List of Major League Baseball retired numbers

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Plaques of numbers retired by the New York Yankees in Monument Park at Yankee Stadium
Boston Red Sox retired numbers as hung on the right-field facade during the 2011 season in Fenway Park

Major League Baseball and its participating clubs have retired various uniform numbers over the course of time, ensuring that those numbers are never worn again and thus will always be associated with particular players or managers of note. The use of numbers on uniforms to better identify one player from another, and hence to boost sales of scorecards was tried briefly by the Cleveland Indians of 1916. The first team to permanently adopt the practice was the New York Yankees of 1929. By 1932, all sixteen major league clubs were issuing numbers, and by 1937, the leagues passed rules requiring it.

The Yankees' original approach was to simply assign the numbers 1 through 8 to the regular starting lineup in their normal batting order. Hence, Babe Ruth wore number 3 and Lou Gehrig number 4. The first major leaguer whose number was retired was Gehrig, in July 1939, following his retirement due to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, which became known popularly as Lou Gehrig's Disease.

Since then, over 150 other people have had their numbers retired, some with more than one team. This includes managers and coaches, as Major League Baseball is the only one of the major North American professional leagues in which the coaching staff wear the same uniforms as players. Three numbers have been retired in honor of people not directly involved on the playing field - all three for team executives. Some of the game's early stars, such as Ty Cobb and Christy Mathewson, retired before numbers came into usage. Teams often celebrate their retired numbers and other honored people by hanging banners with the numbers and names. Early stars, as well as honored non-players, will often have numberless banners hanging along with the retired numbers. Because fewer and fewer players stay with one team long enough to warrant their number being retired, some players believe that getting their number retired is a greater honor than going into the Baseball Hall of Fame. Ron Santo, upon his number 10 being retired on the last day of the 2003 regular season, enthusiastically told the Wrigley Field crowd as his #10 flag was hoisted, "This is my Hall of Fame!"[1] However, Santo would be inducted into the Hall of Fame in July 2012, nearly two years after his death, after being voted in by the Veterans Committee.

List of retired numbers[edit]

