List of Messier objects

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The Messier objects are a set of astronomical objects catalogued by the French astronomer Charles Messier in his "Catalogue des Nébuleuses et des Amas d'Étoiles" ("Catalogue of Nebulae and Star Clusters"), originally published in 1771, with the last addition (based on Messier's observations) made in 1966.[1]

Because Messier was interested in finding only comets, he created a list of non-comet objects that frustrated his hunt for them. The compilation of this list, in collaboration with his assistant Pierre Méchain, is known as the Messier catalogue. This catalogue of objects is one of the most famous lists of astronomical objects, and many Messier objects are still referenced by their Messier number.[2]

The first edition included 45 objects, with Messier's final list totaling 103 objects. However, Messier 102 was not reported correctly, bringing the total to 102 objects. Other astronomers, using side notes in Messier's texts, eventually filled out the list to 110 objects.

Messier objects[edit]

      Open cluster       Globular cluster       Nebula       Planetary nebula       Supernova remnant       Galaxy       Other

Messier number NGC/IC Number Common name Picture Object type Distance (kly) Constellation Apparent magnitude
M1[3] NGC 1952 Crab Nebula Crab Nebula.jpg Supernova remnant 4.9-8.1 Taurus 8.4
M2[4] NGC 7089   Messier 2 Hubble WikiSky.jpg Cluster, globular 33 Aquarius 6.3
M3[5] NGC 5272   M3LRGB 891x674.jpg Cluster, globular 33.9 Canes Venatici 6.2
M4[6] NGC 6121   Messier 4 Hubble WikiSky.jpg Cluster, globular 7.2 Scorpius 5.9
M5[7] NGC 5904   Messier 5 Hubble WikiSky.jpg Cluster, globular 24.5 Serpens 6.7
M6[8] NGC 6405 Butterfly Cluster M6a.jpg Cluster, open 1.6 Scorpius 4.2
M7[9] NGC 6475 Ptolemy Cluster Open-cluster-Messier-7.jpeg Cluster, open 0.65-1.31 Scorpius 3.3
M8[10] NGC 6523 Lagoon Nebula LagoonHunterWilson.jpg Nebula with cluster 4.1 Sagittarius 6.0
M9[11] NGC 6333   Messier object 009.jpg Cluster, globular 25.8 Ophiuchus 8.4
M10[12] NGC 6254   Messier 10 Hubble WikiSky.jpg Cluster, globular 14.3 Ophiuchus 6.4
M11[13] NGC 6705 Wild Duck Cluster Messier11.jpg Cluster, open 6.2 Scutum 6.3
M12[14] NGC 6218   M12 Hubble.jpg Cluster, globular 15.7 Ophiuchus 7.7
M13[15] NGC 6205 Great Globular Cluster in Hercules Messier 13 Hubble WikiSky.jpg Cluster, globular 22.2 Hercules 5.8
M14[16] NGC 6402   Messier object 014.jpg Cluster, globular 30.3 Ophiuchus 8.3
M15[17] NGC 7078 Messier 15 Hubble WikiSky.jpg Cluster, globular 33 Pegasus 6.2
M16[18] NGC 6611 Eagle Nebula Stellar spire eagle nebula.jpg Nebula, H II region with cluster 7 Serpens 6.0
M17[19] NGC 6618 Omega, Swan, Horseshoe, or Lobster Nebula Messier 17.jpg Nebula, H II region with cluster 5-6 Sagittarius 6.0
M18[20] NGC 6613   Messier18.jpg Cluster, open 4.9 Sagittarius 7.5
