List of Looking Glass Studios video games

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Looking Glass Studios was an American video game developer founded in 1990 as Blue Sky Productions by Paul Neurath in Salem, New Hampshire. The company's first game was Ultima Underworld: The Stygian Abyss in 1992, which received widespread critical acclaim and sold nearly 500,000 units.[1][2] Looking Glass proceeded to develop titles in multiple genres, including role-playing, sports, flight simulation, and stealth video games. These titles were primarily published by Origin Systems, Electronic Arts and Eidos Interactive, with three titles self-published by Looking Glass Studios.

Looking Glass' products were praised for innovations in video game technology and design.[3][4][5] Several of their successes, such as Flight Unlimited and Thief: The Dark Project, sold over half a million copies each.[6][7] Poor sales of their final two self-published games—Terra Nova: Strike Force Centauri (1996) and British Open Championship Golf (1997)—left the company in financial turmoil, however.[3] This, combined with multiple failed business deals, including a temporary merger with Intermetrics to become Intermetrics Entertainment Software from 1997–99,[8] led the company to close on May 24, 2000 and cancel several projects in development.[3][9][10] Its final project, Jane's Attack Squadron, was completed by Mad Doc Software and released by Xicat Interactive in 2002. In total, Looking Glass Studios released 12 original games in its 10 years of activity, alongside several ports and other spin-offs.

Games[edit]

Title Details

Original release dates:
(FM Towns version)
Release years by system:
1992 – DOS[11]
1993 – FM Towns[13]
1997 – PlayStation[14]
2002 – Windows Mobile[15]
Notes:
  • First-person computer role-playing game, set in the fantasy world of the Ultima series
  • Developed by Blue Sky Productions and published by Origin Systems[11]
  • Ported in Japan to FM Towns by Origin[13]
  • Ported to Windows Mobile by ZIO Interactive[15]



Original release dates:
Release years by system:
1992 – Sega Genesis[16]
Notes:



Original release dates:
(FM Towns version)
Release years by system:
1993 – DOS[18]
1994 – FM Towns[19]
Notes:
  • Sequel to Ultima Underworld: The Stygian Abyss that continues the first-person computer role-playing game style, in the fantasy world of the Ultima series.
  • Developed by Looking Glass Technologies and published by Origin Systems[11]
  • Ported in Japan to the FM Towns by Origin[19]



Original release dates:
Release years by system:
1994 – DOS[21]
1994 – Macintosh[22]
Notes:
  • First-person science fiction game inspired by Ultima Underworld[18]
  • Originally released on floppy discs; re-released months later on CD-ROM with voice acting[23]
  • Developed by Looking Glass Technologies and published by Origin Systems[18]



Original release dates:
Release years by system:
1995 – DOS[24]
1995 – Windows[25]
1997 – Macintosh[26]
Notes:
  • Aerobatic flight simulator that uses real-time computational fluid dynamics[27]
  • The first game self-published by Looking Glass Technologies[3]
  • A commercial success, with 780,000 units in sales[6]



Original release dates:
Release years by system:
1996 – DOS[29]
Notes:
  • Tactical shooter with squad mechanics and outdoor environments[30]
  • Looking Glass Technologies' second self-published game[3]
  • A commercial failure, with 100,000 units in sales[3]



Cancellation date:
Spring 1997[31]
Proposed system release:
1997 – Windows[32]
Notes:



Original release date:
Release years by system:
1997 – Windows[35][36]
Notes:
  • Golf game based on The Open Championship
  • Third and final self-published game by Looking Glass Technologies[3]
  • A commercial failure[3]


Junction Point

Cancellation date:
1997[37]
Proposed system release:
1998[38]
Notes:



Original release dates:
Release years by system:
1997 – Windows[40]
Notes:
  • Sequel to Flight Unlimited, focused on general aviation
  • Developed by Looking Glass Studios and published by Eidos Interactive[40]



