayed at the front of his uniform collar.
750 Ewert, Heinz-MartinHeinz-Martin Ewert Heer 15-HMajor[75] Abschnitts-Kommandant (sector commander) West/Festung Posen[61][75] 22 February 1945[75]
751 Rappard, Fritz-Georg vonFritz-Georg von Rappard Heer 19-HGeneralleutnant[76] Commander of the 7. Infanterie-Division[61][76] 24 February 1945[76]
752 Jakwert, JosefJosef Jakwert Heer 12-HLeutnant[77] Platoon leader in the 2./Panzer-Jäger-Abteilung 1562[61][77] 24 February 1945[77]
753 Warschnauer, HorstHorst Warschnauer Heer 14-HHauptmann of the Reserves[Note 8] Commander of Panzer-Pionier-Bataillon "Großdeutschland"[61][78] 24 February 1945[78]
754 Rohr, Hans-Babo vonHans-Babo von Rohr Heer 12-HLeutnant[Note 9] Leader of the 2./Panzer-Regiment 25[38][79] 24 February 1945*[38] Died of wounds 15 February 1945[38]
755 Krag, Ernst-AugustErnst-August Krag Waffen-SS 15-WSS-Sturmbannführer[80] Commander of SS-Panzer-Aufklärungs-Abteilung 2 "Das Reich"[79][80] 28 February 1945[80]
756 Schmelzer, HeinrichHeinrich Schmelzer Waffen-SS 14-WSS-Hauptsturmführer of the Reserves[81] Chief of the 1./SS-Panzer-Pionier-Bataillon 2 "Das Reich"[79][Note 10] 28 February 1945[81]
757 Kempas, TraugottTraugott Kempas Heer 14-HHauptmann[82] Commander of the I./Grenadier-Regiment 176[79][82] 28 February 1945[82]
758 Kullmer, ArthurArthur Kullmer Heer 19-HGeneralleutnant[83] Commander of the 558. Volksgrenadier-Division[79][83] 28 February 1945[83]
759 Possinger, MichaelMichael Pössinger Heer 15-HMajor[84] Commander of the I./Grenadier-Regiment 1123[79][84] 28 February 1945[84]
760 Pollmann, OthmarOthmar Pollmann Heer 15-HMajor[85] Adjutant of the 45. Infanterie-Division[79][Note 11] 28 February 1945[85]
761 Baer, Bern vonBern von Baer Heer 16-HOberstleutnant im Generalstab[86] Chief of Stab/Fallschirmjäger-Panzerkorps "Hermann Göring"[79][86] 28 February 1945[86]
A man wearing a military uniform and field cap with an Iron Cross displayed at the front of his uniform collar.
762 Reichardt, HansHans Reichardt Heer 17-HOberst[87] Commander of Kampfgruppe "Steinau" in the 408. Infanterie-Division[79][Note 12] 5 March 1945*[87] Killed in action 2 February 1945[87]
763 Ebeling, WernerWerner Ebeling Heer 16-HOberstleutnant[88] Commander of Grenadier-Regiment 154[79][88] 5 March 1945[88]
764 Niehoff, HermannHermann Niehoff Heer 19-HGeneralleutnant[89] Commander of the 371. Infanterie-Division[79][89] 5 March 1945[89] Awarded (147th) Swords 26 April 1945?[Note 13]
765 Goetz, HeinrichHeinrich Götz Heer 18-HGeneralmajor[90] Commander of the 21. Infanterie-Division[79][90] 5 March 1945[90]
766 Bunau, Rudolf vonRudolf von Bünau Heer 20-HGeneral der Infanterie[91] Commanding general of the XI. Armeekorps[79][91] 5 March 1945[91]
767 Karczewski, BrunoBruno Karczewski Heer 15-HMajor[92] Leader of Grenadier-Regiment 176[79][92] 5 March 1945[92]
768 Schneider, Dipl.-Ing. ErichDipl.-Ing. Erich Schneider Heer 19-HGeneralleutnant[93] Commander of the 14. Infanterie-Division[79][93] 6 March 1945[93]
769 Welter, KurtKurt Welter Luftwaffe 13-LOberleutnant[94] Staffelkapitän of the 10./Nachtjagdgeschwader 11[79][94] 11 March 1945[94]
770 Renschler, HelmutHelmut Renschler Heer 14-HHauptmann of the Reserves[95] Chief of the 1./Artillerie-Regiment 5[79][95] 11 March 1945[95]
771 Rust, Dr. jur. WolfgangDr. jur. Wolfgang Rust Heer 14-HHauptmann[96] Commander of the II./Grenadier-Regiment 11[79][96] 11 March 1945[96]
772 Sixt, FriedrichFriedrich Sixt Heer 19-HGeneralleutnant[97] Commander of the 5. Jäger-Division[79][97] 11 March 1945[97]
773 Witschel, KurtKurt Witschel Heer 13-HOberleutnant[98] Leader of the 9./Jäger-Regiment 28[79][98] 11 March 1945[98]
774 Betzel, ClemensClemens Betzel Heer 19-HGeneralleutnant[99] Commander of the 4. Panzer-Division[99][100] 11 March 1945[99]
775 Rogalski, FranzFranz Rogalski Heer 12-HLeutnant of the Reserves[101] Adjutant of the II./Grenadier-Regiment 45[100][101] 11 March 1945[101]
776 Grimminger, JohannesJohannes Grimminger Heer 15-HMajor of the Reserves[17] Commander of the II./Panzergrenadier-Regiment 192[17][102] 11 March 1945[17]
777 Kutschkau, ErnstErnst Kutschkau Heer 10-HOberfeldwebel of the Reserves[103] Leader of the 6./Grenadier-Regiment 3[100][103] 11 March 1945[103]
778 Aghta, EgonEgon Aghta Heer 14-HHauptmann (W) of the Reserves[104] Leader of a bomb disposal commando in the Luftgaukommando III Berlin[100][104] 12 March 1945[104]
779 Schroeder, WilhelmWilhelm Schröder Heer 17-HOberst[105] Commander of Kampfgruppe Schröder of the 408. Infanterie-Division[100][Note 14] 13 March 1945[105]
780 Becker, Karl-HeinzKarl-Heinz Becker Luftwaffe 16-LOberstleutnant[106] Commander of Fallschirmjäger-Regiment 5[100][106] 12 March 1945[106]
A man wearing a military uniform with an Iron Cross displayed at the front of his uniform collar.
