List of Members of the United States House of Representatives in the 16th Congress by seniority

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This is a list of members of the U.S. House of Representatives in the 16th United States Congress by seniority. For the most part, representatives are ranked by the beginning of their terms in office.

As an historical article, the districts and party affiliations listed reflect those during the 16th Congress (March 4, 1819–March 3, 1821). Seats and party affiliations on similar lists for other Congresses will be different for certain members.

This article describes the criteria for seniority in the House of Representatives and sets out the list of members by seniority. It is prepared on the basis of the interpretation of seniority applied to the House of Representatives in the 112th Congress. In the absence of information to the contrary, it is presumed that the twenty-first century practice is identical to the seniority customs used during the 16th Congress.[1]

House seniority[edit]

Seniority in the House, for Congressmen with unbroken service, depends on the date on which the members first term began. That date is either the start of the Congress (4th March in odd numbered years, for the era up to and including the 73rd Congress starting in 1933) or the date of a special election during the Congress. Since many members start serving on the same day as others, ranking between them is based on alphabetical order by the last name of the congressman.

Congressmen, in early Congresses, were often elected after the legal start of the Congress. Such representatives are attributed with unbroken seniority, from the legal start of the congressional term, if they were the first person elected to a seat in a Congress. The date of the election is indicated in a note.

The seniority date is normally taken from the members entry in the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, except where the date given is the legal start of the Congress and the actual election (for someone who was not the first person elected to the seat in that Congress) was later. The date of election is taken from United States Congressional Elections 1788-1997. In a few instances the latter work provides dates, for the start and end of terms, which correct those in the Biographical Directory.

The Biographical Directory normally uses the date of a special election, as the seniority date. However, mostly in early Congresses, the date of the member taking his seat can be the one given. The date of the special election is mentioned in a note to the list below, when that date is not used as the seniority date by the Biographical Directory.

Representatives who returned to the House, after having previously served, are credited with service equal to one less than the total number of terms they served. When a representative has served a prior term of less than two terms (i.e. prior term minus one equals less than one), he is ranked above all others whose service begins on the same day.

Leadership[edit]

In this Congress the only formal leader was the Speaker of the House. A Speakership ballot was held on December 6, 1819 and Henry Clay (DR-KY) was re-elected for a fifth consecutive Congress (although he had resigned, during the 13th Congress on January 19, 1814, so his service had not been continuous). Henry Clay received 147 votes and there were 8 scattering votes. [2]

Speaker Clay resigned before the convening of the second session on November 13, 1820. The second Speakership election, during this Congress, took place between November 13-15, 1820. John W. Taylor (DR-NY) was elected, on the twenty-second ballot. In the final ballot, Speaker Taylor received 76 votes, William Lowndes (DR-SC) had 44, Samuel Smith (DR-MD) 27 and 1 was scattering. [3]

The title Dean of the House (sometimes known, in the nineteenth century, as Father of the House) was held by the member with the longest continuous service. It was not a formal leadership position.

Standing Committees[edit]

The House created its first standing committee, on April 13, 1789. There were nineteen standing committees, listed in the rules initially used by the 16th Congress. Two additional committees were added during the Congress. The Committee on Manufactures was created on December 8, 1819 and the Committee on Agriculture was provided for by a resolution passed on May 3, 1820.

Committees, in this period, were normally appointed for a session at a time by the Speaker. However the resolution of March 30, 1816, which created the committees on departmental expenditures and Expenditures on Public Buildings, provided for those standing committees to be appointed for the whole Congress.

This list refers to the standing committees of the House in the 16th Congress, the year of establishment as a standing committee, the number of members assigned to the committee and the dates of appointment in each session (or if appropriate for the Congress), the end of the session (if appropriate) and its chairman. Chairmen, who were re-appointed after serving in the previous Congress, are indicated by an *. [4]

The first session was December 6, 1819-May 15, 1820 (162 days) and the second session was November 13, 1820-March 3, 1821 (111 days).

