List of Members of the United States House of Representatives in the 4th Congress by seniority

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This is a list of members of the U.S. House of Representatives in the 4th United States Congress by seniority. For the most part, representatives are ranked by the beginning of their terms in office.

As an historical article, the districts and party affiliations listed reflect those during the 4th Congress (March 4, 1795 – March 3, 1797). Seats and party affiliations on similar lists for other Congresses will be different for certain members.

This article describes the criteria for seniority in the House of Representatives and sets out the list of members by seniority. It is prepared on the basis of the interpretation of seniority applied to the House of Representatives in the 112th Congress. In the absence of information to the contrary, it is presumed that the twenty-first-century practice is identical to the seniority customs used during the 4th Congress.[1]

House seniority[edit]

Seniority in the House, for Congressmen with unbroken service, depends on the date on which the members first term began. That date is either the start of the Congress (4th March in odd numbered years, for the era up to and including the 73rd Congress starting in 1933) or the date of a special election during the Congress. Since many members start serving on the same day as others, ranking between them is based on alphabetical order by the last name of the congressman.

Congressmen, in early Congresses, were often elected after the legal start of the Congress. Representatives are attributed with unbroken seniority, from the legal start of the congressional term, if they were the first person elected to a seat in a Congress. The date of the election is indicated in a note.

The seniority date is normally taken from the members entry in the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, except where the date given is the legal start of the Congress and the actual election (for someone who was not the first person elected to the seat in that Congress) was later. The date of election is taken from United States Congressional Elections 1788-1997. In a few instances the latter work provides dates, for the start and end of terms, which correct those in the Biographical Directory.

The Biographical Directory normally uses the date of a special election, as the seniority date. However, mostly in early Congresses, the date of the member taking his seat can be the one given. The date of the special election is mentioned in a note to the list below, when that date is not used as the seniority date by the Biographical Directory.

Representatives who returned to the House, after having previously served, are credited with service equal to one less than the total number of terms they served. When a representative has served a prior term of less than two terms (i.e., prior term minus one equals less than one), he is ranked above all others whose service begins on the same day.

Leadership[edit]

In this Congress the only formal leader was the Speaker of the House. A Speakership ballot was held on December 7, 1795 and Jonathan Dayton (F-NJ) was elected. [2]

Standing Committees[edit]

The House created its first standing committee, on April 13, 1789. There were four standing committees in the 4th Congress. In addition there was a Ways and Means Committee. Although the Ways and Means Committee was not formally added to the main list of standing committees until 1802, the 2011 committee considers it to be a forerunner.

Committees, in this period, were appointed for a session at a time and not necessarily for every one in a Congress. The Speaker appointed the members.

This list refers to the standing committees of the House in the 4th Congress, the year of establishment as a standing committee, the number of members assigned to the committee and the dates of appointment in each session, the end of the session and its chairman. Chairmen, who were re-appointed after serving in the previous Congress, are indicated by an *. [3]

No. Committee From Mbrs Appointed Chairman
01 Claims 1794 7 December 10, 1795-June 1, 1796 *Uriah Tracy (F-CT)
December 8, 1796-March 3, 1797 Dwight Foster (F-MA)
02 Commerce and Manufactures 1795 7 December 14, 1795-June 1, 1796 Benjamin Goodhue (F-MA)
December 9, 1796-March 3, 1797 John Swanwick (DR-PA)
03 Elections 1789 7 December 7, 1795-June 1, 1796 Abraham B. Venable (DR-VA)
December 6, 1796-March 3, 1797
04 Revisal and Unfinished Business 1795 3 December 9, 1795-June 1, 1796 Nicholas Gilman (F-NH)
December 6, 1796-March 3, 1797
05 Ways and Means [1794] 14 December 21, 1795-June 1, 1796 *William L. Smith (F-SC)
16 December 16, 1796-March 3, 1797

List of Representatives by seniority[edit]

A numerical rank is assigned to each of the 105 members initially elected to the 4th Congress. Other members, who were not the first person elected to a seat but who joined the House during the Congress, are not assigned a number (apart from the member from a new state numbered 106).