781 Rokker, HeinzHeinz Rökker Luftwaffe 14-LHauptmann[107] Staffelkapitän of the 2./Nachtjagdgeschwader 2[100][107] 12 March 1945[107]
782 Weiss, RobertRobert Weiß Luftwaffe 14-LHauptmann[108] Gruppenkommandeur of the III./Jagdgeschwader 54[100][108] 12 March 1945*[108] Killed in action 29 December 1944[108]
783 Potschke, WernerWerner Pötschke Waffen-SS 15-WSS-Sturmbannführer[84] Commander of the I./SS-Panzer-Regiment 1 "Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler"[84][100] 15 March 1945[84]
784 Matern, AlfredAlfred Matern Heer 10-HOberfeldwebel[109] Platoon leader in the 5./Füsilier-Regiment 22[100][109] 16 March 1945[109]
785 Vogt, FritzFritz Vogt Waffen-SS 14-WSS-Hauptsturmführer[110] Commander of the I./SS-Panzergrenadier-Regiment 23 "Norge" (norw. Nr. 1)[102][110] 16 March 1945[110]
786 Jager, Karl-HeinzKarl-Heinz Jaeger Heer 14-HHauptmann of the Reserves[111] Leader of Grenadier-Regiment 448[100][111] 16 March 1945[111]
787 Wandrey, MaxMax Wandrey Heer 15-HMajor of the Reserves[112] Commander of the II./Jäger-Regiment 1 "Brandenburg"[100][112] 16 March 1945*[112] Died of wounds on 21 February 1945[112]
788 Engelien, HansHans Engelien Heer 16-HOberstleutnant[113] Commander of Panzergrenadier-Regiment 25[100][113] 16 March 1945[113]
789 Ruhl, HeinrichHeinrich Ruhl Heer 15-HMajor[47] Commander of Füsilier-Bataillon (A.A.) 122[47][100] 16 March 1945[47]
790 Frankewitz, BrunoBruno Frankewitz Heer 19-HGeneralleutnant[114] Commander of the 215. Infanterie-Division[114][115] 16 March 1945[114]
791 Scheuerpflug, PaulPaul Scheuerpflug Heer 19-HGeneralleutnant[116] Commander of the 68. Infanterie-Division[115][116] 16 March 1945[116]
792 Becker, MartinMartin Becker Luftwaffe 14-LHauptmann[Note 15] Gruppenkommandeur of the IV./Nachtjagdgeschwader 6[106][115] 20 March 1945[106]
793 Werner, GerhardGerhard Werner Heer 15-HMajor[117] Commander of the I./Jäger-Regiment 734[115][117] 23 March 1945*[117] Killed in action 8 September 1944[117]
794 Kedzia, Ernst-GeorgErnst-Georg Kedzia Heer 15-HMajor[118] Combat commander of Fürstenberg an der Oder and commander of Grenadier-Regiment 98 (391. Sicherungs-Division)[119][Note 16] 23 March 1945[118]
795 Meyer, Kuno vonKuno von Meyer Heer 16-HOberstleutnant[120] Commander of Panzer-Regiment "Coburg" in the Panzer-Brigade 103[115][120] 23 March 1945[120]
796 Pruss, WalterWalter Prüß Heer 13-HOberleutnant[121] Chief of the 8./Panzergrenadier-Regiment 76[115][121] 23 March 1945[121]
797 Konopacki, GüntherGünther Konopacki Heer 14-HRittmeister[122] Commander of the I./Radfahr-Jäger-Brigade 10[115][122] 23 March 1945[122]
798 Herzog, Hans-GeorgHans-Georg Herzog Heer 16-HOberstleutnant of the Reserves[18] Commander of Panzergrenadier-Regiment 14[18][115] 23 March 1945[18]
799 Trittel, RudolfRudolf Trittel Heer 16-HOberstleutnant[123] Commander of Grenadier-Regiment 9[115][123] 23 March 1945[123]
800 Wanka, KarlKarl Wanka Heer 15-HMajor of the Reserves[112] Commander of the I./Grenadier-Regiment 53[112][115] 23 March 1945[112]
801 Elverfeldt, Harald Freiherr vonHarald Freiherr von Elverfeldt Heer 18-HGeneralmajor[124] Commander of the 9. Panzer-Division[115][124] 23 March 1945*[124] Killed in action 6 March 1945[124]
802 Jeckeln, FriedrichFriedrich Jeckeln Waffen-SS 20-WSS-Obergruppenführer and General of the Waffen-SS[57] Commanding general of the V. SS-Gebirgskorps[57][115] 8 March 1945[57]
A man wearing a military uniform.
803 Fullriede, FritzFritz Fullriede Heer 17-HOberst[125] Fortress commander of Kolberg[115][125] 23 March 1945[125]
804 Spielmann, JohannesJohannes Spielmann Heer 15-HMajor[43] Commander of Sturmgeschütz-Brigade 202[43][115] 28 March 1945[43]
805 Keese, HeinrichHeinrich Keese Heer 15-HMajor of the Reserves[118] Commander of Pionier-Bataillon 20 (mot.)[115][118] 28 March 1945[118]
806 Berger, LotharLothar Berger Heer 17-HOberst[126] Commander of Brigade z.b.V. 100[115][126] 28 March 1945[126]
807 Hufenbach, HelmuthHelmuth Hufenbach Heer 17-HOberst[127] Leader of the 562. Volksgrenadier-Division[115][127] 28 March 1945*[127] Killed in action 27 March 1945[127]
808 Schroedter, ErichErich Schroedter Heer 14-HRittmeister[105] Commander of Panzer-Augklärungs-Abteilung "Großdeutschland"[105][119] 28 March 1945[105]
809 Usedom, Horst vonHorst von Usedom Heer 17-HOberst[128] Leader of Panzer-Brigade "Kurland"[115][128] 28 March 1945[128]
810 Josten, GüntherGünther Josten Luftwaffe 13-LOberleutnant[129] Staffelkapitän of the 3./Jagdgeschwader 51 "Mölders"[129][130] 28 March 1945[129]
811 Glaser, AlexanderAlexander Gläser Luftwaffe 14-LHauptmann[131] Gruppenkommandeur of the II./Schlachtgeschwader 77[130][131] 28 March 1945[131]
812 Stahler, WilhelmWilhelm Stähler Luftwaffe 13-LOberleutnant[132] Staffelkapitän of the 7./Schlachtgeschwader 2 "Immelmann"[130][132] 28 March 1945[132]
813 Studemann, GerhardGerhard Stüdemann Luftwaffe 14-LHauptmann[133] Gruppenkommandeur of the III./Schlachtgeschwader 77[130][133] 28 March 1945[133]
814 Girg, WalterWalter Girg Waffen-SS 14-WSS-Hauptsturmführer[131] Leader of special detachment of the SS-Jagdverband Mitte[130][131] 1 April 1945[131]
815 Mellenthin, Horst vonHorst von Mellenthin Heer 19-HGeneralleutnant[134] Commander of the 205. Infanterie-Division[130][134] 4 April 1945[134]
816 Steglich, MartinMartin Steglich Heer 15-HMajor[135] Leader of Grenadier-Regiment 1221[130][135] 5 April 1945[135]
817 Neubert, RudolfRudolf Neubert Heer 16-HOberstleutnant[136] Commander of Grenadier-Regiment 31[130][136] 5 April 1945[136]
818 Richter, FriedrichFriedrich Richter Heer 16-HOberstleutnant[137] Commander of Grenadier-Regiment 1222[130][137] 5 April 1945[137]
819 Kuppinger, ErnstErnst Kuppinger Heer 14-HHauptmann[138] Commander of Füsilier-Bataillon 246[130][Note 17] 5 April 1945[138]
820 Paetsch, OttoOtto Paetsch Waffen-SS 16-WSS-Obersturmbannführer[139] Commander of SS-Panzer-Regiment 10 "Frundsberg"[130][139] 5 April 1945*[139] Killed in action 16 March 1945[139]
821 Tettau, Hans vonHans von Tettau Heer 19-HGeneralleutnant[140] Leader of Korpsgruppe "von Tettau"[130][140] 5 April 1945[140]
822 Thyben, GerhardGerhard Thyben Luftwaffe 13-LOberleutnant[141] Staffelkapitän of the 7./Jagdgeschwader 54[130][141] 8 April 1945[141]
A man wearing a military uniform and field cap with an Iron Cross displayed at the front of his uniform collar.