M19[21] NGC 6273   Messier object 019.jpg Cluster, globular 28.7 Ophiuchus 7.5
M20[22] NGC 6514 Trifid Nebula Trifid.nebula.arp.750pix.jpg Nebula, H II region with cluster 5.2 Sagittarius 6.3
M21[23] NGC 6531   Messier object 021.jpg Cluster, open 4.25 Sagittarius 6.5
M22[24] NGC 6656 Sagittarius Cluster Messier object 022.jpg Cluster, globular 9.6-11.6 Sagittarius 5.1
M23[25] NGC 6494   Messier object 023.jpg Cluster, open 2.15 Sagittarius 6.9
M24[26] IC 4715 Sagittarius Star Cloud Messier 024 2MASS.jpg Milky Way star cloud ~10 Sagittarius 4.6
M25[27] IC 4725   Messier object 025.jpg Cluster, open 2.0 Sagittarius 4.6
M26[28] NGC 6694   Messier object 026.jpg Cluster, open 5.0 Scutum 8.0
M27[29] NGC 6853 Dumbbell Nebula Messier27.jpg Nebula, planetary 1.148-1.52 Vulpecula 7.5
M28[30] NGC 6626   Messier28.jpg Cluster, globular 17.9 Sagittarius 7.7
M29[31] NGC 6913   Messier object 029.jpg Cluster, open 7.2 Cygnus 7.1
M30[32] NGC 7099   Messier object 030.jpg Cluster, globular 27.8-31 Capricornus 7.7
M31[33] NGC 224 Andromeda Galaxy Andromeda galaxy.jpg Galaxy, spiral 2,430-2,650 Andromeda 3.4
M32[34] NGC 221   M32 Lanoue.png Galaxy, dwarf elliptical 2,410-2,570 Andromeda 8.1
M33[35] NGC 598 Triangulum Galaxy M33.jpg Galaxy, spiral 2,380-3,070 Triangulum 5.7
M34[36] NGC 1039   M34 2mass atlas.jpg Cluster, open 1.5 Perseus 5.5
M35[37] NGC 2168   M35atlas.jpg Cluster, open 2.8 Gemini 5.3
M36[38] NGC 1960   M36a.jpg Cluster, open 4.1 Auriga 6.3
M37[39] NGC 2099   M37a.jpg Cluster, open 4.511 Auriga 6.2
M38[40] NGC 1912   Messier object 038.jpg Cluster, open 4.2 Auriga 7.4
M39[41] NGC 7092   Messier object 039.jpg Cluster, open 0.8244 Cygnus 5.5
M40[42]   Winnecke 4 Messier object 40.jpg Double star WNC4 0.51 Ursa Major 9.7
M41[43] NGC 2287   Messier 041 2MASS.jpg Cluster, open 2.3 Canis Major 4.5
M42[44] NGC 1976 Orion Nebula Orion Nebula - Hubble 2006 mosaic 18000.jpg Nebula, H II region 1.324-1.364 Orion 4.0
M43[45] NGC 1982 De Mairan's Nebula Messier object 043.jpg Nebula, H II region
(part of the Orion Nebula)
1.6 Orion 9.0
M44[46] NGC 2632 Beehive Cluster Messier 044 2MASS.jpg Cluster, open 0.577 Cancer 3.7
M45[47]   Pleiades Bob Star - M45 Carranza Field (by).jpg Cluster, open 0.39-0.46 Taurus 1.6
M46[48] NGC 2437   M46a.jpg Cluster, open 5.4 Puppis 6.1
M47[49] NGC 2422   M47a.jpg Cluster, open 1.6 Puppis 4.2
M48[50] NGC 2548   M48a.jpg Cluster, open 1.5 Hydra 5.5
M49[51] NGC 4472   Messier 49 Hubble WikiSky.jpg Galaxy, elliptical 53,600-58,200 Virgo 9.4
M50[52] NGC 2323   M50a.jpg Cluster, open 3.2 Monoceros 5.9
M51[53] NGC 5194, NGC 5195 Whirlpool Galaxy Whirlpool (M51).jpg Galaxy, spiral 19,000-27,000 Canes Venatici 8.4
M52[54] NGC 7654   M52atlas.jpg Cluster, open 5.0 Cassiopeia 5.0
M53[55] NGC 5024   Globular Cluster M53.jpg Cluster, globular 58 Coma Berenices 8.3
M54[56] NGC 6715   Messier54.jpg Cluster, globular 87.4 Sagittarius 8.4