No. Committee From Mbrs Appointed Chairman
01 Accounts 1805 3 December 8, 1819-May 15, 1820 James S. Smith (DR-NC)
November 15, 1820-March 3, 1821
02 Agriculture 1820 7 November 15, 1820-March 3, 1821 Thomas Forrest (F-PA)
03 Claims 1794 7 December 8, 1819-May 15, 1820 Lewis Williams (DR-NC)
November 15, 1820-March 3, 1821
04 Commerce 1795 7 December 8, 1819-May 15, 1820 *Thomas Newton, Jr. (DR-VA)
November 15, 1820-March 3, 1821
05 District of Columbia 1808 7 December 8, 1819-May 15, 1820 Joseph Kent (DR-MD)
November 15, 1820-March 3, 1821
06 Elections 1789 7 December 8, 1819-May 15, 1820 *John W. Taylor (DR-NY)
November 15, 1820-March 3, 1821 David Trimble (DR-KY)
07 Expenditures in the Navy Department 1816 3 December 8, 1819-March 3, 1821 Stevenson Archer (DR-MD)
08 Expenditures in the Post Office Department 1816 3 December 8, 1819-March 3, 1821 Arthur Livermore (DR-NH)
09 Expenditures in the State Department 1816 3 December 8, 1819-March 3, 1821 John Holmes (DR-MA) (a)
10 Expenditures in the Treasury Department 1816 3 December 8, 1819-March 3, 1821 David Trimble (DR-KY)
11 Expenditures in the War Department 1816 3 December 8, 1819-March 3, 1821 Henry Brush (DR-OH)
12 Expenditures on Public Buildings 1816 3 December 8, 1819-March 3, 1821 Henry Meigs (DR-NY)
13 Judiciary 1813 7 December 8, 1819-May 15, 1820 John Sergeant (F-PA)
November 15, 1820-March 3, 1821
14 Manufactures 1819 7 December 8, 1819-May 15, 1820 Henry Baldwin (DR-PA)
November 15, 1820-March 3, 1821
15 Pensions and Revolutionary Claims 1813 7 December 8, 1819-May 15, 1820 *John Rhea (DR-TN)
November 15, 1820-March 3, 1821
16 Post Office and Post Roads 1808 7 December 8, 1819-May 15, 1820 *Arthur Livermore (DR-NH)
November 15, 1820-March 3, 1821
17 Private Land Claims 1816 7 December 8, 1819-May 15, 1820 John W. Campbell (DR-OH)
November 15, 1820-March 3, 1821
18 Public Expenditures 1814 7 December 8, 1819-May 15, 1820 Eldred Simkins (DR-SC)
November 15, 1820-March 3, 1821
19 Public Lands 1805 7 December 8, 1819-May 15, 1820 Richard C. Anderson, Jr. (DR-KY)
November 15, 1820-March 3, 1821
20 Revisal and Unfinished Business 1795 3 December 8, 1819-May 15, 1820 Marcus Morton (DR-MA)
November 15, 1820-March 3, 1821
21 Ways and Means 1802 7 December 8, 1819-May 15, 1820 *Samuel Smith (DR-MD)
November 15, 1820-March 3, 1821

Note:-

  • (a) Resigned from the House: March 15, 1820. Harmanus Peek (DR-NY) became Chairman for the rest of the Congress.

List of Representatives by seniority[edit]

A numerical rank is assigned to each of the 185 members initially elected to the 16th Congress. Other members, who were not the first person elected to a seat but who joined the House during the Congress, are not assigned a number (except for the representative from the newly admitted state of Alabama, who is assigned the number 186). The first representative from the newly admitted state of Maine, was elected to a seat transferred from Massachusetts and is not assigned a number.

3 representatives-elect were not sworn in. 1 was unseated after an election contest (NY-1: Sage) and 2 resigned (GA-al:Forsyth;NJ-al:Condict). The list below includes the Representatives-elect (with name in italics), with the seniority they would have held if sworn in.

Party designations used in this article are DR for Democratic-Republican members and F for Federalist representatives. Designations used for service in the first three congresses are (A) for Anti-Administration members and (P) for Pro-Administration representatives.