823 Burchardi, TheodorTheodor Burchardi Kriegsmarine 20-MAdmiral[142] Commanding Admiral östliche Ostsee (Eastern Baltic Sea)[130][142] 8 April 1945[142]
A man wearing a military uniform and peaked cap with a military order in shape of a cross displayed at the front of his uniform collar.
824 Thiele, AugustAugust Thiele Kriegsmarine 19-MVizeadmiral[143] Commander of Kampfgruppe "Thiele"[130][143] 8 April 1945[143]
A man wearing a military uniform with an Iron Cross displayed at the front of his uniform collar.
825 Richter, BrunoBruno Richter Heer 14-HRittmeister[144] Commander of Füsilier-Bataillon (A.A.) 24[130][144] 8 April 1945[144]
826 Skorzeny, Dipl.-Ing. OttoDipl.-Ing. Otto Skorzeny Waffen-SS 16-WSS-Obersturmbannführer of the Reserves[97] Commander of the SS-Jagd-Verbände and combat commander of Schwedt an der Oder[97][130] 9 April 1945[97]
A man wearing a military uniform and steel helmet with an Iron Cross displayed at the front of his uniform collar.
827 Krosigk, Ernst-Anton vonErnst-Anton von Krosigk Heer 20-HGeneral der Infanterie[145] Commanding of the XVI. Armeekorps[130][145] 12 April 1945*[145] Killed in action 16 March 1945[145]
828 Borchardt, HelmutHelmut Borchardt Heer 10-HOberfeldwebel[146] Leader of the company "Borchardt" of the regiment "Kohlmann" in the 402. Infanterie-Division[130][146] 14 April 1945*[146] Killed in action 15–18 March 1945[Note 18]
829 Becker, CarlCarl Becker Heer 19-HGeneralleutnant[147] Commander of the 253. Infanterie-Division[130][147] 14 April 1945[147]
830 Ropke, KurtKurt Röpke Heer 20-HGeneral der Infanterie[107] Commanding general of the XXIX. Armeekorps[107][130] 14 April 1945[107]
831 Rogelein, FriedrichFriedrich Rögelein Heer 17-HOberst[148] Commander of Grenadier-Regiment 109[130][148] 14 April 1945[148]
832 Simm, AlfredAlfred Simm Heer 14-HHauptmann[149] Leader of the II./Grenadier-Regiment 31[149][150] 14 April 1945[149]
833 Raht, GerhardGerhard Raht Luftwaffe 14-LHauptmann[151] Gruppenkommandeur of the I./Nachtjagdgeschwader 2[150][151] 15 April 1945[151]
834 Ostermeier, Hans-ArnoHans-Arno Ostermeier Heer 15-HMajor of the Reserves[56] Leader of Fallschirm-Panzergrenadier-Regiment 3 "Hermann Göring"[150][Note 19] 15 April 1945[56]
835 Hansen, MaxMax Hansen Waffen-SS 16-WSS-Obersturmbannführer[152] Commander of SS-Panzergrenadier-Regiment 1 "Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler"[150][152] 17 April 1945[152]
A man wearing a military uniform and peaked cap with an Iron Cross displayed at the front of his uniform collar.
836 Lütje, HerbertHerbert Lütje Luftwaffe 15-LMajor[153] Geschwaderkommodore of Nachtjagdgeschwader 6[150][153] 17 April 1945[153]
837 Lipfert, HelmutHelmut Lipfert Luftwaffe 14-LHauptmann[154] Gruppenkommandeur of the I./Jagdgeschwader 53[150][154] 17 April 1945[154]
838 Kraft, JosefJosef Kraft Luftwaffe 14-LHauptmann[80] Staffelkapitän of the 12./Nachtjagdgeschwader 1[80][150] 17 April 1945[80]
839 Drewes, MartinMartin Drewes Luftwaffe 15-LMajor[155] Gruppenkommandeur of the III./Nachtjagdgeschwader 1[150][155] 17 April 1945[155]
840 Greiner, HermannHermann Greiner Luftwaffe 14-LHauptmann[156] Gruppenkommandeur of the IV./Nachtjagdgeschwader 1[150][156] 17 April 1945[156]
841 Semrau, PaulPaul Semrau Luftwaffe 15-LMajor[157] Gruppenkommandeur of the I./Nachtjagdgeschwader 2[150][157] 17 April 1945*[157] Killed in action 8 February 1945[157] A man wearing a military uniform with an Iron Cross displayed at the front of his uniform collar.
842 Raegener, AdolfAdolf Raegener Heer 19-HGeneralleutnant[151] Commander of Verteidigungsbereich Magdeburg (defensive sector of Magdeburg)[150][151] 17 April 1945[151]
843 Knaust, Hans-PeterHans-Peter Knaust Heer 16-HOberstleutnant[158] Commander of Regiment "Knaust" in the 490. Infanterie-Division[150][Note 20] 17 April 1945[158]
Last officially announced number
(844) Hack, FranzFranz Hack?[Note 21] Waffen-SS 16-WSS-Obersturmbannführer Commander of SS-Panzergrenadier-Regiment 10 "Westland"[150] 18 April 1945
(845) Kausch, Paul-AlbertPaul-Albert Kausch?[Note 22] Waffen-SS 16-WSS-Obersturmbannführer Commander of SS-Panzer-Regiment 11[150] 23 April 1945
(846) Brandner, JosefJosef Brandner?[Note 23] Heer 15-HMajor Commander of Heeres-Sturmgeschütz-Brigade 912[150] 26 April 1945
(847) Rodt, EberhardEberhard Rodt Heer 19-HGeneralleutnant[148] Commander of the 15. Panzergrenadier-Division[148][150] 28 April 1945[148]
(848) Ziegler, JoachimJoachim Ziegler Waffen-SS 18-WSS-Brigadeführer and Generalmajor of the Waffen-SS[162] Commander of the 11. SS-Freiwilligen-Panzergrenadier Division "Nordland"[150][Note 24] 28 April 1945[162]
(849) Kappis, Hans-JoachimHans-Joachim Kappis Heer 13-HOberleutnant of the Reserves[163] Leader of the II./Grenadier-Regiment 45[163][164] 28 April 1945[163]
(850) Schrepfer, KarlKarl Schrepfer Luftwaffe 15-LMajor[165] Gruppenkommandeur of the III./Schlachtgeschwader 1[165][166] 28 April 1945[165]
(851) Prentl, JosefJosef Prentl Luftwaffe 15-LMajor[167] Commander of Flak-Regiment 116[166][167] 28 April 1945[167]
(852) Thomsen, RolfRolf Thomsen Kriegsmarine 14-MKapitänleutnant[168] Commander of U-1202[166][168] 29 April 1945[168]
(853) Lange, Hans-GüntherHans-Günther Lange Kriegsmarine 14-MKapitänleutnant[169] Commander of U-711[166][169] 29 April 1945[169]
(854) Laebe, Heinz-OskarHeinz-Oskar Laebe?[Note 25] Heer 17-HOberst Commander of Grenadier-Regiment 44[166] 29 April 1945
(855) Hax, HeinrichHeinrich Hax Heer 18-HGeneralmajor[171] Commander of the 8. Panzer-Division[166][171] 30 April 1945[171]
(856) Laengenfelder, HannsHanns Laengenfelder Heer 18-HGeneralmajor[172] Commander of the 15. Infanterie-Division[166][172] 30 April 1945[172]
(857) Daniel, RichardRichard Daniel Heer 18-HGeneralmajor[173] Commander of the 45. Volksgrenadier-Division[166][173] 30 April 1945[173]
(858) Obstfelder, Wolfgang vonWolfgang von Obstfelder Heer 15-HMajor[174] Commander of Panzer-Jäger-Abteilung 346[166][174] 30 April 1945[174]
(859) Bostell, Wolfgang vonWolfgang von Bostell Heer 12-HLeutnant[175] Platoon leader in the Panzerjäger-Abteilung 205[166][Note 26] 30 April 1945[175]
(860) Mokros, GerhardGerhard Mokros Heer 17-HOberst of the Reserves[Note 27] Commander of Grenadier-Regiment 423[166][176] 5 May 1945[176]
(861) Ostendorff, WernerWerner Ostendorff?[Note 28] Waffen-SS 19-WSS-Gruppenführer and Generalleutnant of the Waffen-SS Commander of the 2. SS-Panzer-Division "Das Reich"[166] 6 May 1945* Died of wounds 1 May 1945[10] A man wearing a military uniform and peaked cap with an Iron Cross displayed at the front of his uniform collar.