Two Representatives-elect were not sworn in, as they respectively declined to serve and resigned (probably before the start of this Congress). The list below includes the Representatives-elect (with name in italics), with the seniority they would have held if they had been sworn in.

Party designations used in this article are D-R for Democratic-Republican members and F for Federalist representatives. Designations used for service in the first three congresses are A for Anti-Administration members and P for Pro-Administration representatives.

Rank Representative Party District Seniority date Notes
Four consecutive terms
001 Fisher Ames F MA-8 March 4, 1789 (P) 1789-95. Last term.
002 Abraham Baldwin DR GA-al (A) 1789-95
003 Nicholas Gilman F NH-al (P) 1789-95. Chairman: Revisal and Unfinished Business. Last term.
004 Benjamin Goodhue F MA-10 (P) 1789-95. Chairman: Commerce and Manufactures.
Resigned, to become US Senator: June 1796.
005 Thomas Hartley F PA-8 (P) 1789-95
006 Daniel Hiester DR PA-5 (A) 1789-95. Resigned July 1, 1796.
007 James Madison DR VA-15 (A) 1789-95. Elected to this Congress: March 16, 1795. Last term.
008 Andrew Moore DR VA-2 (A) 1789-95. Elected to this Congress: March 16, 1795.
Last term until 8th Congress.
009 Frederick Muhlenberg DR PA-2 (P) 1789-91; (A) 1791-95. Last term.
010 John Page DR VA-12 (A) 1789-95. Elected to this Congress: March 16, 1795. Last term.
011 Josiah Parker F VA-11 (A) 1789-93; (P) 1793-95. Elected to this Congress: March 16, 1795.
012 Theodore Sedgwick F MA-1 (P) 1789-95. Resigned, to become US Senator: June 1796.
Last term until 6th Congress.
013 William L. Smith F SC-1 (P) 1789-95. Chairman: Ways and Means.
014 George Thatcher F MA-14 (P) 1789-95
015 Jonathan Trumbull, Jr. F CT-al (P) 1789-95. Resigned, as Representative-elect: c. February 1795. [4]
016 William B. Giles DR VA-9 December 7, 1790 (A) December 7, 1790-95. Elected to this Congress: March 16, 1795.
017 Benjamin Bourne F RI-al December 17, 1790 (P) December 17, 1790-95. Resigned 1796.
Three consecutive terms
018 Jonathan Dayton F NJ-al March 4, 1791 (P) 1791-95. Speaker of the House.
019 William Findley DR PA-11 (A) 1791-95
020 Andrew Gregg DR PA-9
021 William B. Grove F NC-7 (P) 1791-95
022 James Hillhouse F CT-al (P) 1791-95. Resigned, to become US Senator: July 1, 1796.
023 John W. Kittera F PA-7 (P) 1791-95
024 Nathaniel Macon DR NC-5 (A) 1791-95
025 William V. Murray F MD-8 (P) 1791-95. Last term.
026 Jeremiah Smith F NH-al (P) 1791-95
027 Abraham B. Venable DR VA-7 (A) 1791-95. Elected to this Congress: March 16, 1795.
Chairman: Elections.
028 Israel Smith DR VT-1 October 17, 1791 (A) October 17, 1791-95. Last term until 7th Congress.
029 Alexander D. Orr DR KY-2 November 8, 1792 (A) November 8, 1792-95. Elected to this Congress: September 5, 1795. Last term.
030 Christopher Greenup DR KY-1 November 9, 1792 (A) November 9, 1792-95. Elected to this Congress: September 5, 1795. Last term.
031 William Hindman F MD-7 January 30, 1793 (P) January 30, 1793-95
Three non-consecutive terms
032 Isaac Coles DR VA-6 March 4, 1793 Previously served (A) 1789-91. (A) 1793-95. Elected to this Congress: March 16, 1795.
