List of Members of the United States House of Representatives in the 12th Congress by seniority

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This is a list of members of the U.S. House of Representatives in the 12th United States Congress by seniority. For the most part, representatives are ranked by the beginning of their terms in office.

As an historical article, the districts and party affiliations listed reflect those during the 12th Congress (March 4, 1811 – March 3, 1813). Seats and party affiliations on similar lists for other Congresses will be different for certain members.

This article describes the criteria for seniority in the House of Representatives and sets out the list of members by seniority. It is prepared on the basis of the interpretation of seniority applied to the House of Representatives in the 112th Congress. In the absence of information to the contrary, it is presumed that the twenty-first-century practice is identical to the seniority customs used during the 12th Congress.[1]

House seniority[edit]

Seniority in the House, for Congressmen with unbroken service, depends on the date on which the members first term began. That date is either the start of the Congress (4 March in odd numbered years, for the era up to and including the 73rd Congress starting in 1933) or the date of a special election during the Congress. Since many members start serving on the same day as others, ranking between them is based on alphabetical order by the last name of the congressman.

Congressmen, in early Congresses, were often elected after the legal start of the Congress. Such representatives are attributed with unbroken seniority, from the legal start of the congressional term, if they were the first person elected to a seat in a Congress. The date of the election is indicated in a note.

The seniority date is normally taken from the members entry in the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, except where the date given is the legal start of the Congress and the actual election (for someone who was not the first person elected to the seat in that Congress) was later. The date of election is taken from United States Congressional Elections 1788-1997. In a few instances the latter work provides dates, for the start and end of terms, which correct those in the Biographical Directory.

The Biographical Directory normally uses the date of a special election, as the seniority date. However, mostly in early Congresses, the date of the member taking his seat can be the one given. The date of the special election is mentioned in a note to the list below, when that date is not used as the seniority date by the Biographical Directory.

Representatives who returned to the House, after having previously served, are credited with service equal to one less than the total number of terms they served. When a representative has served a prior term of less than two terms (i.e. prior term minus one equals less than one), he is ranked above all others whose service begins on the same day.

Leadership[edit]

In this Congress the only formal leader was the Speaker of the House. A Speakership ballot was held on November 4, 1811 and Henry Clay (DR-KY) was elected.[2]

The title Dean of the House (sometimes known, in the nineteenth century, as Father of the House) was held by the member with the longest continuous service. It was not a leadership position.

Standing Committees[edit]

The House created its first standing committee, on April 13, 1789. There were nine standing committees, listed in the rules initially used by the 12th Congress.

Committees, in this period, were appointed for a session at a time by the Speaker.

This list refers to the standing committees of the House in the 12th Congress, the year of establishment as a standing committee, the number of members assigned to the committee and the dates of appointment in each session, the end of the session and its chairman. Chairmen, who were re-appointed after serving in the previous Congress, are indicated by an *.[3]

The first session was November 4, 1811-July 6, 1812 (245 days) and the second session was November 2, 1812-March 3, 1813 (122 days).

No. Committee From Mbrs Appointed Chairman
01 Accounts 1805 3 November 8, 1811-July 6, 1812 Charles Turner, Jr. (DR-MA)
November 5, 1812-March 3, 1813
02 Claims 1794 7 November 8, 1811-July 6, 1812 Burwell Bassett (DR-VA)
November 5, 1812-March 3, 1813 Thomas Gholson, Jr. (DR-VA)
03 Commerce and Manufactures 1795 7 November 8, 1811-July 6, 1812 *Thomas Newton, Jr. (DR-VA)
November 5, 1812-March 3, 1813
04 District of Columbia 1808 7 November 8, 1811-July 6, 1812 Joseph Lewis, Jr. (F-VA)
November 5, 1812-March 3, 1813
05 Elections 1789 7 November 7, 1811-July 6, 1812 *William Findley (DR-PA)
November 5, 1812-March 3, 1813
06 Post Office and Post Roads 1808 17 November 8, 1811-July 6, 1812 *John Rhea (DR-TN)
7 November 5, 1812-March 3, 1813
07 Public Lands 1805 7 November 8, 1811-July 6, 1812 *Jeremiah Morrow (DR-OH)
November 5, 1812-March 3, 1813
08 Revisal and Unfinished Business 1795 3 November 8, 1811-July 6, 1812 Adam Seybert (DR-PA)
November 5, 1812-March 3, 1813 Burwell Bassett (DR-VA)
09 Ways and Means 1802 7 November 8, 1811-July 6, 1812 Ezekiel Bacon (DR-MA)
November 5, 1812-March 3, 1813 Langdon Cheves (DR-SC)

List of Representatives by seniority[edit]

A numerical rank is assigned to each of the 142 members initially elected to the 12th Congress. Other members, who were not the first person elected to a seat but who joined the House during the Congress, are not assigned a number (with the exception of the first member from the newly admitted state of Louisiana, who is numbered 143).