Original release dates:
Release years by system:
1998 – Windows[41]
Notes:
  • A first-person stealth game
  • Developed by Looking Glass Studios and published by Eidos Interactive[41]
  • A commercial success, with over 500,000 units in sales[7]



Original release dates:
Release years by system:
1999 – Nintendo 64[42]
Notes:



Original release dates:
Release years by system:
1999 – Windows[43]
Notes:
  • Sequel to System Shock
  • Developed by Looking Glass Studios and Irrational Games and published by Electronic Arts[44]



Original release dates:
Release years by system:
1999 – Windows[45]
Notes:
  • A general aviation flight simulator and the third Flight Unlimited game
  • Developed by Looking Glass Studios and published by Electronic Arts[45]



Original release dates:
Release years by system:
1999 – Nintendo 64[46]
Notes:



Original release dates:
Release years by system:
1999 – Windows[48]
Notes:
  • Expanded re-release of Thief: The Dark Project that features three additional missions[47]
  • Developed by Looking Glass Studios and published by Eidos Interactive[48]



Original release dates:
Release years by system:
2000 – Windows[49]
Notes:
  • Stealth game sequel to Thief: The Dark Project
  • Developed by Looking Glass Studios and published by Eidos Interactive[49]


Deep Cover

Cancellation date:
2000[50]
Proposed system release:
Unannounced
Notes:
  • Stealth game set in modern day[50]
  • Developed by Looking Glass Studios and Irrational Games and published by Microsoft[4][51]


Thief II Gold

Cancellation date:
2000[51]
Proposed system release:
Unannounced
Notes:
  • Re-release of Thief II: The Metal Age[51]


Thief III

Cancellation date:
2000[4]
Proposed system release:
Unannounced
Notes:
  • Sequel to Thief II: The Metal Age[4]
  • Cancelled due to the closure of Looking Glass Studios[4][52]


Mini Racers

Cancellation date:
2000[53]
Proposed system release:
Nintendo 64[54]
Notes:
  • Model car racing game for the Nintendo 64[54]
  • Developed by Looking Glass Studios and published by Nintendo[54]
  • Completed but then cancelled due to the closure of Looking Glass Studios[53]


Wildwaters

Cancellation date:
2000[55]
Proposed system release:
Nintendo 64[56]
Notes:
  • Kayak racing game for the Nintendo 64[56]
  • Developed by Looking Glass Studios and published by Ubisoft[56]



Original release dates:
Release years by system:
2002 – Windows[57]
Notes:


References[edit]