(862) Lehmann, RudolfRudolf Lehmann?[Note 29] Waffen-SS 17-WSS-Standartenführer Leader of the 2. SS-Panzer-Division "Das Reich"[166] 6 May 1945
(863) Kreutz, KarlKarl Kreutz?[Note 30] Waffen-SS 17-WSS-Standartenführer Commander of SS-Panzer-Artillerie-Regiment 2 "Das Reich"[166] 6 May 1945
(864) Werner, HeinzHeinz Werner?[Note 31] Waffen-SS 15-WSS-Sturmbannführer Commander of the III./SS-Panzergrenadier-Regiment 4 "Der Führer"[164] 6 May 1945
(865) Jodl, AlfredAlfred Jodl?[Note 32] Heer 21-HGeneraloberst Chef des Wehrmachtführungsstabes im OKW and deputy chief of the OKW[164] 10 May 1945
A man wearing a military uniform and peaked cap.
(866) Blanc, Adalbert vonAdalbert von Blanc?[Note 33] Kriegsmarine 16-MFregattenkapitän Leader of the 9. Marine-Sicherungs-Division[166] 10 May 1945
(867) Plocher, HermannHermann Plocher?[Note 34] Luftwaffe 19-HGeneralleutnant Commander of the 6. Fallschirmjäger-Division[166] 8 May 1945
(868) Graßmel, FranzFranz Graßmel?[Note 35] Luftwaffe 15-LMajor Commander of the Fallschirmjäger-Regiment 20[166] 8 May 1945
(869) Lier, FriedrichFriedrich Lier?[Note 36] Heer 16-HOberstleutnant Commander of a Kampfgruppe in the 490. Infanterie-Division[166] 8 May 1945
(870) Dennhardt, Oskar-HubertOskar-Hubert Dennhardt?[Note 37] Heer 15-HMajor Leader of Grenadier-Regiment 1143[166] 9 May 1945
(871) Kleinheisterkamp, MatthiasMatthias Kleinheisterkamp?[Note 38] Waffen-SS 20-WSS-Obergruppenführer and Generalleutnant of the Waffen-SS Commanding general of the XI. SS-Panzerkorps[186] 9 May 1945* Killed in action 29 April 1945[187][Note 39]
(872) Lohmann, Hanns-HeinrichHanns-Heinrich Lohmann?[Note 40] Waffen-SS 16-WSS-Obersturmbannführer Leader of SS-Freiwilligen-Panzergrenadier-Regiment 49 "De Ruyter"[188] 9 May 1945
(873) Montag, AlfredAlfred Montag?[Note 41] Heer 14-HHauptmann of the Reserves Leader of Sturmgeschütz-Brigade 341[186] 9 May 1945
(874) Meier, HansHans Meier?[Note 42] Heer 14-HHauptmann Commander of the I./Panzergrenadier-Regiment 74[186] 9 May 1945
(875) Rebane, AlfonsAlfons Rebane?[Note 43] Waffen-SS 16-WWaffen-Obersturmbannführer Commander of Waffen-Grenadier-Regiment der Waffen-SS 46 (estnische Nr. 2)[188] 9 May 1945
(876) Schlags-Koch, WalterWalter Schlags-Koch?[Note 44] Heer 16-HOberstleutnant of the Reserves Commander of Sturm-Regiment AOK 2[186] 9 May 1945
(877) Schmidt, ErichErich Schmidt?[Note 45] Heer 15-HMajor Leader of the Panzer-Regiment of the Führer-Grenadier-Division[188] 9 May 1945
(878) Siegroth, Joachim vonJoachim von Siegroth?[Note 46] Heer 18-HGeneralmajor Commander of the 712. Infanterie-Division[188] 9 May 1945* Killed in action 2 May 1945[196]
(879) Stahl, Dr.-jur. PaulDr.-jur. Paul Stahl?[Note 47] Heer 17-HOberst of the Reserves Commander of Panzergrenadier-Regiment 114[188] 9 May 1945
(880) Störck, GeorgGeorg Störck?[Note 48] Heer 14-HHauptmann of the Reserves Commander of the I./Panzergrenadier-Regiment Führer-Begleit-Division[186] 9 May 1945
(881) Sensfuß, FranzFranz Sensfuß?[Note 49] Heer 19-HGeneralleutnant Commander of the 212. Infanterie-Division[188] 9 May 1945
(882) Radowitz, Joseph vonJoseph von Radowitz?[Note 50] Heer 19-HGeneralleutnant Commander of 23. Panzer-Division[188] 9 May 1945

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ For an explanation of the various naming schemes used by the Luftwaffe, Heer, Kriegsmarine and Waffen-SS refer to nomenclature used by the Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS.