dagger Elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame
Number Player or other figure Team Date
1 Meyer, BillyBilly Meyer Pirates 1954
1 Reese, Pee WeePee Wee Reesedagger Dodgers July 1, 1984
1 Doerr, BobbyBobby Doerrdagger Red Sox May 21, 1988
1 Hutchinson, FredFred Hutchinson Reds 1965
1 Smith, OzzieOzzie Smithdagger Cardinals September 26, 1996
1 Ashburn, RichieRichie Ashburndagger Phillies August 24, 1979
1 Martin, BillyBilly Martin Yankees August 10, 1986
2 Schoendienst, RedRed Schoendienstdagger Cardinals May 11, 1996
2 Fox, NellieNellie Foxdagger White Sox May 1, 1976
2 Lasorda, TommyTommy Lasordadagger Dodgers August 15, 1997
2 Gehringer, CharlieCharlie Gehringerdagger Tigers June 12, 1983
3 Ruth, BabeBabe Ruthdagger Yankees June 13, 1948
3 Averill, EarlEarl Averilldagger Indians June 8, 1975
3 Terry, BillBill Terrydagger Giants 1984
3 Killebrew, HarmonHarmon Killebrewdagger Twins May 4, 1974
3 Murphy, DaleDale Murphy Braves June 13, 1994
3 Baines, HaroldHarold Baines White Sox August 20, 1989
4 Appling, LukeLuke Applingdagger White Sox June 7, 1975
4 Weaver, EarlEarl Weaverdagger Orioles September 19, 1982
4 Snider, DukeDuke Sniderdagger Dodgers July 6, 1980
4 Kiner, RalphRalph Kinerdagger Pirates September 19, 1987
4 Gehrig, LouLou Gehrigdagger Yankees July 4, 1939
4 Molitor, PaulPaul Molitordagger Brewers June 11, 1999
4 Ott, MelMel Ottdagger Giants July 17, 1948
4 Cronin, JoeJoe Cronindagger Red Sox May 29, 1984
5 Robinson, BrooksBrooks Robinsondagger Orioles April 14, 1978
5 Boudreau, LouLou Boudreaudagger Indians July 9, 1970
5 Brett, GeorgeGeorge Brettdagger Royals May 14, 1994
5 Bench, JohnnyJohnny Benchdagger Reds August 11, 1984
5 Greenberg, HankHank Greenbergdagger Tigers June 12, 1983
5 DiMaggio, JoeJoe DiMaggiodagger Yankees April 18, 1952
5 Bagwell, JeffJeff Bagwell Astros August 26, 2007
6 Pesky, JohnnyJohnny Pesky Red Sox September 28, 2008
6 Garvey, SteveSteve Garvey Padres April 16, 1988
6 Musial, StanStan Musialdagger Cardinals September 29, 1963
6 Kaline, AlAl Kalinedagger Tigers August 17, 1980
6 Oliva, TonyTony Oliva Twins July 14, 1991
6 Cox, BobbyBobby Coxdagger Braves August 12, 2011
6 Torre, JoeJoe Torredagger Yankees August 23, 2014
7 Mantle, MickeyMickey Mantledagger Yankees June 8, 1969
7 Biggio, CraigCraig Biggio Astros August 17, 2008
8 Stargell, WillieWillie Stargelldagger Pirates September 6, 1982
8 Morgan, JoeJoe Morgandagger Reds June 6, 1998
8 Berra, YogiYogi Berradagger Yankees July 22, 1972
8 Dickey, BillBill Dickeydagger Yankees July 22, 1972
8 Ripken, Jr., CalCal Ripken, Jr.dagger Orioles October 6, 2001
8 Yastrzemski, CarlCarl Yastrzemskidagger Red Sox August 6, 1989
9 Williams, TedTed Williamsdagger Red Sox May 29, 1984
9 Jackson, ReggieReggie Jacksondagger Athletics May 22, 2004
9 Minoso, MinnieMinnie Miñoso White Sox May 8, 1983
9 Slaughter, EnosEnos Slaughterdagger Cardinals September 6, 1996
9 Mazeroski, BillBill Mazeroskidagger Pirates August 7, 1987
9 Maris, RogerRoger Maris Yankees July 21, 1984
10 Anderson, SparkySparky Andersondagger Reds May 28, 2005
10 Howser, DickDick Howser Royals July 3, 1987
10 Rizzuto, PhilPhil Rizzutodagger Yankees August 4, 1985
10 Santo, RonRon Santodagger Cubs September 28, 2003
10 La Russa, TonyTony La Russadagger Cardinals May 11, 2012
10 Kelly, TomTom Kelly Twins September 8, 2012
10 Jones, ChipperChipper Jones Braves June 28, 2013
11 Hubbell, CarlCarl Hubbelldagger Giants 1944
