List of parties to the Kyoto Protocol

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Participation in the Kyoto Protocol
  Annex B parties with binding targets in the second period
  Annex B parties with binding targets in the first period but not the second
  non-Annex B parties without binding targets
  Annex B parties with binding targets in the first period but which withdrew from the Protocol
  Signatories to the Protocol that have not ratified
  Other UN member states and observers that are not party to the Protocol

As of June 2013, there are 192 parties to the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, which aims to combat global warming. This total includes 191 states (189 United Nations member states as well as the Cook Islands and Niue) and one supranational union (the European Union).[1][2] Canada renounced the convention effective 15 December 2012 and ceased to be a member from that date.

With the Protocol's 2008-2012 commitment period expiring, the Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol was agreed to, which establishes new commitments for the period 2013-2020. As of April 2015, 26 states have accepted this amendment.

Parties[edit]

Signing is optional, indicating an intention to ratify the Protocol. Ratification means that a state is legally bound by the provisions of the treaty. For Annex I parties (e.g. a developed country or one with an 'economy in transition') this means that it has agreed to cap emissions in accordance with the Protocol.

Iceland was the 55th state to ratify, fulfilling the first condition for coming-into-force. With Russia's ratification the "55 percent of 1990 carbon dioxide emissions of the Parties included in Annex I" clause was satisfied and the treaty was brought into force, effective 16 February 2005.