  2. ^ According to Scherzer as SS-Gruppenführer and Generalleutnant of the Waffen-SS and the Reserves.[26]
  3. ^ According to Scherzer as leader of a Kampfgruppe in the 271. Volksgenadier-Division in Budapest (Grenadier-Regiment 978).[33]
  4. ^ According to Scherzer as SS-Obersturmbannführer.[39]
  5. ^ According to Scherzer as Commander of the SS-Panzer-Aufklärungs-Abteilung 17.[45]
  6. ^ According to Scherzer as commander of Flak-Regiment (motorized) 12.[51]
  7. ^ According to Scherzer as commander of the Luftkriegsschule 5 Breslau and leader of a Kampfgruppe of the Luftkriegsschule 5 in the fortress Breslau.[72]
  8. ^ According to Scherzer as Hauptmann and not as Hauptmann of the Reserves.[78]
  9. ^ According to Scherzer as Leutnant of the Reserves.[38]
  10. ^ According to Scherzer as chief of the 1./SS-Panzer-Pionier-Bataillon 2.[81]
  11. ^ According to Scherzer as leader of Grenadier-Regiment 279 and IIa (1st Adjutant—personnel administration for officers) of the 95. Infanterie-Division.[85]
  12. ^ According to Scherzer as commander of Kampfgruppe "Steinau" in the Division-Nummer 408.[87]
  13. ^ No evidence of the award can be found in the German Federal Archives. The Association of Knight's Cross Recipients (AKCR) only assumes that the Swords were awarded. According to Niehoff's testimony he was nominated by Gauleiter Karl Hanke. The date and sequential number "147" were assigned by the AKCR. Niehoff was a member of the AKCR.[10]
  14. ^ According to Scherzer as commander of Kampfgruppe Schröder of the Division-Nummer 408.[105]
  15. ^ According to Scherzer as Hauptmann of the Reserves.[106]
  16. ^ According to Scherzer as combat commander of Fürstenberg an der Oder and commander of Grenadier-Regiment 98 (Divisions-Stab z.b.V. 391).[118]
  17. ^ According to Scherzer as commander of Divisions-Füsilier-Bataillon 246.[138]
  18. ^ According to Scherzer Helmut Borchardt was killed in action in the timeframe 15 to 18 March 1945 in the vicinity of Küstrin.[146]
  19. ^ According to Scherzer as leader of the Assault Battalion of Fallschirm-Panzergrenadier-Regiment 3 "Hermann Göring".[56]
  20. ^ According to Scherzer as commander of Regiment "Knaust" (Divisions Nr. 490).[158]
  21. ^ The recommendation for Franz Hack's Oak Leaves to the Knight's Cross was submitted to the Heerespersonalamt (HPA—Army Staff Office) by the Division sometime between 16 and 19 April 1945 and approved by the commander of the IV. SS-Korps Herbert Otto Gille. Missing is the approval from the 6. Armee and Heeresgruppe Süd. There is no indication whether the recommendation was approved. The response from the Reichsführer-SS was prepared but missing is a date and signature. The existing card is not contemporary. There is no indication in the press that the award was presented. According to Fellgiebel Hack received the Oak Leaves from SS-Obergruppenführer and General of the SS Herbert-Otto Gille, commanding general IV. SS-Panzerkorps. The sequential number "844" and date of award were assigned by the Association of Knight's Cross Recipients (AKCR).[159]
  22. ^ No evidence of the award can be found in the German Federal Archives. Fellgiebel claimed that Paul-Albert Kausch, at the time wounded in the Reich Chancellery, had received news that according to a radio message received from Panzer AOK 11 had been awarded the Oak Leaves on 23 April 1945 from SS-Brigadeführer Joachim Ziegler. Kausch's division commander Ziegler was killed in action on 1 May 1945. Ernst-Günther Krätschmer, however, indicated that Kausch was wounded on 25 April and as such he therefore could not have received the news that day. The 11th SS Volunteer Panzergrenadier Division Nordland was only subordinated to the 11th Panzer Armee in February 1945. The Stab of the 11th Panzer Army then relocated to the Western Front where it surrendered on 21 April. Krätschmer claimed that the award was presented for the actions during the middle of April east of Berlin. Mr. J.S. Fischer, who was verifying the Oak Leaves presentation on behalf of Fellgiebel, is not aware of a radio message received from the Panzer AOK 11. Fischer indicated that he only referenced the information presented by Kausch, which is already stated in Krätschmer. According to information by Fischer on 14 October 2004, Fellgiebel had made the note about the Panzer AOK 11. The sequential number "845" was assigned by the Association of Knight's Cross Recipients (AKCR)—according to Krätschmer the number is "846"—the date was accepted by the AKCR. Kausch was a member of the AKCR.[160]
  23. ^ No evidence of the award can be found in the German Federal Archives. According to Josef Brandner's own account he received the Oak Leaves from the commanding general of the XXXVIII. Armeekorps, General der Artillerie Kurt Herzog in the Courland Pocket. He did not mention a date for the presentation. Presumably pictures showing him with Oak Leaves exist. The Association of Knight's Cross Recipients (AKCR) assumes a direct presentation from Berlin. The presentation date is also an assumption by the AKCR. A presentation of the Oak Leaves only four to five weeks after the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross is very unlikely. The German Federal Archives holds numerous records of nominations which have been rejected on the grounds that a high-ranking military award had just been presented. Brandner was a member of the AKCR.[161]
  24. ^ According to Scherzer at the same time commander of defensive sector C (south east) in Berlin.[162]
  25. ^ Heinz-Oskar Laebe's nomination was prepared for signature by the Heerespersonalamt (HPA—Army Staff Office) by the end of the war. According to the Association of Knight's Cross Recipients (AKCR) the award was presented in accordance with the Dönitz-decree. This is illegal according to the Deutsche Dienststelle (WASt) and lacks legal justification. The presentation date is an assumption of the AKCR. Laebe was a member of the AKCR.[170]
  26. ^ According to Scherzer as leader of the 2./Panzerjäger-Abteilung 205.[175]
  27. ^ According to Scherzer as Oberstleutnant of the Reserves.[176]
  28. ^ No evidence of the award to Werner Ostendorff can be found in the German Federal Archives. The award was unlawfully presented by SS-Oberstgruppenführer Sepp Dietrich. The date is taken from the announcement made by the 6. SS-Panzerarmee. The sequential number "861" was assigned by the Association of Knight's Cross Recipients (AKCR).[177]
  29. ^ No evidence of the award can be found in the German Federal Archives. The award was unlawfully presented by SS-Oberstgruppenführer Sepp Dietrich. The date is taken from the announcement made by the 6. SS-Panzerarmee. The sequential number "862" was assigned by the Association of Knight's Cross Recipients (AKCR). Lehmann was a member of the AKCR.[178]
  30. ^ No evidence of the award can be found in the German Federal Archives. The award was unlawfully presented by SS-Oberstgruppenführer Sepp Dietrich. The date is taken from the announcement made by the 6. SS-Panzerarmee. The sequential number "863" was assigned by the Association of Knight's Cross Recipients (AKCR). Karl Kreutz was a member of the AKCR.[170]
  31. ^ No evidence of the award can be found in the German Federal Archives. The award was unlawfully presented by SS-Oberstgruppenführer Sepp Dietrich. The date is taken from the announcement made by the 6. SS-Panzerarmee. The sequential number "864" was assigned by the Association of Knight's Cross Recipients (AKCR). Werner was a member of the AKCR.[178]
  32. ^ The award was unlawfully presented on 10 May 1945. The sequential number "865" was assigned by the Association of Knight's Cross Recipients (AKCR).[179]
