List of Liverpool and Manchester Railway locomotives
This is a list of locomotives that were used or trialled on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway (L&MR) during its construction, at the Rainhill Trials, and until absorption by the Grand Junction Railway in 1845.
The rate of progress led to quite a rapid turnover in the operating roster. Writing in 1835, de Pambour found that of the L&MR's then thirty engines, ten were seen as obsolete and day-to-day work was concentrated on only ten or eleven of the remainder. By 1840 only ten remained of the first 32 engines; and of a list of engines in use in 1844, fewer than half were even five years old.
Locomotives were often also substantially rebuilt. According to de Pambour again, observing the railway in 1834,
"... what is meant by repairs to the engines is nothing less than their complete re-construction; that is to say that when an engine requires any repair, unless it is for some trifling accident, it is taken to pieces and a new one is constructed, which receives the same name as the first, and in the construction of which are made to serve all such parts of the old engine as are still capable of being used with advantage. The consequence of this is that a reconstructed or repaired engine is literally a new one. The repairs amount thus to considerable sums, but they include also the renewal of the engines."
|Date built||No. / Name||Builder||Builder
|1828||Lancashire Witch||Robert Stephenson and Company||0-4-0||Built for Bolton and Leigh Railway but leased to L&MR.|
|1829||Twin Sisters||Robert Stephenson and Company||0-6-0||Twin vertical boilers. Used in the construction of the line.|
|1829||Cycloped||Thomas Shaw Brandreth||Horse powered, unsuccessful Rainhill Trials entrant.|
|1829||Novelty||Ericsson & Braithwaite||0-2-2VBWT||Rebuilt by Robert Daglish and sold to St Helens and Runcorn Gap Railway 3 August 1833. Replica built in 1929 incorporates original wheels and one cylinder.|
|1829||Sans Pareil||Timothy Hackworth||0-4-0||Leased to Bolton and Leigh Railway in 1831|
|1830||William IV||Ericsson & Braithwaite||0-2-2|
|1830||Queen Adelaide||Ericsson & Braithwaite||0-2-2|
|1830||Liverpool||Edward Bury and Company||0-4-0||First of the Bury Bar Frame locomotives. Ran well, but strongly opposed by George Stephenson. Finally vetoed because of its 6-foot large wheels.|
|1831||Manchester||Galloway, Bowman & Glasgow||2-2-0|
|1829||1 Rocket||Robert Stephenson and Company||19||0-2-2||Participated in Opening Ceremony, driven by Joseph Locke Sold to Lord Carlisle, donated to Patent Office Museum in 1862. Preserved. Contrary to popular belief, George Stephenson had nothing to do with the design or building of this locomotive.|
|1830||2 Arrow||Robert Stephenson and Company||0-2-2||Participated in Opening Ceremony, driven by Frederick Swanwick. Had previously pulled the first full Directors' run, from Liverpool to Manchester and back, on 14 June 1830.|
|1830||3 Wildfire||Robert Stephenson and Company||0-2-2||Later renamed Meteor|
|1830||4 Dart||Robert Stephenson and Company||0-2-2||Participated in Opening Ceremony, driven by Thomas Gooch.|
|1830||5 Comet||Robert Stephenson and Company||0-2-2||Participated in Opening Ceremony, driven by William Allcard.|
|1830||6 Phoenix||Robert Stephenson and Company||0-2-2||Participated in Opening Ceremony, driven by Robert Stephenson|
|1830||7 Northumbrian||Robert Stephenson and Company||0-2-2||Enlarged version of Rocket, Lead locomotive in opening procession, driven by George Stephenson|
|1830||8 North Star||Robert Stephenson and Company||0-2-2||Participated in opening ceremony.|
|1830||9 Planet||Robert Stephenson and Company||2-2-0|
|1830||10 Majestic||Robert Stephenson and Company||0-2-2||Similar to Northumbrian|
|1830||11 Mercury||Robert Stephenson and Company||2-2-0|
|1830||12 Mars||Robert Stephenson and Company||2-2-0|
|1831||13 Samson||Robert Stephenson and Company||0-4-0|
|1831||14 Jupiter||Robert Stephenson and Company||2-2-0|
|1831||15 Goliah||Robert Stephenson and Company||0-4-0|
|1831||16 Saturn||Robert Stephenson and Company||2-2-0|
|1831||17 Sun||Robert Stephenson and Company||2-2-0|
|1831||18 Venus||Robert Stephenson and Company||2-2-0|
|1831||19 Vulcan||Murray & Wood||2-2-0|
|1831||20 Etna||Robert Stephenson and Company||2-2-0|
|1831||21 Fury||Murray & Wood||2-2-0|
|1831||22 Victory||Robert Stephenson and Company||2-2-0|
|1832||23 Atlas||Robert Stephenson and Company||0-4-2||LNWR 140|
|1832||24 Vesta||Robert Stephenson and Company||2-2-0|
|1832||25 Milo||Robert Stephenson and Company||0-4-2|
|1832||26 Liver||Edward Bury and Company||2-2-0||Between Jan 1832 and Mar 1834 Liver worked a greater mileage than any other locomotive. In trials against Planet in June 1832 Liver was found to be more economical; but there were no further orders.|
|1832||27 Pluto||Robert Stephenson and Company||2-2-0|
|1832||28 Caledonian||Galloway, Bowman & Glasgow||0-4-0|