Four Representatives-elect were not sworn in, as they resigned. The list below includes the Representatives-elect (with name in italics), with the seniority they would have held if sworn in.

Party designations used in this article are DR for Democratic-Republican members and F for Federalist representatives. Designations used for service in the first three congresses are (A) for Anti-Administration members and (P) for Pro-Administration representatives.

Rank Representative Party District Seniority date Notes
Eleven consecutive terms
001 Nathaniel Macon DR NC-6 March 4, 1791 (A) 1791-95. Dean of the House.
Nine consecutive terms
002 Joseph B. Varnum DR MA-4 March 4, 1795 Resigned, as Representative-elect, to become US Senator: June 29, 1811 [4]
Nine non-consecutive terms
003 William Findley DR PA-8 March 4, 1803 Previously served (A) 1791-95 and (DR) 1795-99. Chairman: Elections.
Eight consecutive terms
004 Matthew Clay DR VA-14 March 4, 1797 Elected to this Congress: April 1811. Last term until 14th Congress.
005 John Dawson DR VA-10 Elected to this Congress: April 1811
006 Richard Stanford DR NC-8
007 Robert Brown DR PA-2 December 4, 1798
Eight non-consecutive terms
008 John Clopton DR VA-22 March 4, 1801 Previously served (DR) 1795-99. Elected to this Congress: April 1811.
009 John Smilie DR PA-9 March 4, 1799 Previously served (A) 1793-95. Died December 30, 1812.
010 Richard Winn DR SC-5 January 24, 1803 Previously served (A) 1793-95 and (DR) 1795-97. Last term.
Seven consecutive terms
011 Willis Alston DR NC-2 March 4, 1799
012 John Davenport F CT-al
013 Edwin Gray DR VA-19 Elected to this Congress: April 1811. Last term.
014 John Randolph DR VA-15 Elected to this Congress: April 1811. Last term until 14th Congress.
Seven non-consecutive terms
015 David Bard DR PA-4 March 4, 1803 Previously served (DR) 1795-99
016 Anthony New DR KY-1 March 4, 1811 Previously served (A-VA) 1793-95 and (DR-VA) 1795-1805. Last term until 15th Congress.
Six consecutive terms
017 William Butler DR SC-2 March 4, 1801 Last term
018 Thomas Moore DR SC-7 Last term until 14th Congress
019 Thomas Newton, Jr. DR VA-20 Elected to this Congress: April 1811. Chairman: Commerce and Manufactures.
020 John Smith DR VA-3 Elected to this Congress: April 1811
021 Richard Cutts DR MA-14 June 22, 1801 Last term
022 Benjamin Tallmadge F CT-al September 21, 1801
Six non-consecutive terms
023 Thomas Blount DR NC-3 March 4, 1811 Previously served (A) 1793-95; (DR) 1795-99 and 1805-09. Died February 7, 1812.
Five consecutive terms
024 Martin Chittenden F VT-4 March 4, 1803 Last term
025 Peterson Goodwyn DR VA-18 Elected to this Congress: April 1811
026 Joseph Lewis, Jr. F VA-7 Elected to this Congress: April 1811. Chairman: District of Columbia.
027 Jeremiah Morrow DR OH-al Chairman: Public Lands. Last term until 26th Congress.
028 John Rhea DR TN-al Elected to this Congress: August 1–2, 1811. Washington District. Chairman: Post Office and Post Roads.
029 Ebenezer Seaver DR MA-13 Last term
030 Samuel Taggart F MA-6
Four consecutive terms
031 Burwell Bassett DR VA-12 March 4, 1805 Elected to this Congress: April 1811. Chairman: Claims (1811–12). Chairman: Revisal and Unfinished Business (1812–13). Last term until 14th Congress.
032 William Ely F MA-5
033 Charles Goldsborough F MD-8
034 Jonathan O. Moseley F CT-al
035 Josiah Quincy F MA-1 Last term
036 Timothy Pitkin F CT-al September 16, 1805
037 Lewis B. Sturges F CT-al
038 Robert Whitehill DR PA-4 November 7, 1805
039 William A. Burwell DR VA-13 December 1, 1806 Elected to this Congress: April 1811
040 William W. Bibb DR GA-al January 26, 1807
Four non-consecutive terms
041 William Blackledge DR NC-4 March 4, 1811 Previously served (DR) 1803-09. Last term.
042 Thomas Sammons DR NY-9 March 4, 1809 Previously served (DR) 1803-07. Last term.