  33. ^ There is no reference that the Oak Leaves were awarded to Adalbert von Blanc in the German Federal Archives. His personal file contains a letter from Admiral August Thiele indicating that von Blanc had been recommended for the Oak Leaves by Thiele. In a file of the German Minenräumdienst dated just after the capitulation is an entry "Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves" without indicating a date of the award. The sequential number "866" and date were assigned by the Association of Knight's Cross Recipients (AKCR). Von Blanc was a member of the AKCR.[180]
  34. ^ Hermann Plocher's nomination had been finalized by the Heerespersonalamt (HPA—Army Staff Office) and was ready for signature by the end of the war. According to the Association of Knight's Cross Recipients (AKCR) the award was presented in accordance with the Dönitz-decree. This is illegal according to the Deutsche Dienststelle (WASt) and lacks legal justification. The presentation date was assigned by Fellgiebel. Plocher was a member of the AKCR.[181]
  35. ^ The original nomination was not retained. The Oberbefehlshaber Nordwest (OB Nordwest—Commander-in-chief North-West) had sent the nomination to the Oberkommando der Luftwaffe/Auszeichnung und Disziplin (OKL/AuD—Air Force High Command/Award and Discipline). The accompanying letter is presented by Franz Thomas, author of Die Ritterkreuzträger der Deutschen Wehrmacht 1939-1945, Teil II Die Ritterkreuzträger der Fallschirmjäger, Osnabrück 1986, page 88. No further information prevailed. A presentation cannot be verified. The Order Commission of the Association of Knight's Cross Recipients (AKCR) processed this case in 1974 and decided: 868th Oak Leaves, 8 May 1945. According to the AKCR the award was presented in accordance with the Dönitz-decree. This is illegal according to the Deutsche Dienststelle (WASt) and lacks legal justification. The sequential number "868" and date were assigned by the AKCR. Franz Graßmel is listed by the OB Nordwest for the "Nomination for the presentation of war awards" in May 1945. This list, which was to be presented to Karl Dönitz, holds 12 names. These nominations had all been submitted by the OB Nordwest via the command chain and must be considered not finalized. Dönitz has never signed this list and most likely has never seen this list. Graßmel was a member of the AKCR.[182]
  36. ^ The OB Nordwest (Commander-in-chief North-West) submitted five approved nominations to the Führungsstab "A" (OKW/WFSt—Oberkommando der Wehrmacht/Wehrmacht-Führungsstab—leadership staff of the Army High Command) on 2 May 1945. Four of these nominations were submitted via teleprinter, these were Friedrich Anding, Heinz Lotze, (Johann-)Nepomuk Stützle and Gustav Walle, and Friedrich Lier's nomination for the Oak Leaves via messenger. The reason for why not all five nominations had been submitted via teleprinter is that Anding had destroyed six or more enemy tanks in close combat. The prerequisites of Führeranordnung (Führer decree) of 7 March 1945 had therefore been met and no further explanation or details were needed. Scherzer assumes that this must have been different in Lier's case and more details describing his actions including drawings had been created. This type of nomination was difficult to submit via teleprinter and a messenger was sent. This nomination was never received by the Heerespersonalamt (HPA—Army Staff Office). Lier is not listed on the list of awarded Knight's Crosses, which in some cases was also used as a nomination entry list, the other four nominations are listed. Also missing is the original nomination, the teleprinters on the other hand have prevailed. A nomination, which was never received, cannot be judged. A presentation cannot be proven. The Order Commission of the Association of Knight's Cross Recipients (AKCR) processed this case in 1975 on behalf of a relative of Lier and decided: 869th Oak Leaves yes, 8 May 1945. The sequential number and date were assigned by the AKCR. Lier was a member of the AKCR. Lier never received news about the Oak Leaves presentation before he died on 18 August 1974.[183]
  37. ^ Major Joachim Domaschk, who processed the nomination at the Heerespersonalamt (HPA—Army Staff Office) from the troop, had sent a message to the AOK Ostpreußen on 28 March 1945 requesting an approval from the Armeekorps and the Armee. This approval was never received before the end of hostilities. Oskar-Hubert Dennhardt is not listed in the book for the "nominations for the higher grades of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross" nor in the nomination book for Knight's Cross (starting with Nr. 5100). According to the Association of Knight's Cross Recipients (AKCR) the award was presented in accordance with the Dönitz-decree. This is illegal according to the Deutsche Dienststelle (WASt) and lacks legal justification. The sequential number "870" and the presentation date were assigned by the AKCR. Dennhardt was a member of the AKCR.[184]
  38. ^ Fellgiebel claims that the nomination was received by the Heerespersonalamt (HPA—Army Staff Office) via teleprinter from the commander-in-chief of the 9. Armee, general Theodor Busse, on 21 April 1945. Busse had nominated SS-Obergruppenführer Kleinheisterkamp for the Oak Leaves. The claim is that the teleprinter message contained a note that the formal procedure for immediate approval should be waited for (Dienstwegvorschlag bzgl. Sofortverleihung abwarten). This teleprinter message cannot be found in the German Nation Archives (Bestand RH 7). Busse had also nominated by teleprint Generalmajor Joachim von Siegroth on 21 April. This teleprinter message can be found in the Nation Archives (Bundesarchiv RH 7/300). According to Fellgiebel the same note can be found on von Siegroth's nomination. This means that a formal nomination, in this instance via the Army Group Vistula, followed. Both announced "formal nominations" never followed and were never received by the HPA. The teleprinter nomination of von Siegroth is listed in the book of "Verliehene Ritterkreuze" (Awarded Knight Crosses) with an entry date of 21 April but Kleinheisterkamp's nomination is not. The reason for this may be that the liaison officer of the Waffen-SS at the HPA/P5a may have forwarded the nomination to the Reichsführer-SS for approval. From here it should have been returned to the HPA which it was not. The distribution list of von Siegroth's nomination indicates that general Busse had informed the Army Group Vistula and the chief of the HPA general Wilhelm Burgdorf. It is very likely that Kleinheisterkamp's nomination had the same distribution list as von Siegroth's, because the same principles applied. Burgdorf therefore should have been informed of the formal procedure regarding Kleinheisterkamp's nomination. The question remains unanswered whether the Führer Headquarter or Adolf Hitler has approved the direct nomination of Kleinheisterkamp on 28 April or not. Scherzer claims that this is very unlikely because Burgdorf would not have done two things. First, submit a nomination to the Führer without having assessed the situation himself, which only would have been possible if he had studied the formal paperwork. Secondly he would not have bypassed the formal procedure which was already initiated. Additionally the radio connection to the Führerbunker was down since 5:00 on 28 April 1945. The sequential number "871" was assigned by the Association of Knight's Cross Recipients (AKCR) and the date is assumed.[185]
  39. ^ According to Fellgiebel on 2 May 1945 in the Battle of Halbe.[188]