|1832||29 Ajax||Robert Stephenson and Company||2-2-0|
|1833||30 Leeds||Murray & Wood||2-2-0|
|1833||31 Firefly||Robert Stephenson and Company||2-2-0|
|1833||32 Experiment||Richard Roberts||2-2-0||Driven by bell cranks.|
|1834||33 Patentee||Robert Stephenson and Company||2-2-2|
|1834||34 Titan||Charles Tayleur and Company||8||0-4-2|
|1834||35 Orion||Charles Tayleur and Company||9||0-4-2|
|1834||36 Swiftsure||George Forrester and Company||2-2-0||A "Boxer", with outside cylinders|
|1835||37 Rapid||Charles Tayleur and Company||17||2-2-2|
|1835||38 Speedwell||Charles Tayleur and Company||19||2-2-2|
|1835||39 Hercules||Mather, Dixon and Company||0-4-0|
|1835||40 Eclipse||Charles Tayleur and Company||29||0-4-2|
|1836||41 Star||Charles Tayleur and Company||30||2-2-2||LNWR 165|
|1836||42 York||Charles Tayleur and Company||31||0-4-2|
|1836||43 Vesuvius||Haigh Foundry||2-2-2|
|1836||44 Thunderer||Mather, Dixon and Company||0-4-2|
|1836||45 Lightning||Haigh Foundry||2-2-2||LNWR 114|
|1836||46 Cyclops||Haigh Foundry||2-2-2||Modified in 1839 by John Gray (locomotive engineer) with expansion gear.|
|1836||47 Milo||Charles Tayleur and Company||32||2-2-2|
|1836||48 Dart||Mather, Dixon and Company||2-2-2|
|1836||49 Phoenix||Charles Tayleur and Company||33||2-2-2|
|1837||50 Majestic||Charles Tayleur and Company||46||2-2-2|
|1837||51 Etna||Charles Tayleur and Company||47||2-2-2|
|1837||53 Sun||R & W Hawthorn||2-2-2||LNWR 164|
|54 Meteor||LNWR 115|
|55 Comet||LNWR 166|
|1837||56 Vesta||R & W Hawthorn||2-2-2|
|1838||57 Lion||Todd, Kitson & Laird||0-4-2||LNWR 116; Sold to Mersey Docks in 1859 for use as a stationary pump, worked in that role until 1928. Preserved.|
|1838||58 Tiger||Todd, Kitson & Laird||0-4-2||LNWR 117|
|1838||59 Rokeby||Rothwell and Company||2-2-2|
|1838||60 Roderic||Rothwell and Company||2-2-2||LNWR 118|
|1839||61 Mammoth||T. Banks & Co.||0-4-2|
|1839||62 Leopard||Todd, Kitson & Laird||2-2-2|
|1839||63 Mastodon||T. Banks & Co.||2-2-2||LNWR 119|
|1839||64 Panther||Todd, Kitson & Laird||2-2-2|
|1839||65 Elephant||Todd, Kitson & Laird||0-4-2||LNWR 113|
|1839||66 Samson||Benjamin Hick and Sons||0-4-2|
|1839||67 Buffalo||Todd, Kitson & Laird||0-4-2||LNWR 121|
|1839||68 Goliath||Benjamin Hick and Sons||0-4-2||LNWR 122|
|1839||69 Victoria||Mather, Dixon and Company||0-4-2||LNWR 123|
|1841||69 Swallow||John Dewrance||2-2-2||LNWR 128|
|1841||72 Kingfisher||L&MR||2-2-2||LNWR 131|
|1842||77 Stork||John Dewrance||2-2-2||LNWR 136|
- François Marie Guyonneau de Pambour (1836), A practical treatise on locomotive engines upon railways, p. 333:
"... about one-third are useless. They are the most ancient, which, having been constructed at the first establishment of the railway, at a time when the company had not yet obtained sufficient experience in that respect, are found now to be out of proportion with the work required of them. The engines actually in daily activity on the road amount to about 10 or 11, and with an equal number in repair or reserve that business might completely be ensured. This is in fact what happens at present, the surplus, above that number being nearly abandoned."
- C.F. Dendy Marshall (1921), "The Liverpool and Manchester Railway", Transactions of the Newcomen Society, 2, 12–44. pp.22, 23
- François Marie Guyonneau de Pambour (1836), A practical treatise on locomotive engines upon railways, p. 330.
- "Early locomotive history". Steam Index. Retrieved 2008-03-23.
- "Early Locomotives of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway". P T T Dixon. Retrieved 2008-03-23.
- "Some historical background to the Liverpool and Manchester Railway". Resco. Retrieved 2008-03-23. Extracted from Frederick S. Williams (1883, 2e), Our Iron Roads.
- Addyman, John; Haworth, Victoria (2005). Robert Stephenson: Railway Engineer. England: North Eastern Railway Association and The Robert Stephenson Trust. p. 38. ISBN 978-1-873513-60-6.
- "Work done by the ten best engines of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, during the years 1831, 1832, 1833 and the first twelve weeks of 1834", from François Marie Guyonneau de Pambour (1836), A practical treatise on locomotive engines upon railways, pp 336–338; quoted in Mechanics Magazine, 25, 292 (1836), and elsewhere.
- Thomas, R.H.G. (1980). The Liverpool & Manchester Railway. London: Batsford. ISBN 0-7134-0537-6.
- Marshall, John (1978). A Biographical Dictionary of Railway Engineers. Newton Abbot, England: David and Charles. ISBN 0-7153-7489-3., p.97
- Dendy Marshall, C. F. (1930), Centenary history of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, London: Locomotive Publishing Co.
- Thomas, R.H.G. (1980). The Liverpool & Manchester Railway. London: Batsford. p. 264. ISBN 0-7134-0537-6.
- Williams, Frederick S. (1852/1888). Our Iron Roads.
- History of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway - mentions many locomotives by name.