Last term.
033 George Leonard F MA-7 March 4, 1795 Previously served (P) 1789-93. Elected to this Congress: June 1, 1795. Last term.
Two consecutive terms
034 Theodorus Bailey DR NY-5 March 4, 1793 (A) 1793-95. Last term until 6th Congress.
035 Lemuel Benton DR SC-3 (A) 1793-95
036 Thomas Blount DR NC-9
037 Gabriel Christie DR MD-6 (A) 1793-95. Last term until 6th Congress.
038 Thomas Claiborne DR VA-8 (A) 1793-95. Elected to this Congress: March 16, 1795.
039 Henry Dearborn DR MA-12 (A) 1793-95. Last term.
040 George Dent F MD-1 (P) 1793-95
041 Dwight Foster F MA-4 (P) 1793-95. Chairman: Claims (1796).
042 Ezekiel Gilbert F NY-6 (P) 1793-95. Last term.
043 James Gillespie DR NC-6 (A) 1793-95
044 Henry Glen F NY-8 (P) 1793-95
045 George Hancock F VA-5 (P) 1793-95. Elected to this Congress: March 16, 1795. Last term.
046 Carter B. Harrison DR VA-10 (A) 1793-95. Elected to this Congress: March 16, 1795.
047 John Heath DR VA-19 (A) 1793-95. Elected to this Congress: March 16, 1795. Last term.
048 Matthew Locke DR NC-2 (A) 1793-95
049 William Lyman DR MA-2 (A) 1793-95. Last term.
050 Francis Malbone F RI-al (P) 1793-95. Last term.
051 Anthony New DR VA-16 (A) 1793-95. Elected to this Congress: March 16, 1795.
052 John Nicholas DR VA-18
053 Francis Preston DR VA-4 (A) 1793-95. Elected to this Congress: March 16, 1795. Last term.
054 Robert Rutherford DR VA-1
055 John S. Sherburne DR NH-al (A) 1793-95. Last term.
056 Samuel Smith DR MD-5 (A) 1793-95
057 Thomas Sprigg DR MD-4 (A) 1793-95. Last term.
058 John E. Van Alen F NY-7 (P) 1793-95
059 Philip Van Cortlandt DR NY-3 (A) 1793-95
060 Peleg Wadsworth F MA-13 (P) 1793-95
061 Richard Winn DR SC-4 (A) 1793-95. Last term until 7th Congress.
062 Uriah Tracy F CT-al April 8, 1793 (P) April 8, 1793-95. Chairman: Claims. Resigned October 13, 1796.
063 Joshua Coit F CT-al November 11, 1793 (P) November 11, 1793-95
064 Zephaniah Swift F CT-al (P) November 11, 1793-95. Last term.
065 John Patten DR DE-al March 4, 1795 Previously served (A) 1793-February 14, 1794. Last term.
066 Gabriel Duvall DR MD-2 May 5, 1794 (A) May 5, 1794-95. Resigned March 28, 1796. [5]
067 Aaron Kitchell F NJ-al January 29, 1795 Previously served (P) 1791-93. (P) January 29-March 3, 1795.
Last term until 6th Congress.
068 Robert G. Harper F SC-5 February 9, 1795 Special election to 3rd Congress: October 13-14, 1794.
(P) February 9-March 3, 1795. [6]
Two non-consecutive terms
069 Robert Barnwell F SC-2 March 4, 1795 Previously served (P) 1791-93. Declined to serve, as Representative-elect,
before the Congress started. [7]
070 John Hathorn D-R NY-4 Previously served (A) 1789-91. Last term.
071 Abiel Foster F NH-al Previously served (P) June 22, 1789-91
072 John Milledge D-R GA-al Previously served (A) November 22, 1792-93
One term
073 David Bard DR PA-10 March 4, 1795
074 Theophilus Bradbury F MA-11 Elected to this Congress: March 23, 1795
075 Richard Brent DR VA-11 Elected to this Congress: March 16, 1795
076 Nathan Bryan DR NC-10
077 Daniel Buck F VT-2 Only term (elected to 5th Congress but did not serve)
078 Dempsey Burges DR NC-8
079 Samuel J. Cabell DR VA-14 Elected to this Congress: March 16, 1795