Rank Representative Party District Seniority date Notes
Ten consecutive terms
001 Thomas Newton, Jr. DR VA-21 March 4, 1801 Elected to this Congress: April 1819. Dean of the House. Chairman: Commerce.
Nine non-consecutive terms
002 John Randolph DR VA-16 March 4, 1819 Previously served (DR) 1799-1813 and 1815-17. Elected to this Congress: April 1819.
Eight consecutive terms
003 Jonathan O. Moseley F CT-al March 4, 1805 Last term [5]
004 William A. Burwell DR VA-14 December 1, 1806 Elected to this Congress: April 1819. Died: February 16, 1821.
Eight non-consecutive terms
005 John Rhea DR TN-1 March 4, 1817 Previously served (DR) 1803-15. Elected to this Congress: August 5-6, 1819. Chairman: Pensions and Revolutionary Claims.
006 Henry Southard DR NJ-al March 4, 1815 Previously served (DR) 1801-11. Last term.
007 Samuel Smith DR MD-5 January 31, 1816 Previously served (A) 1793-95 and (DR) 1795-1803. Chairman: Ways and Means.
Seven non-consecutive terms
008 Joseph Hiester DR PA-7 March 4, 1815 Previously served (DR) December 1, 1798-1805. Resigned to become Governor: December 1820.
Five consecutive terms
009 William Lowndes DR SC-9 March 4, 1811
010 William McCoy DR VA-4 Elected to this Congress: April 1819
011 Hugh Nelson DR VA-22
012 James Pleasants DR VA-17 Elected to this Congress: April 1819. Resigned to become US Senator: December 14, 1819.
013 Henry Clay DR KY-2 October 30, 1815 Previously served (DR) 1811-January 19, 1814 and 1815. Speaker of the House (1819-20). Last term until 18th Congress.
Five non-consecutive terms
014 Lemuel Sawyer DR NC-1 March 4, 1817 Previously served (DR) 1807-13. Elected to this Congress: August 13, 1819.
015 Elias Earle DR SC-6 Previously served (DR) September 27, 1806-07 and 1811-15. Last term.
016 Samuel Ringgold DR MD-4 Previously served (DR) October 15, 1810-15. Last term.
Four consecutive terms
017 John Forsyth DR GA-al March 4, 1813 Resigned as Representative-elect, to become US Senator: November 23, 1818
018 James Johnson DR VA-20 Elected to this Congress: April 1819. Resigned: February 1, 1820.
019 John W. Taylor DR NY-11 Chairman: Elections (1819-20). Speaker of the House (1820-21).
020 Philip P. Barbour DR VA-11 September 19, 1814 Elected to this Congress: April 1819
Four non-consecutive terms
021 Jeremiah Nelson F MA-3 March 4, 1815 Previously served (F) 1805-07
022 Ebenezer Sage DR NY-1 March 4, 1819 Previously served (DR) 1809-15. Unseated, as a Representative-elect, after an election contest: January 14, 1820. [6]
023 John Culpepper F NC-7 Previously served (F) 1807-January 2, 1808, February 23, 1808-09 and 1813-17. Elected to this Congress: August 13, 1819. Last term until 18th Congress.
024 Stevenson Archer DR MD-6 Previously served (DR) October 26, 1811-17. Chairman: Expenditures in the Navy Department. Last term.
025 Peter Little DR MD-5 September 2, 1816 Previously served (DR) 1811-13
Three consecutive terms
026 Ephraim Bateman DR NJ-al March 4, 1815
027 Ballard Smith DR VA-7 Elected to this Congress: April 1819. Last term.
028 Peter H. Wendover DR NY-2 Last term
029 Lewis Williams DR NC-13 Elected to this Congress: August 13, 1819. Chairman: Claims.
030 John Sergeant F PA-1 October 10, 1815 Chairman: Judiciary
031 James M. Wallace DR PA-3 Last term
032 Weldon N. Edwards DR NC-6 February 7, 1816 Elected to this Congress: August 13, 1819
033 William P. Maclay DR PA-9 October 8, 1816 Last term
034 Benjamin Adams F MA-11 December 2, 1816
035 William Hendricks DR IN-al December 11, 1816
036 John Tyler DR VA-23 December 17, 1816 Elected to this Congress: April 1819. Last term.
Three non-consecutive terms
037 Clifton Clagett DR NH-al March 4, 1817 Previously served (F) 1803-05. Elected to this Congress: March 9, 1819. Last term.
038 John Condit DR NJ-al March 4, 1819 Previously served (DR) 1799-1803. Resigned, as Representative-elect: November 4, 1819. [7]
039 Joseph Kent DR MD-2 Previously served (DR) 1811-15. Chairman: District of Columbia.
040 Charles Rich DR VT-al March 4, 1817 Previously served (DR) 1813-15
041 William Strong DR VT-al March 4, 1819 Previously served (DR) 1811-15. Last term.
042 Ezekiel Whitman F MA-15 March 4, 1817 Previously served (F) 1809-11
043 Newton Cannon DR TN-5 March 4, 1819 Previously served (DR) September 16, 1814-17. Elected to this Congress: August 5-6, 1819.
Two consecutive terms
044 Joel Abbot DR GA-al March 4, 1817
045 Samuel C. Allen F MA-6
046 Richard C. Anderson, Jr. DR KY-8 Chairman: Public Lands. Last term.
047 Henry Baldwin DR PA-14 Chairman: Manufactures
048 William L. Ball DR VA-9 Elected to this Congress: April 1819
049 Thomas Bayly F MD-8
050 Philemon Beecher F OH-5 Last term until 18th Congress
051 Joseph Bloomfield DR NJ-al Last term