  40. ^ The nomination was received by the Heerespersonalamt (HPA—Army Staff Office) from the troop on 25 March 1945 and was approved by the commanding general of the III. (germ.) SS-Panzerkorps. Missing is the approval from the commander-in-chief of the 11. Armee, Army Group Vistula and from the Reichsführer-SS. The HPA created a formal nomination without a sequential number on 27 March 1945. Both nominations are retained in the Nation Archives. Both nominations give no information whether the nomination was approved and whether the Oak Leaves had been awarded. The nomination list of the higher grade of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves only dates the nomination entry on 25 March 1945. The Order Commission of the Association of Knight's Cross Recipients (AKCR) processed this case in 1974 and decided: yes, 872nd Oak Leaves. According to the AKCR the award was presented in accordance with the Dönitz-decree. This is illegal according to the Deutsche Dienststelle (WASt) and lacks legal justification. The sequential number "872" and date were assigned by the AKCR. Lohmann was a member of the AKCR.[189]
  41. ^ The nomination was received by the Heerespersonalamt (HPA—Army Staff Office) from the troop on 28 April 1945 and approved by the Corps and by the OB West. Missing is a statement by the Army and by the Army Group (Heeresruppe). Major Joachim Domaschk decided "Oak Leaves yes" but deferred. Heeresgruppe B—the Sturmgeschütz-Brigade had already surrendered together with the Heeresgruppe B in the Ruhr Pocket. The nomination was therefore left unfinished according to AHA 44 Ziff. 572. The nomination list of the higher grade of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves confirms the entry of 28 March 1945. Noted here is a comment indicating "deferred". A formal presentation has not happened. The sequential number "868" was assigned by the Association of Knight's Cross Recipients (AKCR). The presentation date was assigned by Fellgiebel. Alfred Montag was a member of the AKCR.[190]
  42. ^ Hans Meier's nomination for the Oak Leaves was received by the Heerespersonalamt (HPA—Army Staff Office) from the troop on 12 April 1945 and approved by all intermittent commanding officers. No further comments or indications of approval have been noted and left unfinished by the end of the war. A non contemporary file card notes an entry date 17 March 1945 which could be the nomination date of the troop. The nomination list for the higher grades of Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross indicates an entry date 12 April 1945, no further date is listed. A comment states: "Unfinished". According to the Association of Knight's Cross Recipients (AKCR) the award was presented in accordance with the Dönitz-decree. This is illegal according to the Deutsche Dienststelle (WASt) and lacks legal justification. The sequential number "874" was assigned by the AKCR, the presentation date by Fellgiebel.[191]
  43. ^ Alfons Rebane's nomination was submitted to the Heerespersonalamt (HPA—Army Staff Office) on 12 April 1945. The archives only hold a copy of the nomination. There is no indication or remark that the nomination was processed. The nomination list for the higher grade of the Knight's Cross with Oak Leaves dates the nomination on 2 April 1945. This list also gives no indication that the nomination had been processed. The Order Commission of the Association of Knight's Cross Recipients (AKCR) processed this case in 1974 and decided: 875th Oak Leaves on 8 May 1945. The sequential number "875" was assigned by the AKCR, the date was later changed by Fellgiebel to 9 May 1945. Rebane was a member of the AKCR.[192]
  44. ^ The Heerespersonalamt (HPA—Army Staff Office) received Walter Schlags-Koch's nomination via wireless communication on 6 April 1945. Major Joachim Domaschk requested via wireless communication the advisory opinion of the 2. Armee. Presumably this statement was not received yet on 28 April because Domaschk decided to postpone the decision and ordered the re-presentation for 8 May, which was never processed. The entry date for the wireless nomination of 6 April 1945 is noted on the nomination list of the higher grade of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves. However no other date is listed, the section comments states "unprocessed". The Order Commission of the Association of Knight's Cross Recipients (AKCR) processed this case in 1973 and decided: "877 Oak Leaves". Scherzer claims that this decision was not approved by Gerhard von Seemann—author of various publications regarding the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross—since Schlags-Koch is not listed as an Oak Leaves recipient in his book Die Ritterkreuzträger 1939–1945 (2nd edition from 1976). The presentation number was later changed by Walther-Peer Fellgiebel to "876". However, Schlags-Koch is listed by Von Seemen as the 876th Oak Leaves recipient. The presentation date was assigned by Fellgiebel. Schlags-Koch was a member of the AKCR.[193][194]
  45. ^ The Heerespersonalamt (HPA—Army Staff Office) received Erich Schmidt's nomination on 24 March 1945. Major Joachim Domaschk noted three days later: "Insufficient for the Oak Leaves!". Nevertheless an HAP entry nomination without nomination number was created on 29 March and presented to General Wilhelm Burgdorf. Burgdorf noted on 31 March: "Request advisory opinion from the commanding general!" and returned the nomination to the HPA. Major Domaschk requested via teleprinter the statement of the XXXIX. Panzerkorps. The Panzerkorps answered on 5 April via teleprinter that they are not responsible since the respective division was only subordinated to the corps for a very short time and never in action. Domaschk then requested the advisory opinion from the LVII. Panzerkorps on 8 April, which was not received by 28 April. On this day Domaschk noted "Wait" and ordered the re-presentation for 5 May. The nomination remained unprocessed after this date. The nomination list of the higher grade of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves notes the entry date of 24 March and that the nomination was forwarded to General Burgdorf on 29 March 1945. A presentation date is not stated and a comment says "further enquiry". The Order Commission of the Association of Knight's Cross Recipients (AKCR) processed this case in 1982 and decided: "Oak Leaves yes, 9 May 1945". It appears that the AKCR had questioned a witness, the former adjutant of the Army to the Commander-in-chief of the Wehrmacht Willy Johannmeyer, he wrote to the AKCR on 29 March 1968: "By all means, I cannot remember a pick-up of the Oak Leaves for Mr Oberleutnant Erich Schmidt". The presentation number "876" was assigned by the AKCR. The presentation date was assigned by Fellgiebel. Schmidt was a member of the AKCR.[194]
  46. ^ The Heerespersonalamt (HPA—Army Staff Office) received Joachim von Siegroth's nomination for the Oak Leaves from the commander-in-chief of the 9. Armee Theodor Busse via teleprinter message on 21 April 1945 announcing that a detailed statement with explanations will follow. This nomination went to the chief of the HPA in Berlin and to the Army Group Vistula. Major Joachim Domaschk noted on 28 April: "Waiting for announced statement!". The nomination list of the higher grade of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves notes the entry date of 19 March 1945. This is the date when the nomination was sent. An almost unreadable comment states "Waiting". According to Fellgiebel a note claims "service proposal regarding immediate presentation pending".[195] Scherzer does not confirm this entry but states that a comment "Waiting for announced statement" is noted instead. No further comments indicate that the nomination was further processed. According to the Association of Knight's Cross Recipients (AKCR) the award was presented in accordance with the Dönitz-decree. This is illegal according to the Deutsche Dienststelle (WASt) and lacks legal justification. The presentation number "876" was assigned by the AKCR. The presentation date was assigned by Fellgiebel.[196]