043 Adam Boyd DR NJ-al March 8, 1808 Previously served (DR) 1803-05. Last term.
044 Samuel L. Mitchill DR NY-2 December 4, 1810 Previously served (DR) 1801-November 22, 1804. Last term.
Three consecutive terms
045 Epaphroditus Champion F CT-al March 4, 1807
046 Howell Cobb DR GA-al Resigned August 1812
047 Joseph Desha DR KY-6
048 Meshack Franklin DR NC-12
049 Richard M. Johnson DR KY-4
050 Philip B. Key F MD-3 Last term
051 John Montgomery DR MD-6 Resigned, as Representative-elect: April 29, 1811 [5]
052 Thomas Newbold DR NJ-al Last term
053 Lemuel Sawyer DR NC-1 Last term until 15th Congress
054 George M. Troup DR GA-al
055 Ezekiel Bacon DR MA-12 September 16, 1807 Chairman: Ways and Means (1811–12). Last term.
056 Samuel Shaw DR VT-1 September 6, 1808 Last term
057 Thomas Gholson, Jr. DR VA-17 November 7, 1808 Elected to this Congress: April 1811. Chairman: Claims (1812–13).
058 Richard Jackson, Jr. F RI-al November 11, 1808
Three non-consecutive terms
059 James Fisk DR VT-3 March 4, 1811 Previously served (DR) 1805-09
060 Isaiah L. Green DR MA-8 Previously served (DR) 1805-09. Last term.
061 Uri Tracy DR NY-13 March 4, 1809 Previously served (DR) 1805-07. Last term.
062 David R. Williams DR SC-3 March 4, 1811 Previously served (DR) 1805-09. Last term.
063 Elisha R. Potter F RI-al March 4, 1809 Previously served (F) November 15, 1796–97
Two consecutive terms
064 William Anderson DR PA-1 March 4, 1809
065 James Breckinridge F VA-5 Elected to this Congress: April 1811
066 John Brown DR MD-7 Resigned, as Representative-elect: 1810 [6]
067 James Cochran DR NC-9 Last term
068 William Crawford DR PA-1
069 James Emott F NY-4 Last term
070 Barzillai Gannett DR MA-17 Resigned, as Representative-elect: July 29, 1811 [7]
071 Thomas R. Gold F NY-11 Last term until 14th Congress
072 Jacob Hufty DR NJ-al
073 Robert L. Livingston F NY-6 Resigned May 6, 1812
074 Aaron Lyle DR PA-10
075 Archibald McBryde F NC-7 Last term
076 Samuel McKee DR KY-2
077 Alexander McKim DR MD-5
078 Joseph Pearson F NC-10
079 Peter B. Porter DR NY-15 Last term until 14th Congress
080 John Roane DR VA-11 Elected to this Congress: April 1811
081 Ebenezer Sage DR NY-1
082 Daniel Sheffey F VA-6 Elected to this Congress: April 1811
083 George Smith DR PA-5 Last term
084 Laban Wheaton F MA-9
085 Charles Turner, Jr. DR MA-7 June 28, 1809 Chairman: Accounts. Last term.
086 Adam Seybert DR PA-1 October 10, 1809 Chairman: Revisal and Unfinished Business (1811–12)
087 Abijah Bigelow F MA-11 October 8, 1810
088 Samuel Ringgold DR MD-4 October 15, 1810
... Robert Wright DR MD-7 November 29, 1810 Special election to 11th and 12th Congresses: November 15, 1810
089 Langdon Cheves DR SC-1 December 31, 1810 Chairman: Ways and Means (1812–13)
Two non-consecutive terms
090 John Sevier DR TN-al March 4, 1811 Previously served (NC-P) June 16, 1790-91. Elected to this Congress: August 1–2, 1811. Hamilton District.
091 Elias Earle DR SC-6 Previously served September 27, 1806–07
One term
092 Daniel Avery DR NY-14 March 4, 1811
093 John Baker F VA-2 Elected to this Congress: April 1811. Only term.
094 Josiah Bartlett, Jr. DR NH-al Only term
095 Harmanus Bleecker F NY-7
096 Elijah Brigham F MA-10
097 John C. Calhoun DR SC-6
098 Henry Clay DR KY-5 Speaker of the House
099 Lewis Condict DR NJ-al
100 Thomas B. Cooke DR NY-5 Only term
101 Roger Davis DR PA-3
102 Samuel Dinsmoor DR NH-al Only term
103 Asa Fitch F NY-6
104 Felix Grundy DR TN-al Elected to this Congress: August 1–2, 1811. Mero District.
105 Bolling Hall DR GA-al
106 Obed Hall DR NH-al Only term
107 John A. Harper DR NH-al
108 Aylett Hawes DR VA-9 Elected to this Congress: April 1811
109 John P. Hungerford DR VA-8 Elected to this Congress: April 1811. Unseated, after election contest: November 29, 1811. Only term until 13th Congress.