052 Andrew Boden DR PA-5
053 Josiah Butler DR NH-al Elected to this Congress: March 9, 1819
054 John W. Campbell DR OH-2 Chairman: Private Land Claims
055 Thomas W. Cobb DR GA-al Last term until 18th Congress
056 Samuel C. Crafts DR VT-al
057 Joel Crawford DR GA-al Last term
058 Thomas Culbreth DR MD-7
059 James Ervin DR SC-2
060 John Floyd DR VA-5 Elected to this Congress: April 1819
061 Walter Folger, Jr. DR MA-9 Last term
062 Timothy Fuller DR MA-4
063 Robert S. Garnett DR VA-12 Elected to this Congress: April 1819
064 Thomas H. Hall DR NC-3 Elected to this Congress: August 13, 1819
065 Willard Hall DR DE-al Resigned: January 22, 1821
066 Samuel Herrick DR OH-4 Last term
067 John Holmes DR MA-14 Chairman: Expenditures in the State Department (1819-20). Resigned: January 22, 1820.
068 Francis Jones DR TN-3 Elected to this Congress: August 5-6, 1819
069 John Linn DR NJ-al Died January 5, 1821
070 Arthur Livermore DR NH-al Elected to this Congress: March 9, 1819. Chairman: Expenditures in the Post Office Department. Chairman: Post Office and Post Roads. Last term until 18th Congress.
071 David Marchand DR PA-11 Last term
072 Louis McLane F DE-al
073 Charles F. Mercer F VA-8 Elected to this Congress: April 1819
074 Orsamus C. Merrill DR VT-al Unseated, after election contest: January 12, 1820
075 Robert Moore DR PA-15 Last term
076 Marcus Morton DR MA-10 Chairman: Revisal and Unfinished Business. Last term.
077 Thomas Patterson DR PA-12
078 James Pindall F VA-1 Elected to this Congress: April 1819. Resigned: July 26, 1820.
079 Tunstall Quarles DR KY-9 Resigned: June 15, 1820
080 Mark Richards DR VT-al Last term
081 George Robertson DR KY-7
082 Zabdiel Sampson DR MA-8 Resigned: July 26, 1820
083 Thomas Settle DR NC-9 Elected to this Congress: August 13, 1819. Last term.
084 Henry Shaw DR MA-7 Elected to this Congress: April 5, 1819. Last term.
085 Nathaniel Silsbee DR MA-2 Last term
086 Jesse Slocumb F NC-4 Elected to this Congress: August 13, 1819. Died: December 20, 1820.
087 James S. Smith DR NC-8 Elected to this Congress: August 13, 1819. Chairman: Accounts. Last term.
088 Alexander Smyth DR VA-6 Elected to this Congress: April 1819
089 Henry R. Storrs F NY-16 Last term until 18th Congress
090 George Strother DR VA-10 Elected to this Congress: April 1819. Resigned: February 10, 1820.
091 Christian Tarr DR PA-13 Last term
092 William Terrell DR GA-al
093 Caleb Tompkins DR NY-3
094 David Trimble DR KY-1 Chairman: Expenditures in the Treasury Department. Chairman: Elections (1820-21).
095 Starling Tucker DR SC-4
096 Nathaniel Upham DR NH-al Elected to this Congress: March 9, 1819
097 David Walker DR KY-6 Died: March 1, 1820
098 Felix Walker DR NC-12 Elected to this Congress: August 13, 1819
099 John Murray DR PA-10 October 14, 1817 Last term
100 Jonathan Mason F MA-1 November 17, 1817 Resigned: May 15, 1820
101 Eldred Simkins DR SC-5 January 24, 1818 Chairman: Public Expenditures. Last term.
102 Thomas J. Rogers DR PA-6 March 3, 1818
103 Samuel Moore DR PA-6 October 13, 1818
104 Enoch Lincoln DR MA-20 November 4, 1818
105 Thomas Butler DR LA-al November 16, 1818 Last term
106 Jacob Hostetter DR PA-4
107 William Davidson F NC-11 December 2, 1818
108 Charles Fisher DR NC-10 February 11, 1819 Elected to this Congress: August 13, 1819. Last term until 26th Congress.
... Robert R. Reid DR GA-al February 18, 1819 Special election to this Congress (vice Forsyth, before term started): January 14, 1819
Two non-consecutive terms
109 William Darlington DR PA-2 March 4, 1819 Previously served (DR) 1815-17
110 Benjamin Hardin DR KY-10
111 Joseph Hemphill F PA-1 Previously served (F) 1801-03
112 Alney McLean DR KY-5 Previouslyserved (DR) 1815-17. Last term.
113 James Parker DR MA-18 Previously served (DR) 1813-15. Elected to this Congress: April 5, 1819. Last term.
114 Charles Hooks DR NC-5 Previously served (DR) December 2, 1816-17
One term
115 Mark Alexander DR VA-18 March 4, 1819 Elected to this Congress: April 1819
116 Nathaniel Allen DR NY-21 Only term
117 Robert Allen DR TN-4 Elected to this Congress: August 5-6, 1819
118 Caleb Baker DR NY-20 Only term
119 Joseph Brevard DR SC-8
120 William Brown DR KY-3
121 Henry Brush DR OH-3 Chairman: Expenditures in the War Department. Only term.
122 Henry H. Bryan DR TN-6 Elected to this Congress: August 5-6, 1819. Only term as elected to 17th Congress but did not qualify.
123 Joseph Buffum, Jr. DR NH-al Elected to this Congress: March 9, 1819. Only term.
124 Hutchins G. Burton DR NC-2 Elected to this Congress: August 13, 1819 [8]
125 Walter Case DR NY-6 Only term
126 Robert Clark DR NY-8
127 John Cocke DR TN-2 Elected to this Congress: August 5-6, 1819
128 Daniel P. Cook DR IL-al Elected to this Congress: August 8, 1819