11 Fregosi, JimJim Fregosi Angels August 1, 1998
11 Aparicio, LuisLuis Apariciodagger[Notes 1] White Sox August 14, 1984
11 Waner, PaulPaul Wanerdagger Pirates July 21, 2007
11 Anderson, SparkySparky Andersondagger Tigers June 26, 2011
11 Larkin, BarryBarry Larkindagger Reds August 25, 2012
12 Boggs, WadeWade Boggsdagger Rays April 7, 2000
12 Alomar, RobertoRoberto Alomardagger Blue Jays July 31, 2011
13 Concepción, DaveDave Concepción Reds August 25, 2007
14 Banks, ErnieErnie Banksdagger Cubs August 22, 1982
14 Hrbek, KentKent Hrbek Twins August 13, 1995
14 Doby, LarryLarry Dobydagger Indians July 3, 1994
14 Boyer, KenKen Boyer Cardinals May 20, 1984
14 Hodges, GilGil Hodges Mets June 9, 1973
14 Bunning, JimJim Bunningdagger Phillies April 16, 2001
14 Rice, JimJim Ricedagger Red Sox July 28, 2009
15 Munson, ThurmanThurman Munson Yankees August 3, 1979
16 Lyons, TedTed Lyonsdagger White Sox July 25, 1987
16 Ford, WhiteyWhitey Forddagger Yankees August 3, 1974
16 Newhouser, HalHal Newhouserdagger Tigers July 27, 1997
17 Dean, DizzyDizzy Deandagger Cardinals September 22, 1974
17 Helton, ToddTodd Helton Rockies August 17, 2014
18 Kluszewski, TedTed Kluszewski Reds July 18, 1998
18 Harder, MelMel Harder Indians July 28, 1990
19 Feller, BobBob Fellerdagger Indians December 28, 1956
19 Pierce, BillyBilly Pierce White Sox July 25, 1987
19 Gilliam, JimJim Gilliam Dodgers October 10, 1978
19 Gwynn, TonyTony Gwynndagger Padres September 4, 2004
19 Yount, RobinRobin Yountdagger Brewers May 29, 1994
20 Gonzalez, LuisLuis Gonzalez Diamondbacks August 7, 2010
20 Irvin, MonteMonte Irvindagger Giants June 26, 2010
20 Brock, LouLou Brockdagger Cardinals September 9, 1979
20 Robinson, FrankFrank Robinsondagger Orioles March 10, 1972
20 Robinson, FrankFrank Robinsondagger Reds May 22, 1998
20 Traynor, PiePie Traynordagger Pirates April 18, 1972
20 Schmidt, MikeMike Schmidtdagger Phillies May 26, 1990
20 Sutton, DonDon Suttondagger Dodgers August 14, 1998
20 White, FrankFrank White Royals May 2, 1995
21 Lemon, BobBob Lemondagger Indians June 20, 1998
21 Spahn, WarrenWarren Spahndagger Braves December 11, 1965
21 Clemente, RobertoRoberto Clementedagger Pirates April 6, 1973
22 Palmer, JimJim Palmerdagger Orioles September 1, 1985
23 Sandberg, RyneRyne Sandbergdagger Cubs August 28, 2005
23 Mattingly, DonDon Mattingly Yankees August 31, 1997
23 Horton, WillieWillie Horton Tigers July 15, 2000
24 Herzog, WhiteyWhitey Herzogdagger Cardinals July 31, 2010
24 Pérez, TonyTony Pérezdagger Reds May 27, 2000
24 Mays, WillieWillie Maysdagger Giants May 12, 1972
24 Alston, WalterWalter Alstondagger Dodgers June 5, 1977
24 Wynn, JimmyJimmy Wynn Astros June 25, 2005
24 Henderson, RickeyRickey Hendersondagger Athletics August 1, 2009
25 Cruz, JoséJosé Cruz Astros October 3, 1992
26 Williams, BillyBilly Williamsdagger Cubs August 13, 1987
26 Autry, GeneGene Autry[Notes 2] Angels August 3, 1982
26 Oates, JohnnyJohnny Oates Rangers August 5, 2005
27 Fisk, CarltonCarlton Fiskdagger Red Sox September 4, 2000
27 Hunter, CatfishCatfish Hunterdagger Athletics June 9, 1991
27 Marichal, JuanJuan Marichaldagger Giants July 10, 1983
28 Blyleven, BertBert Blylevendagger Twins July 16, 2011
29 Carew, RodRod Carewdagger Angels August 6, 1991
29 Carew, RodRod Carewdagger Twins July 19, 1987
29 Smoltz, JohnJohn Smoltz Braves June 8, 2012
30 Cepeda, OrlandoOrlando Cepedadagger Giants July 11, 1999