110 John M. Hyneman DR PA-3
111 Joseph Kent DR MD-2
112 William R. King DR NC-5
113 Abner Lacock DR PA-11 Only term (elected to but did not serve in 13th Congress)
114 Lyman Law F CT-al
115 Joseph Lefever DR PA-3 Only term
116 Peter Little DR MD-5 Only term until 14th Congress
117 William Lowndes DR SC-4
118 George C. Maxwell DR NJ-al Only term
119 William McCoy DR VA-4 Elected to this Congress: April 1811
120 Arunah Metcalf DR NY-12 Only term
121 James Milnor F PA-1
122 James Morgan DR NJ-al
123 Hugh Nelson DR VA-4 Elected to this Congress: April 1811
124 Stephen Ormsby DR KY-6 Only term until 13th Congress
125 William Paulding, Jr. DR NY-2 Only term
126 Israel Pickens DR NC-11
127 William Piper DR PA-7
128 James Pleasants DR VA-16 Elected to this Congress: April 1811
129 Benjamin Pond DR NY-8 Only term. Elected to but did not serve in 14th Congress.
130 William Reed F MA-2
131 Henry M. Ridgely F DE-al
132 Jonathan Roberts DR PA-2
133 William Rodman DR PA-2 Only term
134 Silas Stow DR NY-10
135 William Strong DR VT-2
136 Philip Stuart F MD-1
137 George Sullivan F NH-al Only term
138 Peleg Tallman DR MA-16
139 Pierre Van Cortlandt, Jr. DR NY-3
140 Leonard White F MA-3
141 William Widgery DR MA-15 Elected to this Congress: April 1, 1811. Only term.
142 Thomas Wilson F VA-6 Elected to this Congress: April 1811. Only term.
Members joining the House, after the start of the Congress [8]
... Stevenson Archer DR MD-6 October 26, 1811 Special election: October 2, 1811
... William M. Richardson DR MA-4 November 4, 1811 Special election
... John Taliaferro DR VA-8 December 2, 1811 Seated after election contest. Previously served (DR) 1801-03. Last term until 18th Congress.[9]
... Francis Carr DR MA-17 April 6, 1812 Special election. Only term.
143 Thomas B. Robertson DR LA-al April 30, 1812 First Representative from new state
... William Barnett DR GA-al October 5, 1812 Special election
... Thomas P. Grosvenor F NY-6 January 29, 1813 Special election: December 15–17, 1812
... William Kennedy DR NC-3 January 30, 1813 Previously served (DR) 1803-05. Special election: January 11, 1813.
Non voting members
a George Poindexter - MS-al March 4, 1807 Delegate from Mississippi Territory. Last term until Representative in 15th Congress.
b Jonathan Jennings - IN-al November 27, 1809 Delegate from Indiana Territory
c Edward Hempstead - MO-al November 9, 1812 Delegate from Missouri Territory
d Shadrack Bond - IL-al December 3, 1812 Delegate from Illinois Territory

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 112th Congress official House seniority list
  2. ^ Annals of Congress, for the date of election
  3. ^ Based on Rule X Organisation of Committees, in the House Rules and Manual for the 112th Congress. For membership and chairmen, see the Journal of the House of Representatives for the 12th Congress for the dates of appointment specified.
  4. ^ United States Congressional Elections 1788-1997, for election (page 44) and resignation (note 6 on page 47)
  5. ^ United States Congressional Elections 1788-1997, for election (page 44) and resignation (note 2 on page 47)
  6. ^ United States Congressional Elections 1788-1997, for election (page 44) and resignation (note 3 on page 47)
  7. ^ United States Congressional Elections 1788-1997, for election (page 44) and resignation (note 15 on page 47)
  8. ^ United States Congressional Elections 1788-1997, for special elections to the 12th Congress (page 46)
  9. ^ United States Congressional Elections 1788-1997, for election contest and date of seating, note 22 on page 47.

 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.

  • United States Congressional Elections 1788-1997, by Michael J. Dubin (McFarland and Company 1998) ISBN 0-7864-0283-0

External links[edit]