129 Joshua Cushman DR MA-19
130 John A. Cuthbert DR GA-al Only term
131 George Denison DR PA-10
132 Jacob H. De Witt DR NY-7 Only term
133 John D. Dickinson F NY-10
134 Edward Dowse DR MA-13 Resigned: 26 May 1820
135 Samuel Eddy DR RI-al
136 Henry W. Edwards DR CT-al
137 Samuel Edwards F PA-1
138 John Fay DR NY-14 Only term
139 Samuel A. Foote DR CT-al Only term until 18th Congress
140 William D. Ford DR NY-18 Only term
141 Thomas Forrest F PA-1 Chairman: Agriculture. Only term until seated in 17th Congress.
142 David Fullerton DR PA-5 Resigned: May 15, 1820
143 Ezra C. Gross DR NY-12 Only term
144 Samuel Gross DR PA-2
145 Aaron Hackley, Jr. DR NY-17 Only term
146 George Hall DR NY-19
147 Nathaniel Hazard DR RI-al Died: December 17, 1820
148 Jacob Hibshman DR PA-3 Only term
149 Mark L. Hill DR MA-16 Elected to this Congress: July 26, 1819
150 James Jones DR VA-19 Elected to this Congress: April 1819
151 Jonas Kendall F MA-12 Only term
152 Martin Kinsley DR MA-17 Elected to this Congress: July 26, 1819. Only term.
153 Samuel Lathrop F MA-5 Elected to this Congress: April 5, 1819
154 Joseph S. Lyman DR NY-15 Only term
155 John McCreary DR SC-7
156 Ezra Meech DR VT-al Only term until 19th Congress
157 Henry Meigs DR NY-2 Chairman: Expenditures on Public Buildings. Only term.
158 Thomas Metcalfe DR KY-3
159 Robert Monell DR NY-15 Only term until 21st Congress
160 Raphael Neale F MD-1
161 James Overstreet DR SC-3
162 Severn E. Parker DR VA-13 Elected to this Congress: April 1819. Only term.
163 Harmanus Peek DR NY-13 Chairman: Expenditures in the State Department (1820-21). Only term.
164 Elisha Phelps DR CT-al Only term until 19th Congress
165 Robert Philson DR PA-8 Only term
166 Charles Pinckney DR SC-1
167 Nathaniel Pitcher DR NY-12
168 William Plumer, Jr. DR NH-al Elected to this Congress: March 9, 1819
169 Christopher Rankin DR MS-al Elected to this Congress: August 2-3, 1819
170 Jonathan Richmond DR NY-20 Only term
171 Thomas R. Ross DR OH-6
172 John Russ DR CT-al
173 John Sloane DR OH-1
174 Bernard Smith DR NJ-al Only term
175 James Stevens DR CT-al
176 Randall S. Street F NY-4
177 James Strong F NY-5 Only term until 18th Congress
178 Gideon Tomlinson DR CT-al
179 Albert H. Tracy DR NY-21
180 George Tucker DR VA-15 Elected to this Congress: April 1819
181 Solomon Van Rensselaer F NY-9
182 Thomas Van Swearingen F VA-2 Elected to this Congress: April 1819
183 Henry R. Warfield F MD-3
184 Jared Williams DR VA-3 Elected to this Congress: April 1819
185 Silas Wood F NY-1
Members joining the House, after the start of the Congress [9]
186 John Crowell DR AL-al December 14, 1819 Previously Delegate January 29, 1818-19. Elected to this Congress: September 20-21, 1819. First Representative from new state. Only term.
... William S. Archer DR VA-17 January 3, 1820 Special election
... Rollin C. Mallary DR VT-al January 13, 1820 Seated after election challenge: January 13, 1820
... James Guyon, Jr. DR NY-1 January 14, 1820 Seated after election contest. Only term.
... Charles Kinsey DR NJ-al February 2, 1820 Previously served (DR) 1817-19. Special election: February 1-2, 1820. Last term.
... Thomas Montgomery DR KY-9 August 1, 1820 Previously served (DR) 1813-15. Special election: August 7, 1820.
... John C. Gray DR VA-20 August 28, 1820 Special election: August 3, 7, 21, 23, 1820. Only term.
... William Eustis DR MA-13 August 21, 1820 Previously served (DR) 1801-05. Special election.
... Thomas G. McCullough F PA-5 October 17, 1820 Special election: October 10, 1820. Only term.
... Edward B. Jackson DR VA-1 October 23, 1820 Special election: October 2, 9, 16, 23, 1820
... Joseph Dane F ME-al November 6, 1820 Seat replaced MA-14. First Representative elected from new state. Special election.
... Benjamin Gorham DR MA-1 Special election
... Francis Johnson DR KY-6 November 13, 1820 Special election: August 7, 1820
... Thomas L. Moore DR VA-10 Special election: August 21, 28, 1820
... Aaron Hobart DR MA-8 November 24, 1820 Special election
... Daniel Udree DR PA-7 December 26, 1820 Previously served (DR) October 12, 1813-15. Special election. Last term until seated in 17th Congress.
... William S. Blackledge DR NC-4 February 7, 1821 Special election: January 18-19, 1821
Non voting members
a John Scott - MO-al August 4, 1817 Delegate from Missouri Territory. Previously served (Ind) August 6, 1816-January 13, 1817. Last term until Representative in 17th Congress.
b William Woodbridge - MI-al March 4, 1819 Delegate from Michigan Territory. Resigned: August 9, 1820.
c James W. Bates - AR-al December 21, 1819 Delegate from Arkansas Territory
d Solomon Sibley - MI-al November 20, 1820 Delegate from Michigan Territory. Special election.