Party[2][3][4] annex % for ratification reduction
commitment
for 2012
[5]
reduction
commitment
for 2020
Signed Ratification / Acceptance Amendment acceptance Notes
 Afghanistan 25 March 2013 [6]
 Albania 1 April 2005
 Algeria 16 February 2005
 Angola 8 May 2007
 Antigua and Barbuda 16 March 1998 3 November 1998
 Argentina 16 March 1998 28 September 2001
 Armenia 25 April 2003
 Australia I, II 2.1% +8%[7] −0.5% 29 April 1998 3 December 2007
 Austria I, II 0.4% −8% (−13%)[8] −20%[9] 24 September 1998 31 May 2002
 Azerbaijan 28 September 2000
 Bahamas 9 April 1999
 Bahrain 31 January 2006
 Bangladesh 22 October 2001 13 November 2013
 Barbados 7 August 2000 14 August 2013
 Belarus I -[10] none[11][15] −12% 26 August 2005
 Belgium I, II 0.8% −8% (−7.5%)[8] −20%[9] 29 April 1998 31 May 2002
 Belize 26 September 2003
 Benin 25 February 2002
 Bhutan 26 August 2002
 Bolivia 9 July 1998 30 November 1999
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 16 April 2007
 Botswana 8 August 2003
 Brazil 29 April 1998 23 August 2002
 Brunei 20 August 2009 14 November 2014
 Bulgaria I 0.6% −8%[8] −20%[9] 18 September 1998 15 August 2002
 Burkina Faso 31 March 2005
 Burundi 18 October 2001
 Cambodia 22 August 2002
 Cameroon 28 August 2002
 Cape Verde 10 February 2006
 Central African Republic 18 March 2008
 Chad 18 August 2009
 Chile 17 June 1998 26 August 2002
 China 29 May 1998 30 August 2002 2 June 2014  Hong Kong: applied since 8 April 2003
 Macao: applied since 14 January 2008
 Colombia 30 November 2001
 Comoros 10 April 2008 7 September 2014
 Democratic Republic of the Congo 23 March 2005
 Republic of the Congo 12 February 2007
 Cook Islands 16 September 1998 27 August 2001
 Costa Rica 27 April 1998 9 August 2002
 Côte d'Ivoire 23 April 2007
 Croatia I[17] -[18] −5%[8] −20%[9] 11 March 1999 27 April 2007
 Cuba 15 March 1999 30 April 2002
 Cyprus I[21] -[22] none[23][8] −20%[9] 16 July 1999 [24]
 Czech Republic I[25] 1.24% −8%[8] −20%[9] 23 November 1998 15 November 2001
 Denmark I, II 0.4% −8% (−21%)[8] −20%[9] 29 April 1998 31 May 2002  Greenland: applied
 Faroe Islands: not applied
 Djibouti 12 March 2002 23 September 2014
 Dominica 25 January 2005
 Dominican Republic 12 February 2002
 Ecuador 15 January 1999 13 January 2000
 Egypt 15 March 1999 12 January 2005
 El Salvador 8 June 1998 13 January 2000
 Equatorial Guinea 16 August 2000
 Eritrea 28 July 2005
 Estonia I 0.28% −8%[8] −20%[9] 3 December 1998 14 October 2002
 Ethiopia 14 April 2005
 European Union[26] I, II 31.68% −8%[8] −20%[9] 29 April 1998 31 May 2002 All ratifications of the 15 then-EU-members and the EU itself were deposited simultaneously (see 57–72). For the purpose of counting ratifications for satisfying the entry-into-force condition the EU was not counted.[28]
 Fiji 17 September 1998 17 September 1998
 Finland I, II 0.4% −8% (0%)[8][29] −20%[9] 29 April 1998 31 May 2002
 France I, II 2.7% −8% (0%)[8][29] −20%[9] 29 April 1998 31 May 2002  French Guiana,  Guadeloupe,  Martinique,  Réunion: applied
 French Polynesia,  New Caledonia,  Wallis and Futuna,  French Southern Territories,  Mayotte,  Saint Pierre and Miquelon: not applied
 Gabon 12 December 2006
 Gambia 1 June 2001
 Georgia 16 June 1999
 Germany I, II 7.4% −8% (−21%)[8] −20%[9] 29 April 1998 31 May 2002
 Ghana 30 May 2003
 Greece I, II 0.6% −8% (+25%)[8][7] −20%[9] 29 April 1998 31 May 2002
 Grenada 6 August 2002 1 April 2015
 Guatemala 10 July 1998 5 October 1999
 Guinea 7 September 2000
 Guinea-Bissau 18 November 2005
 Guyana 5 August 2003 23 December 2014
 Haiti 6 July 2005
 Honduras 25 February 1999 19 July 2000 11 April 2014
 Hungary I 0.52% −6%[8] −20%[9] 21 August 2002
 Iceland I, II 0.02% +10%[7] −20%[9] 23 May 2002
 India 26 August 2002
 Indonesia 13 July 1998 3 December 2004 30 September 2014
 Iran 22 August 2005
 Iraq 28 July 2009
 Ireland I, II 0.2% −8% (+13%)[8][7] −20%[9] 29 April 1998 31 May 2002
 Israel 16 December 1998 15 March 2004
 Italy I, II 3.1% −8% (−6.5%)[8] −20%[9] 29 April 1998 31 May 2002
 Jamaica 28 June 1999
 Japan I, II 8.55% −6% none[30] 28 April 1998 4 June 2002
 Jordan 17 January 2003
 Kazakhstan I[32] -[22] none[11][34] −5% 12 March 1999[35] 19 June 2009
 Kenya 25 February 2005 7 April 2014
 Kiribati 7 September 2000
 North Korea 27 April 2005
 South Korea 25 September 1998 8 November 2002
 Kuwait 11 March 2005
 Kyrgyzstan 13 May 2003
 Laos 6 February 2003
 Latvia I 0.17% −8%[8] −20%[9] 14 December 1998 5 July 2002
 Lebanon 13 November 2006
 Lesotho 6 September 2000
 Liberia 5 November 2002
 Libya 24 August 2006