30 Ryan, NolanNolan Ryandagger Angels June 16, 1992
31 Winfield, DaveDave Winfielddagger Padres April 14, 2001
31 Maddux, GregGreg Madduxdagger Cubs May 3, 2009
31 Maddux, GregGreg Madduxdagger Braves July 17, 2009
31 Jenkins, FergusonFerguson Jenkinsdagger Cubs May 3, 2009
32 Carlton, SteveSteve Carltondagger Phillies July 29, 1989
32 Koufax, SandySandy Koufaxdagger Dodgers June 4, 1972
32 Howard, ElstonElston Howard Yankees July 21, 1984
32 Umbricht, JimJim Umbricht Astros April 12, 1965
33 Scott, MikeMike Scott Astros October 3, 1992
33 Murray, EddieEddie Murraydagger Orioles June 7, 1998
33 Wagner, HonusHonus Wagnerdagger Pirates February 16, 1952
34 Fingers, RollieRollie Fingersdagger Brewers August 9, 1992
34 Fingers, RollieRollie Fingersdagger Athletics July 5, 1993
34 Ryan, NolanNolan Ryandagger Rangers September 15, 1996
34 Ryan, NolanNolan Ryandagger Astros September 29, 1996
34 Puckett, KirbyKirby Puckettdagger Twins May 25, 1997
35 Jones, RandyRandy Jones Padres May 9, 1997
35 Niekro, PhilPhil Niekrodagger Braves August 6, 1984
35 Thomas, FrankFrank Thomasdagger White Sox August 29, 2010
36 Perry, GaylordGaylord Perrydagger Giants July 23, 2005
36 Roberts, RobinRobin Robertsdagger Phillies March 21, 1962
37 Stengel, CaseyCasey Stengeldagger Yankees August 8, 1970
37 Stengel, CaseyCasey Stengeldagger Mets September 2, 1965
39 Campanella, RoyRoy Campanelladagger Dodgers June 4, 1972
40 Wilson, DonDon Wilson Astros April 13, 1975
40 Murtaugh, DannyDanny Murtaugh Pirates April 7, 1977
41 Mathews, EddieEddie Mathewsdagger Braves July 26, 1969
41 Seaver, TomTom Seaverdagger Mets June 24, 1988
42 Rivera, MarianoMariano Rivera Yankees September 22, 2013
42 Robinson, JackieJackie Robinsondagger Dodgers June 4, 1972
42 Robinson, JackieJackie Robinsondagger All MLB April 15, 1997
42 Sutter, BruceBruce Sutterdagger Cardinals September 17, 2006
43 Eckersley, DennisDennis Eckersleydagger Athletics August 13, 2005
44 Aaron, HankHank Aarondagger Braves April 15, 1977
44 Aaron, HankHank Aarondagger Brewers October 3, 1976
44 Jackson, ReggieReggie Jacksondagger Yankees August 14, 1993
44 McCovey, WillieWillie McCoveydagger Giants September 21, 1980
45 Gibson, BobBob Gibsondagger Cardinals September 1, 1975
47 Glavine, TomTom Glavinedagger Braves August 6, 2010
49 Dierker, LarryLarry Dierker Astros May 19, 2002
49 Guidry, RonRon Guidry Yankees August 23, 2003
50 Reese, JimmieJimmie Reese Angels August 2, 1995
51 Hoffman, TrevorTrevor Hoffman Padres August 21, 2011
53 Drysdale, DonDon Drysdaledagger Dodgers July 1, 1984
72 Fisk, CarltonCarlton Fiskdagger White Sox September 14, 1997
85 Busch, Jr., AugustAugust Busch, Jr.[Notes 3] Cardinals April 13, 1984
455 Indians fans[Notes 4] Indians May 29, 2001
  1. ^ Aparicio's number was temporarily unretired with his approval for Omar Vizquel. Vizquel played the 2010 and 2011 seasons with the White Sox.
  2. ^ Team founder. The number represents the "26th man"—Major League Baseball rosters are limited to 25 players, except for games played on or after September 1, when rosters are expanded to 40.
  3. ^ Served as president, chairman, or CEO of the Cardinals from the team's purchase by Anheuser-Busch in 1953 until his death in 1989. The number represents his age at the time the number was retired in 1984.
  4. ^ The Number 455 was retired in honor of the fans after the Indians sold out 455 consecutive games.