080 John Clopton DR VA-13
081 William Cooper F NY-10 Only term until 6th Congress
082 Jeremiah Crabb F MD-3 Only term. Resigned 1796.
083 Samuel Earle DR SC-6 Only term
084 Jesse Franklin DR NC-3
085 Nathaniel Freeman, Jr. F MA-5
086 Albert Gallatin DR PA-12
087 Chauncey Goodrich F CT-al
088 Roger Griswold F CT-al
... Wade Hampton DR SC-2 Special election before start of term. Only term until 8th Congress.
089 Jonathan N. Havens DR NY-1
090 Thomas Henderson F NJ-al Only term
091 James Holland DR NC-1 Only term until 7th Congress
092 George Jackson DR VA-3 Elected to this Congress: March 16, 1795. Only term until 6th Congress
093 Edward Livingston DR NY-2
094 Samuel Lyman F MA-3
095 Samuel Maclay DR PA-6 Only term
096 John Reed, Sr. F MA-6
097 John Richards DR PA-6 Seated, after an election dispute: January 18, 1796. Only term
098 Samuel Sitgreaves F PA-4
099 Isaac Smith F NJ-al Only term
100 John Swanwick DR PA-1 Chairman: Commerce and Manufactures (1796)
101 Absalom Tatom DR NC-4 Resigned June 1, 1796
102 Richard Thomas F PA-3
103 Mark Thomson F NJ-al
104 Joseph B. Varnum DR MA-9 Elected to this Congress March 28, 1795
105 John Williams F NY-9
Members joining the House, after the start of the Congress
... Nathaniel Smith F CT-al April 13, 1795 Special election [8]
... Richard Sprigg, Jr. DR MD-2 May 5, 1796 Special election
... Elisha R. Potter F RI-al November 15, 1796
... William F. Strudwick F NC-4 November 28, 1796 Special election. Only term.
... William Craik F MD-3 December 5, 1796 Special election
... James Davenport F CT-al
106 Andrew Jackson D-R TN-al Representative from a new state
... Samuel Sewall F MA-10 December 7, 1796 Special election
... George Ege F PA-5 December 8, 1796
... Samuel W. Dana F CT-al January 3, 1797
... Thomson J. Skinner DR MA-1 January 27, 1797
Non voting Member
a James White - TN-al September 4, 1794 Delegate from the Southwest Territory (later TN).
Term ended June 1, 1796 when TN admitted.

References[edit]

  1. ^ 112th Congress official House seniority list
  2. ^ Annals of Congress, for the date of election
  3. ^ Based on Rule X Organisation of Committees, in the House Rules and Manual for the 112th Congress. For membership and chairmen, see the Journal of the House of Representatives for the 4th Congress for the dates of appointment specified.
  4. ^ United States Congressional Elections 1788-1997, election result page 10 and note 1 on page 13.
  5. ^ United States Congressional Elections 1788-1977, page 8 for the 1794 special election
  6. ^ United States Congressional Elections 1788-1977, page 8 for the special election; Congressional Biographical Directory for service from February 1795 and the House of Representatives Journal of February 9, 1795 for exact date Harper took his seat.
  7. '^ 'United States Congressional Elections 1788-1997, election page 11 and note 12 on page 13.
  8. '^ 'United States Congressional Elections 1788-1997, special election page 12.

 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.

  • United States Congressional Elections 1788-1997, by Michael J. Dubin (McFarland and Company 1998) ISBN 0-7864-0283-0

See also[edit]

External links[edit]