References[edit]

  1. ^ 112th Congress official House seniority list
  2. ^ Annals of Congress, Volume 35, column 702
  3. ^ Annals of Congress, Volume 37, columns 434-438
  4. ^ Based on Rule X Organisation of Committees, in the House Rules and Manual for the 112th Congress. For membership and chairmen, see the Journal of the House of Representatives for the 16th Congress for the dates of appointment specified.
  5. ^ United States Congressional Elections 1788-1997, for election as both a Federalist and Democratic-Republican candidate(page 64)
  6. ^ United States Congressional Elections 1788-1997, for election (page 64) and unseating (note 12 on page 68)
  7. ^ United States Congressional Elections 1788-1997, for election (page 64) and resignation (note 11 on page 68)
  8. ^ United States Congressional Elections 1788-1997, for general election to the 16th Congress (pages 66). The Biographical Directory of the United States Congress dates the start of the term from December 6, 1819, but there appears to be no reason why the term should not be deemed to start on March 4, 1819 in accordance with the usual convention followed by the Biographical Directory.
  9. ^ United States Congressional Elections 1788-1997, for special elections to the 16th Congress (pages 66-67)

 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.

  • United States Congressional Elections 1788-1997, by Michael J. Dubin (McFarland and Company 1998) ISBN 0-7864-0283-0

See also[edit]

External links[edit]