Former retired numbers[edit]

It is very rare for a team to reissue a retired number, and usually requires a special circumstance, such as the player for whom the number was retired coming out of retirement himself. Harold Baines is an example of this.

In cases of franchise relocation, the handling of existing retired numbers is at the discretion of team management. They may decide to continue honoring the retired numbers, including the San Francisco Giants, or they may choose to make a "fresh start" and reissue the numbers, as the Washington Nationals have done.

The Cincinnati Reds have placed Willard Hershberger's number 5 into circulation two years after his death. Cincinnati later re-retired the number 5 for Johnny Bench. When the Florida Marlins moved to their current stadium, Marlins Park, and rebranded as the Miami Marlins; the number 5, which was retired for their late first president, Carl Barger, was placed into circulation because Logan Morrison requested to wear the number.

Number Name Team Date
5 Barger, CarlCarl Barger[Notes 1] Marlins April 5, 1993
8 Carter, GaryGary Carterdagger[Notes 2] Expos July 31, 1993
10 Dawson, AndreAndre Dawsondagger[Notes 2] Expos July 6, 1997
5 Hershberger, WillardWillard Hershberger[Notes 3] Reds 1940
30 Raines, TimTim Raines [Notes 2] Expos June 19, 2004
10 Staub, RustyRusty Staub[Notes 2] Expos May 15, 1993
  1. ^ Placed into circulation in 2012 when the Marlins moved to their new park and decided to honor Barger instead with a plaque at the stadium. The first player to receive the number was Logan Morrison. Barger was the team's first president, but died in December 1992, four months before the team's first game. The Marlins chose to retire #5 because it was the number worn by Barger's favorite player, Joe DiMaggio.
  2. ^ a b c d The Montreal Expos retired numbers in honor of four players (Carter #8, Dawson #10, Staub #10, Raines #30). When the franchise relocated to Washington, D.C., after the 2004 season, the newly christened Washington Nationals chose not to recognize any uniform number retired while in Montreal. On October 18, 2005, the NHL's Montreal Canadiens honored the departed team by raising an Expos commemorative banner listing the retired numbers to the rafters of Montreal's Bell Centre.
  3. ^ The Reds retired Hershberger's #5 after his death in 1940, but later returned it to circulation two years later. Cincinnati later re-retired the number 5 for Johnny Bench.

Retired in honor of multiple players[edit]

The following numbers have been retired in honor of multiple players:

Alternative methods of recognition[edit]

One team, the Seattle Mariners, has never retired any jersey numbers (other than Robinson's #42 retired in all of MLB). Two additional teams, the Miami Marlins and Washington Nationals have no retired jersey numbers. The Marlins had previously retired #5 in honor of their first team president, the late Carl Barger, but un-retired it entering the 2012 season. The Nationals franchise had retired jerseys in honor of four players when known as the Montreal Expos, but un-retired them upon moving to Washington.

The Mariners have kept the following numbers out of circulation since the departure of a popular player who wore it: #11 (Edgar Martínez), #14 (Lou Piniella), #19 (Jay Buhner), #24 (Ken Griffey, Jr.). and #51 (initially for Randy Johnson, and later for Ichiro Suzuki). Similarly, no one had worn #33 for the Rockies since the departure of Larry Walker in 2004 until Walker gave his blessing for Justin Morneau, a fellow British Columbia native who had idolized Walker as a boy, to wear it when Morneau joined the team in 2014.[6] As early as 2011, it had been speculated that Helton's #17 would be the first number to be retired by the Rockies organization,[7] which proved to be the case.[8]

Some teams have not formally retired certain numbers, but nonetheless kept them out of circulation. For example, the Cincinnati Reds have only assigned Pete Rose's #14 to one other player after his retirement: his own son. #14 cannot be retired in honor of the older Rose due to his lifetime ban from baseball. The Los Angeles Dodgers' current policy is only to retire the numbers of longtime club members if they are inducted into the Hall of Fame; the lone exception was longtime Dodger player and coach Jim Gilliam, whose #19 was retired when he died of a cerebral hemorrhage during the Dodgers' 1978 postseason run. Nevertheless, the Dodgers have informally kept Fernando Valenzuela's #34 out of circulation since his retirement.[9]

The New York Mets have not assigned Mike Piazza's #31 since he left the team in 2005. On opening day of the 2012 season the Mets unveiled a memorial "Kid 8" logo to honor the late Gary Carter. Although no Met has worn the number 8 since Carter's election to the Hall of Fame, it is not retired. Following Willie Mays' retirement in 1973, Mets owner Joan Payson promised him that the team would not reissue his #24; since then, the only Met to wear it has been Rickey Henderson from 1999 to 2000 (with the exception of a minor league call-up named Kelvin Torve, who was inexplicably issued #24 in August 1990 before fan complaints prompted the team to change his number to #39 ten days later[10]).

After Darryl Kile's death in 2002, the teams he played for (Colorado Rockies, Houston Astros, and St. Louis Cardinals) took his #57 out of circulation, but have not formally retired the number.

The New York Yankees have not re-issued uniform numbers 20 (Jorge Posada), 21 (Paul O'Neill) and 51 (Bernie Williams) since those players ended their careers.

The Boston Red Sox have not re-issued uniform numbers 21 (Roger Clemens), 33 (Jason Varitek), 45 (Pedro Martinez) and 49 (Tim Wakefield) since those players left the Red Sox or ended their careers.

Number retired by Major League Baseball[edit]

Normally the individual clubs are responsible for retiring numbers. On April 15, 1997, Major League Baseball took the unusual move of retiring a number for all teams. On the 50th anniversary of Jackie Robinson's breaking the major league color barrier, his number 42 was retired throughout the majors, at the order of Commissioner Bud Selig. This meant that no future player on any major league team could wear number 42, although players wearing #42 at the time were allowed to continue wearing it (Mariano Rivera was the last active player to be grandfathered in, retiring after the 2013 season). Starting in the 2007 season, the 60th anniversary of Robinson's Major League debut, players and coaches have all worn the number 42 as a tribute to Robinson on Jackie Robinson Day, April 15.