  47. ^ The Heerespersonalamt (HPA—Army Staff Office) received Dr.-jur. Paul Stahl's nomination for the Oak Leaves with the approval of the II. SS-Panzerkorps via letter on 12 April 1945. The HPA then again received the nomination, this time as a teleprinter message, together with the approval of Army Group South with the comment: "Waiting for statement of the 6. Armee, will be handed in later. Supreme command Army Group South". Major Joachim Domaschk noted: "Waiting for Panzer AOK 6 statement!". No further comments regarding the presentation or work in progress have been noted. Stahl is not listed on the nomination list of the higher grade of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves nor in the nomination book for Knight's Cross (starting with Nr. 5100). The Order Commission of the Association of Knight's Cross Recipients (AKCR) processed this case in 1975 and decided: "879th Oak Leaves, 9 May 1945". According to the AKCR the award was presented in accordance with the Dönitz-decree. This is illegal according to the Deutsche Dienststelle (WASt) and lacks legal justification. The presentation number "879" was assigned by the AKCR. The presentation date was assigned by Fellgiebel. Stahl was a member of the AKCR.[197]
  48. ^ The Heerespersonalamt (HPA—Army Staff Office) received Georg Störck's nomination for the Oak Leaves, which had been sent on 18 February 1945, via teleprinter message on 26 February 1945. Major Joachim Domaschk requested on 3 March via teleprinter message from the nominating Führer-Begleit Division a detailed statement regarding the actions leading to the nomination. This statement was received by the HPA via the AOK 17 on 9 March. Major Domaschk approved this nomination on 10 March, indicating "Oak Leaves yes". Another nomination, bypassing the official command chain, was also submitted directly to the Führer's Adjutant of the Wehrmacht. This nomination was also submitted for official processing to the HPA on 11 March, where it arrived on 13 March. Domaschk then revoked his earlier decision and stated: "Insufficient explanatory statement, Requesting more details!". No further comments regarding the presentation or work in progress have been noted. The nomination list of the higher grade of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves indicates an entry date of 2 March 1945. Also noted is forwarding date of the Führer on 11 March. A presentation date is not stated. A comment indicating "Unfinished" was noted. Major Domaschk apparently halted the approval process on 13 March and was waiting for further clarifying information. It appears that this information never arrived before the end of the war. The Order Commission of the Association of Knight's Cross Recipients (AKCR) processed this case in 1978 and decided: "Oak Leaves yes, 9 May 1945". According to the AKCR the award was presented in accordance with the Dönitz-decree. This is illegal according to the Deutsche Dienststelle (WASt) and lacks legal justification. The presentation number "880" was assigned by the AKCR. The presentation date was assigned by Fellgiebel. Störck was a member of the AKCR.[198]
  49. ^ Franz Sensfuß's nomination for the Oak Leaves was received by the Heerespersonalamt (HPA—Army Staff Office) from the troop on 14 March 1945. Major Joachim Domaschk requested by teleprinter message the advisory opinion from the Commander-in-Chief of AOK 1 and Heeresgruppe B. The 212. Volksgrenadier-Division at the time was being encircled by US forces in the vicinity of Baumholder and went into captivity. Major Domaschk had sent a radio message to the nominating commander of the LXXX. Armeekorps: "Nomination deferred according to AHA 44 Ziff. 572." Domaschk noted on the nomination: "Deferred, because missing in action!" A presentation was never made. Sensfuß is not listed in the book for the "nominations for the higher grades of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross" nor in the nomination book for Knight's Cross (starting with Nr. 5100). The sequential number "881" was assigned by the Association of Knight's Cross Recipients (AKCR), the presentation date by Fellgiebel.[199]
  50. ^ Joseph von Radowitz's nomination for the Oak Leaves was received by the Heerespersonalamt (HPA—Army Staff Office) from the troop on 30 April 1945 and approved by all intermittent commanding officers. Major Joachim Domaschk ruled that the nomination was insufficient and disapproved on 1 May and recommended "Decision by Chief of OKW". The file contains no indication whether this decision was ever taken. A teleprinter message was sent on 2 May to the nominating unit, the cavalry corps, and further messages to the commanding officers of the Panzer AOK 2 and Heeresgruppe Süd: "...was disapproved because ... the Führer criteria for the presentation guidelines have not been met. I.A. signed Maisel" The sequential number "882" was assigned by the Association of Knight's Cross Recipients (AKCR), the presentation date by Fellgiebel.[200]

References[edit]

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  186. ^ a b c d e Fellgiebel 2000, pp. 104, 482.
  187. ^ Scherzer 2007, p. 447.
  188. ^ a b c d e f g h Fellgiebel 2000, p. 104.
  189. ^ Scherzer 2007, p. 156.
  190. ^ Scherzer 2007, pp. 159–160.
  191. ^ Scherzer 2007, p. 158.
  192. ^ Scherzer 2007, p. 165.
  193. ^ Von Seemen 1976, pp. 60, 62.
  194. ^ a b Scherzer 2007, p. 171.
  195. ^ Fellgiebel 2000, p. 107.
  196. ^ a b Scherzer 2007, p. 175.
  197. ^ Scherzer 2007, p. 176.
  198. ^ Scherzer 2007, pp. 175–176.
  199. ^ Scherzer 2007, pp. 174–175.
  200. ^ Scherzer 2007, p. 164.
Bibliography
  • Fellgiebel, Walther-Peer (2000). Die Träger des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939–1945 – Die Inhaber der höchsten Auszeichnung des Zweiten Weltkrieges aller Wehrmachtsteile [The Bearers of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939–1945 — The Owners of the Highest Award of the Second World War of all Wehrmacht Branches] (in German). Friedberg, Germany: Podzun-Pallas. ISBN 978-3-7909-0284-6. 
  • Scherzer, Veit (2007). Die Ritterkreuzträger 1939–1945 Die Inhaber des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939 von Heer, Luftwaffe, Kriegsmarine, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm sowie mit Deutschland verbündeter Streitkräfte nach den Unterlagen des Bundesarchives [The Knight's Cross Bearers 1939–1945 The Holders of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939 by Army, Air Force, Navy, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm and Allied Forces with Germany According to the Documents of the Federal Archives] (in German). Jena, Germany: Scherzers Miltaer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-938845-17-2. 
  • Von Seemen, Gerhard (1976). Die Ritterkreuzträger 1939–1945 : die Ritterkreuzträger sämtlicher Wehrmachtteile, Brillanten-, Schwerter- und Eichenlaubträger in der Reihenfolge der Verleihung : Anhang mit Verleihungsbestimmungen und weiteren Angaben [The Knight's Cross Bearers 1939–1945 : The Knight's Cross Bearers of All the Armed Services, Diamonds, Swords and Oak Leaves Bearers in the Order of Presentation: Appendix with Further Information and Presentation Requirements] (in German). Friedberg, Germany: Podzun-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-7909-0051-4. 
Further reading
  • Berger, Florian (1999). Mit Eichenlaub und Schwertern. Die höchstdekorierten Soldaten des Zweiten Weltkrieges [With Oak Leaves and Swords. The Highest Decorated Soldiers of the Second World War] (in German). Vienna, Austria: Selbstverlag Florian Berger. ISBN 978-3-9501307-0-6. 
  • Fraschka, Günther (1994). Knights of the Reich. Atglen, Pennsylvania: Schiffer Military/Aviation History. ISBN 978-0-88740-580-8. 
  • Krätschmer, Ernst-Günther (1999). Die Ritterkreuzträger der Waffen-SS [The Knight's Cross Bearers of the Waffen-SS]. Coburg, Germany: Nation Europa Verlag. ISBN 978-3-920677-43-9. 

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