 Liechtenstein I[36] 0.0015% −8% −16% 29 June 1998 3 December 2004 23 February 2015
 Lithuania I -[18] −8%[8] −20%[9] 21 September 1998 3 January 2003
 Luxembourg I, II 0.1% −8% (−28%)[8] −20%[9] 29 April 1998 31 May 2002
 Macedonia 18 November 2004
 Madagascar 24 September 2003
 Malawi 26 October 2001
 Malaysia 12 March 1999 4 September 2002
 Maldives 16 March 1998 30 December 1998
 Mali 27 January 1999 28 March 2002
 Malta I[39] -[22] none[23][8] −20%[9] 17 April 1998 11 November 2001 [24]
 Marshall Islands 17 March 1998 11 August 2003
 Mauritania 22 July 2005
 Mauritius 9 May 2001 5 September 2013
 Mexico 9 June 1998 7 September 2000 23 September 2014
 Federated States of Micronesia 17 March 1998 21 June 1999 19 February 2014
 Moldova 22 April 2003
 Monaco I[40] 0.0015% −8% −22% 29 April 1998 27 February 2006 27 December 2013
 Mongolia 15 December 1999
 Montenegro 4 June 2007
 Morocco 25 January 2002 5 September 2014
 Mozambique 18 January 2005
 Myanmar 13 August 2003
 Namibia 4 September 2003 17 February 2015
 Nauru 16 August 2001 1 December 2014
   Nepal 16 September 2005
 Netherlands I, II 1.2% −8% (−6%)[8] −20%[9] 29 April 1998 31 May 2002  Aruba: not applied
 Curaçao: not applied
 Sint Maarten: not applied
 Caribbean Netherlands: not applied
 New Zealand[41] I, II 0.19% 0%[29] none[30] 22 May 1998 19 December 2002  Tokelau: not applied
 Nicaragua 7 July 1998 18 November 1999
 Niger 23 October 1998 30 September 2004
 Nigeria 10 December 2004
 Niue 8 December 1998 6 May 1999
 Norway I, II 0.26% +1%[7] −16% 29 April 1998 30 May 2002 12 June 2014
 Oman 19 January 2005
 Pakistan 11 January 2005
 Palau 10 December 1999 10 March 2015
 Panama 8 June 1998 5 March 1999
 Papua New Guinea 2 March 1999 28 March 2002
 Paraguay 25 August 1998 27 August 1999
 Peru 13 November 1998 12 September 2002 24 September 2014
 Philippines 15 April 1998 20 November 2003
 Poland I 3.02% −6%[8] −20%[9] 15 July 1998 13 December 2002
 Portugal I, II 0.3% −8% (+27%)[8][7] −20%[9] 29 April 1998 31 May 2002
 Qatar 11 January 2005
 Romania I 1.24% −8%[8] −20%[9] 5 January 1999 19 March 2001
 Russia I 17.4% 0%[29] none[30] 11 March 1999 18 November 2004
 Rwanda 22 July 2004
 Saint Kitts and Nevis 8 April 2008
 Saint Lucia 16 March 1998 20 August 2003
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 19 March 1998 31 December 2004
 Samoa 16 March 1998 27 November 2000
 San Marino 28 April 2010
 Sao Tome and Principe 24 July 2008
 Saudi Arabia 31 January 2005
 Senegal 20 July 2001
 Serbia 24 September 2007
 Seychelles 20 March 1998 22 July 2002
 Sierra Leone 10 November 2006
 Singapore 12 April 2006 23 September 2014
 Slovakia I[42] 0.42% −8%[8] −20%[9] 26 February 1999 31 May 2002
 Slovenia I[43] -[18] −8%[8] −20%[9] 21 October 1998 2 August 2002
 Solomon Islands 29 September 1998 13 March 2003 5 September 2014
 Somalia 26 July 2010
 South Africa 31 July 2002
 Spain I, II 1.9% −8% (+15%)[8][7] −20%[9] 29 April 1998 31 May 2002
 Sri Lanka 3 September 2002
 Sudan 2 November 2004 3 February 2014
 Suriname 25 September 2006
 Swaziland 13 January 2006
 Sweden I, II 0.4% −8% (+4%)[8][7] −20%[9] 29 April 1998 31 May 2002
  Switzerland I, II 0.32% −8% −15.8% 16 March 1998 9 July 2003
 Syria 27 January 2006
 Tajikistan 5 January 2009
 Tanzania 26 August 2002
 Thailand 2 February 1999 28 August 2002
 Timor-Leste 14 October 2008
 Togo 2 July 2004
 Tonga 14 January 2008
 Trinidad and Tobago 7 January 1998 28 January 1999
 Tunisia 22 January 2003
 Turkey I, -[46] -[10] none[11] none 28 May 2009 [47][48][49]
 Turkmenistan 28 September 1998 11 January 1999
 Tuvalu 16 November 1998 16 November 1998 4 December 2014
 Uganda 25 March 2002
 Ukraine I -[18] 0%[29] −24% 15 March 1999 12 April 2004
 United Arab Emirates 26 January 2005 26 April 2013
 United Kingdom I, II 4.3% −8% (−12.5%)[8] −20%[9] 29 April 1998 31 May 2002 Guernsey and Isle of Man, applied since 4 April 2005; Gibraltar, since 2 January 2007; Bermuda, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands, Jersey, since 7 March 2007. Anguilla, British Virgin Islands, Montserrat, Pitcairn Islands, Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, Turks and Caicos Islands or the Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia: not applied
 Uruguay 29 July 1998 5 February 2001
 Uzbekistan 20 November 1998 12 October 1999
 Vanuatu 17 July 2001
 Venezuela 18 February 2005
 Vietnam 3 December 1998 25 September 2002
 Yemen 15 September 2004
 Zambia 5 August 1998 7 July 2006
 Zimbabwe 30 June 2009
Totals I: 38 + EU
II: 21+EU
33, 63.9% -%: 31 (24)
0%: 3 (5)
+%: 3 (8)
Parties: 192 (incl. EU) Parties: 27