  1. ^ Neurath, Paul (June 23, 2000). "The Story of Ultima Underworld". Through the Looking Glass. Archived from the original on June 2011, 2013. Retrieved February 12, 2009.  Check date values in: |archivedate= (help)
  2. ^ Mallinson, Paul (April 16, 2002). "Feature: Games that changed the world: Ultima Underworld". Computer and Video Games. Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h McDonald, T. Liam (August 2000). "Game Theory; Beyond the Looking Glass". Maximum PC. p. 31. 
  4. ^ a b c d e Au, Wagner James (June 20, 2000). "Game over". Salon.com. Archived from the original on April 28, 2009. 
  5. ^ Olafson, Peter (August 3, 2000). "Game Theory; In Free-Spirited Play, a Departed Spirit Lives". The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 28, 2010. 
  6. ^ a b Takahashi, Dean (April 23, 2002). Opening the Xbox: Inside Microsoft's Plan to Unleash an Entertainment Revolution. Prima Lifestyle. pp. 41–44. ISBN 0-7615-3708-2. 
  7. ^ a b Bray, Hiawatha (May 26, 2000). "Looking Glass, Closing, Laying of 60 Workers / Failed Deal Dooms Cambridge Game Developer". The Boston Globe. p. C3. 
  8. ^ AverStar (July 30, 1999). "Discontinued Operations". Registration No. 333-78517 (Report). Burlington, Massachusetts: NASDAQ. p. 25. http://www.nasdaq.com/markets/ipos/filing.ashx?filingid=961269. Retrieved November 30, 2012. "In August 1997, we combined our computer and video game business with the operations of Looking Glass Technologies, Inc. to form Intermetrics Entertainment Software, LLC, or IES. After the combination, we owned 66% of IES and consolidated the results of IES' operations with our operations for our financial reporting purposes. In December 1998, we approved a plan of divestiture of IES by means of a distribution of our interest in IES to our stockholders. We effected the distribution in March 1999."
  9. ^ Asher, Mark (August 2000). "read.me; Looking Glass Shuts Down". Computer Gaming World (193). 
  10. ^ Weise, Matthew (March 4, 2012). "Looking Glass Studios Interview Series – Audio Podcast 10 – Paul Neurath". Singapore-MIT GAMBIT Game Lab. Archived from the original on November 23, 2012. Retrieved December 3, 2012. 
  11. ^ a b c d "An Interview With Looking Glass Technologies". Game Bytes. 1992. Archived from the original on April 19, 2013. Retrieved February 15, 2009. 
  12. ^ "Ultima Underworld: The Stygian Abyss". GameSpot. Retrieved December 3, 2012. 
  13. ^ a b c "Ultima Underworld: The Stygian Abyss for FM Towns". GameSpot. Retrieved December 3, 2012. 
  14. ^ "Ultima Underworld: The Stygian Abyss for PlayStation". GameSpot. Retrieved December 3, 2012. 
  15. ^ a b Barton, Matt (April 11, 2007). "The History of Computer Role-Playing Games Part III: The Platinum and Modern Ages (1994–2004)". Gamasutra. Archived from the original on December 28, 2007. Retrieved March 7, 2009. 
  16. ^ a b c "John Madden Football '93 Related Games". GameSpot. Retrieved December 3, 2012. 
  17. ^ Flanagan, T.S.; Berg, R.J. (December 1992). John Madden Football '93 manual. Electronic Arts. 
  18. ^ a b c d Rouse III, Richard (2005). Game Design: Theory & Practice Second Edition. Wordware Publishing. 500–531. ISBN 1-55622-912-7. 
  19. ^ a b c "Ultima Underworld II: Labyrinth of Worlds for FM Towns". GameSpot. 
  20. ^ Staff (October 7, 1994). "Spotlight; Back On Top". Point of Origin (Origin Systems): 1. 
  21. ^ a b "System Shock Related Games". GameSpot. Retrieved December 3, 2012. 
  22. ^ "System Shock for Mac". GameSpot. Retrieved December 3, 2012. 
  23. ^ Keefer, John (May 2000). "20 Questions with Warren Spector". GameSpy. Archived from the original on September 5, 2005. Retrieved December 3, 2012. 
  24. ^ a b c "Looking Glass Technologies Ships Flight Unlimited Worldwide". PR Newswire. June 7, 1995. 
  25. ^ Scoleri III, Joseph. "Flight Unlimited for Windows 95". Allgame. Retrieved December 3, 2012. 
  26. ^ "Flight Unlimited for Mac". IGN. Retrieved December 3, 2012. 