There is a lobby to have uniform #21 retired in all of baseball to honor Roberto Clemente.[11]

Similar honors[edit]

Players who pre-date uniform numbers[edit]

Four teams have honored players who played before the advent of uniform numbers by placing their names among those of players whose numbers have been retired:

Broadcasters[edit]

Owners and contributors[edit]

  • The initials of former San Diego Padres owner Ray Kroc are painted in gold on the front of the pressbox down the right field line, accompanied by his name in white.
  • The initials of former Boston Red Sox owners Tom and Jean Yawkey are rendered in Morse code and painted in white on the manual scoreboard on Fenway Park's Green Monster.
  • Charles Bronfman was inducted into the Expos Hall of Fame as its inaugural member in 1993, and a circular patch placed on the right field wall with his name, the number 83, which he used to wear during spring training, and the words "FONDATEUR / FOUNDER".[12]
  • On April 8, 2008, the final opening day at Shea Stadium, the New York Mets unveiled a "Shea" logo which was displayed on the left-field fence next to the team's other retired numbers. The stadium was named for William Shea, a prominent lawyer who was responsible for the return of National League baseball to New York.
  • Walter A. Haas, Jr., honorary jersey retired (with stylized Old English "A" in place of a number) in 1995, located in right field. Owner of the Oakland Athletics from 1980 until 1995. Haas purchased the team from Charles O. Finley in 1980, saving the team from potentially moving out of the area.
  • At the start of the 2007 season, the Kansas City Royals designated Seat #9 in Section 127, Row C at Kauffman Stadium as the "Buck O'Neil Legacy Seat" in honor of Negro Leagues legend and Royals scout Buck O'Neil. During each home game, the Royals honor a fan who exemplifies O'Neil's spirit of humanitarianism and community service by inviting that fan to sit in the Buck O'Neil Legacy Seat.

Umpires[edit]

See: Umpire (baseball)#Numbers Retired by Individual Leagues

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jauss, Bill (September 29, 2003). "Santo: Flag 'my Hall of Fame'". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved November 19, 2010. 
  2. ^ a b c baseball-almanac.com (2009). "Retired Uniform Numbers in the National League". baseball-almanac.com. Retrieved 2009-10-02. 
  3. ^ MLB Advanced Media (2009). "Franchise Retired Numbers". MLB Advanced Media. Retrieved 2009-10-02. 
  4. ^ MLB Advanced Media (2009). "Yankees Retired Numbers". MLB Advanced Media. Retrieved 2009-10-02. 
  5. ^ MLB Advanced Media (2009). "Cardinals Retired Numbers". MLB Advanced Media. Retrieved 2009-10-02. 
  6. ^ Harding, Thomas (January 27, 2014). "Walker OKs Morneau wearing No. 33 with Rockies". 'MLB.com. Retrieved March 19, 2014. 
  7. ^ Saunders, Patrick (2011-07-02 10:29:41-06:00). "Retired numbers: Whose jersey, besides Elway's, is worthy?". The Denver Post. Retrieved 2011-07-04.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  8. ^ Renck, Troy E. (February 6, 2014). "Todd Helton's No. 17 to be retired by Colorado Rockies on Aug. 17". The Denver Post. Retrieved March 19, 2014. 
  9. ^ "Big Unit beats Dodgers 2-1 in Manny’s LA debut". Yahoo.com. 08-02-2008. Retrieved 2008-08-02.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  10. ^ "Accidental 24: The Kelvin Torve Interview". Mets by the Numbers. 2008-02-11. Retrieved 2013-10-09. 
  11. ^ Ruiz, M. Teresa. "SENATE CONCURRENT RESOLUTION No. 27". State of New Jersey. State of New Jersey. Retrieved 14 January 2014. 
  12. ^ Blair, Jeff (1993-08-15). "This used to be his playground; Bronfman was always a fan; Original owner steps into Expos Hall of Fame". Montreal Gazette (Montreal Gazette). pp. D.1. 

Additional reading[edit]

  • Baseball Uniforms of the 20th Century, Marc Okkonen, 1991, Sterling Publishing.

External links[edit]