Former parties[edit]

Country annex % for ratification reduction commitment for 2012 reduction commitment for 2020 Signed Ratification/Acceptance Amendment acceptance Notes
 Canada I, II 3.33% −6% none 29 April 1998 17 December 2002 Withdrew 15 December 2011, effective 15 December 2012.[50] (See Canada and the Kyoto Protocol)

Signed but not intending to ratify[edit]

Country annex % for ratification reduction commitment for 2012 reduction commitment for 2020 Signed Notes
 United States I, II 36.1% −7% none 12 November 1998

Not signatories or parties[edit]

As of 2014 there are several other states which are not Party to the Protocol:

  • members of the UNFCCC: Andorra, South Sudan
  • observers of the UNFCCC (UNFCC ratification required first): Palestine, Holy See[51]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Kyoto Protocol Status of Ratification (pdf)" (PDF). Retrieved 12 October 2006. 
  2. ^ a b "Status of Ratification". UNFCCC's Kyoto Protocol Background. Retrieved 28 October 2010. 
  3. ^ "Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change". United Nations Treaty Series. 2013-07-23. Retrieved 2013-07-24. 
  4. ^ "Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol". United Nations Treaty Series. 2015-04-01. Retrieved 2015-04-01. 
  5. ^ As per Kyoto protocol annex B
  6. ^ "Afghanistan ratifies Kyoto Protocol". Pajhwok Afghan News. April 3, 2013. Retrieved 2013-04-04. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h increase allowed
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac The 15 states which were members of the European Union at the time of signing the Kyoto Protocol agreed to a total aggregate reduction target of −8%. Emissions are pooled and allocated amongst member states through internal EU reduction assignments, thus increases in some member states are compensated by bigger reductions in others. The specific EU imposed targets are listed in brackets. The 13 member states that entered the union later, in 2004, 2007 and 2013, retain their individual Kyoto targets, which range from none for non-annex Cyprus and Malta to −8%.[1]
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad The 27 states which were members of the European Union at the time of signing the Kyoto Protocol, in addition to Croatia, which subsequently acceded to the EU, and Iceland agreed to a total aggregate reduction target of −20%. Emissions are pooled and allocated amongst member states through internal EU reduction assignments.[27]
  10. ^ a b Emissions not calculated in the figure for ratification because at the time of signing of the Kyoto protocol the state was not a party to the UNFCCC.
  11. ^ a b c Annex I countries that were not parties to the UNFCCC at the time of signing of the Kyoto protocol have no reduction targets assigned.
  12. ^ "Amendment to Annex B of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change". United Nations. 2015-04-01. Retrieved 2015-04-01. 
  13. ^ "Amendment to Annex B of the Kyoto Protocol". United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Retrieved 2014-10-01. 
  14. ^ "Report of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol on its second session, held at Nairobi from 6 to 17 November 2006" (PDF). United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. 2007-03-02. Retrieved 2014-10-01. 
  15. ^ A proposal to amend Annex B to list Belarus as an economy in transition with an emissions reduction commitment of −8% was adopted by the Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC in 2006, but did not enter into force prior to the end of the commitment period in 2012 due to not being ratified by a sufficient number of states.[12][13][14]
  16. ^ a b c d e f Full text of the convention - Annex I, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, retrieved 2014-05-15 
  17. ^ Added to Annex I in 1998.[16]
  18. ^ a b c d For some reason despite being annex-I states some countries' emissions are not calculated into the total percentage for entry into force of the Kyoto protocol.
  19. ^ "United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change - Adoption of amendments to Annex I to the Convention" (PDF). United Nations. 2012-07-09. Retrieved 2014-05-15. 