  27. ^ Schuytema, Paul (August 1995). "Hex, Bugs & Rock 'N Roll; Calculus Unlimited". Computer Gaming World (133). pp. 174, 176, 178. 
  28. ^ "Major Games Publishers Roll Out Key Titles with QSound". PR Newswire. March 18, 1996. 
  29. ^ a b "Terra Nova: Strike Force Centauri Related Games". GameSpot. Retrieved December 3, 2012. 
  30. ^ Yee, Bernie (March 1995). "Through the Looking Glass". PC Gamer. pp. 62, 63, 65, 67, 69. 
  31. ^ Cross, Jason (March 9, 2001). "An Irrational Tale". Computer Games Magazine. Archived from the original on February 6, 2005. 
  32. ^ Staff (December 28, 1996). " '​Star Trek '​ fans can battle the Borg at home". The Augusta Chronicle. Archived from the original on December 1, 2012. 
  33. ^ a b "Viacom New Media forms a strategic alliance with Looking Glass Technologies, creator of groundbreaking interactive products; Viacom New Media and Looking Glass join forces on Star Trek: Voyager software". Business Wire. August 16, 1995. 
  34. ^ Chey, Jonathan (December 7, 1999). "Postmortem: Irrational Games' System Shock 2". Gamasutra. Retrieved December 3, 2012. 
  35. ^ a b "British Open Championship Golf for PC". GameSpot. Retrieved December 3, 2012. 
  36. ^ Quigley, Shane (May 22, 1997). "British Open Championship Golf". The Adrenaline Vault. Archived from the original on February 12, 2006. Retrieved December 3, 2012. 
  37. ^ a b Feldman, Curt; Thorsen, Tor (March 8, 2005). "Warren Spector resurfaces at Junction Point". GameSpot. Retrieved December 3, 2012. 
  38. ^ a b c "Eidos Interactive to Publish Games From Looking Glass; Flight Unlimited II, Sequel To The Award-Winning Civilian Flight Sim To Be The First From Eidos". Business Wire. September 9, 1997. 
  39. ^ Staff (March 1997). "An Interview with Warren Spector". Next Generation (27): 56. 
  40. ^ a b c d "Flight Unlimited II Related Games". GameSpot. Retrieved December 3, 2012. 
  41. ^ a b c d "Thief: The Dark Project Related Games". GameSpot. Retrieved December 3, 2012. 
  42. ^ a b c d "Command & Conquer for N64 Related Games". GameSpot. Retrieved December 3, 2012. 
  43. ^ a b c d "System Shock 2 Related Games". GameSpot. Retrieved December 3, 2012. 
  44. ^ Fudge, James (August 11, 1999). "System Shock 2 ships". Computer Games Magazine. Archived from the original on May 16, 2003. Retrieved December 3, 2012. 
  45. ^ a b c d "Flight Unlimited III Related Games". GameSpot. Retrieved December 3, 2012. 
  46. ^ a b c d "Destruction Derby 64 Related Games". GameSpot. Retrieved December 3, 2012. 
  47. ^ a b Fudge, James (October 29, 1999). "Thief Gold Ships". Computer Games Magazine. Archived from the original on November 29, 2002. Retrieved December 3, 2012. 
  48. ^ a b c "Thief Gold Related Games". GameSpot. Retrieved December 3, 2012. 
  49. ^ a b c d "Thief II: The Metal Age". GameSpot. Retrieved December 3, 2012. 
  50. ^ a b Sterrett, James (May 31, 2000). "Reasons for the Fall: A Post-Mortem On Looking Glass Studios". Through the Looking Glass. Archived from the original on March 8, 2014. 
  51. ^ a b c Opii, Valoria (2000). "Once more through the Looking Glass". GameSpy. Archived from the original on August 16, 2000. Retrieved December 3, 2012. 
  52. ^ Hong, Quang (May 25, 2000). "Looking Glass Gone". Gamasutra. Retrieved December 3, 2012. 
  53. ^ a b Ransom-Wiley, James (August 31, 2006). "Craigslist poster has unreleased Mini Racers, offering free N64 rom for services". Joystiq. Retrieved December 3, 2012. 
  54. ^ a b c Staff (November 2, 1999). "Mini Racers". IGN. Archived from the original on March 7, 2000. Retrieved December 3, 2012. 
  55. ^ "Wildwaters – Nintendo 64". IGN. Retrieved December 12, 2012. 
  56. ^ a b c Staff. "Introducing Wildwaters". IGN. Archived from the original on March 10, 2000. Retrieved December 3, 2012. 
  57. ^ a b c "Jane's Attack Squadron Related Games". GameSpot. Retrieved December 3, 2012. 
  58. ^ Atkin, Denny (July 2002). "Jane's Attack Squadron". Computer Gaming World (216): 76. 

External links[edit]