  20. ^ "United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change - Entry into force of amendments to Annex I to the Convention" (PDF). United Nations. 2013-01-14. Retrieved 2014-05-15. 
  21. ^ Added to Annex I in 2013.[19][20]
  22. ^ a b c Emissions not calculated in the figure for ratification because at the time of signing of the Kyoto protocol the state was not listed on Annex I.
  23. ^ a b No reductions targets assigned because at the time of signing of the Kyoto protocol the state was not listed on Annex I.
  24. ^ a b Cyprus and Malta had no commitment for emissions reduction under annex B. However, following their accession to the European Union they are obliged to participate in the EU ETS. Both will take on targets under the Doha Amendment.
  25. ^ Added to Annex I in 1998.[16]
  26. ^ The EU member states are also members of the UNFCCC on their own, in addition to their common representation through the EU.
  27. ^ "Kyoto emissions targets: Joint fulfillment, 'burden sharing' and base years". European Commission. Retrieved 2015-04-01. 
  28. ^ Full text of the Kyoto Protocol, Article 25(4)
  29. ^ a b c d e Neither reduction required, nor increase allowed – emissions should stay at their 1990 level.
  30. ^ a b c Japan, New Zealand and Russia took commitments in the first period, but not under the Doha Amendment.
  31. ^ "REPORT OF THE CONFERENCE OF THE PARTIES ON ITS SEVENTH SESSION, HELD AT MARRAKESH FROM 29 OCTOBER TO 10 NOVEMBER 2001" (PDF). United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. 2002-01-21. Retrieved 2014-10-01. 
  32. ^ Kazakhstan submitted a declaration to be treated as an Annex I state under the Kyoto Protocol, while remaining a non-Annex I state under the UNFCCC.[31]
  33. ^ "Framework Convention on Climate Change - Secretariat" (PDF). United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. 2010-01-21. Retrieved 2014-10-01. 
  34. ^ Kazakhstan proposed that it be listed on Annex B as an economy in transition with an emissions reduction commitment of 0%, but the proposal was never adopted by the Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC.[33]
  35. ^ Xinhua Kazakhstan's parliament approves Kyoto protocol
  36. ^ Added to Annex I in 1998.[16]
  37. ^ "United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change - Adoption of amendments to Annex I to the Convention in accordance with Article 16(3) of the Convention" (PDF). United Nations. 2010-04-26. Retrieved 2014-05-15. 
  38. ^ "Information by Parties included in Annex I listed in annex 1 to decision 1/CMP.7 on their quantified emission limitation or reduction objectives for the second commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol" (PDF). United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. 2012-05-09. p. 12. Retrieved 2014-05-15. 
  39. ^ Added to Annex I in 2010.[37][38]
  40. ^ Added to Annex I in 1998.[16]
  41. ^ The states in free association with New Zealand, the Cook Islands and Niue have their own separate memberships in the UNFCCC.
  42. ^ Added to Annex I in 1998.[16]
  43. ^ Added to Annex I in 1998.[16]
  44. ^ "United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change - Adoption of amendment to the list in Annex II to the Convention" (PDF). United Nations. 2001-12-28. Retrieved 2014-05-15. 
  45. ^ Full text of the convention - Annex II, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, retrieved 2014-05-15 
  46. ^ Turkey was removed from the annex II list in 2002 at its request its economy to be recognised as a transition one[44][45]
  47. ^ (Turkish)Ntvmsnbc.com "Kyoto’dan sonra Türkiye’yi neler bekliyor? (English translation:What's after Kyoto protocol for Turkey?)" (Turkish)Ntvmsnbc.com "Türkiye, Kyoto protokolüne katılıyor (English translation:Turkey joins to Kyoto protocol)" (Turkish)Ntvmsnbc.com "Şimdi KYOTO zamanı (English translation:It's time for Kyoto)"
  48. ^ Bianet Turkey Will Sign The Kyoto Protocol
  49. ^ Turkish Weekly Turkey's Participation in Kyoto Protocol Published in Official Gazette
  50. ^ "KYOTO PROTOCOL TO THE UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE - KYOTO, 11 DECEMBER 1997 CANADA: WITHDRAWAL" (PDF). United Nations. 16 December 2011. Retrieved 2015-04-02. 
  51. ^ "Parties to the Convention and Observer States". UNFCC. Retrieved 27 January 2013.