M55[57] NGC 6809   Messier55.jpg Cluster, globular 17.6 Sagittarius 7.4
M56[58] NGC 6779   M56-LRGB.jpg Cluster, globular 32.9 Lyra 8.3
M57[59] NGC 6720 Ring Nebula Ring Nebula.jpg Nebula, planetary 1.6-3.8 Lyra 8.8
M58[60] NGC 4579   M58s.jpg Galaxy, barred spiral ~63,000 Virgo 10.5
M59[61] NGC 4621   Messier59.jpg Galaxy, elliptical 55,000-65,000 Virgo 10.6
M60[62] NGC 4649   Messier object 060.jpg Galaxy, elliptical 51,000-59,000 Virgo 9.8
M61[63] NGC 4303   Messier object 061.jpg Galaxy, spiral 50.2-54.6 Virgo 10.2
M62[64] NGC 6266   Messier object 062.jpg Cluster, globular 22.2 Ophiuchus 7.4
M63[65] NGC 5055 Sunflower Galaxy Messier 63 GALEX WikiSky.jpg Galaxy, spiral 37,000 Canes Venatici 9.3
M64[66] NGC 4826 Black Eye Galaxy Blackeyegalaxy.jpg Galaxy, spiral 22,000-26,000 Coma Berenices 9.4
M65[67] NGC 3623 Leo Triplet M65.jpg Galaxy, barred spiral 41,000-42,000 Leo 10.3
M66[68] NGC 3627 Leo Triplet Sig05-016.jpg Galaxy, barred spiral 31,000-41,000 Leo 8.9
M67[69] NGC 2682   Messier object 067.jpg Cluster, open 2.61-2.93 Cancer 6.1
M68[70] NGC 4590   Messier object 068.jpg Cluster, globular 33.6 Hydra 9.7
M69[71] NGC 6637   Messier object 069.jpg Cluster, globular 29.7 Sagittarius 8.3
M70[72] NGC 6681   Messier70.jpg Cluster, globular 29.4 Sagittarius 9.1
M71[73] NGC 6838   Messier71.jpg Cluster, globular 13.0 Sagitta 6.1
M72[74] NGC 6981   Messier72.jpg Cluster, globular 53.40-55.74 Aquarius 9.4
M73[75] NGC 6994   Messier 073 2MASS.jpg Asterism ~2.5 Aquarius 9.0
M74[76] NGC 628   Messier 74 by HST.jpg Galaxy, spiral 24,000-36,000 Pisces 10.0
M75[77] NGC 6864   Messier75.jpg Cluster, globular 67.5 Sagittarius 9.2
M76[78] NGC 650, NGC 651 Little Dumbbell Nebula M76-RL5-DDmin-Gamma-LRGB 883x628.jpg Nebula, planetary 2.5 Perseus 10.1
M77[79] NGC 1068 Cetus A NGC1068-hst-R658GB814.jpg Galaxy, spiral 47,000 Cetus 9.6
M78[80] NGC 2068   Messier 78.jpg Nebula, diffuse 1.6 Orion 8.3
M79[81] NGC 1904   M79a.jpg Cluster, globular 41 Lepus 8.6
M80[82] NGC 6093   A Swarm of Ancient Stars - GPN-2000-000930.jpg Cluster, globular 32.6 Scorpius 7.9
M81[83] NGC 3031 Bode's Galaxy Sig07-009.jpg Galaxy, spiral 11,400-12,200 Ursa Major 6.9
M82[84] NGC 3034 Cigar Galaxy Messier82.jpg Galaxy, starburst 10,700-12,300 Ursa Major 8.4
M83[85] NGC 5236 Southern Pinwheel Galaxy M83g.jpg Galaxy, barred spiral 14,700 Hydra 7.5
M84[86] NGC 4374   Messier 84 nucleus Hubble.jpg Galaxy, lenticular 57,000-63,000 Virgo 10.1
M85[87] NGC 4382   Messier 85 Hubble WikiSky.jpg Galaxy, lenticular 56,000-64,000 Coma Berenices 10.0
M86[88] NGC 4406   Messier 86 Hubble WikiSky.jpg Galaxy, lenticular 49,000-55,000 Virgo 9.8
M87[89] NGC 4486 Virgo A M87 jet.jpg Galaxy, elliptical 51,870-55,130 Virgo 9.6
M88[90] NGC 4501   Messier object 088.jpg Galaxy, spiral 39,000-56,000 Coma Berenices 10.4
M89[91] NGC 4552   Messier object 089.jpg Galaxy, elliptical 47,000-53,000 Virgo 10.7
M90[92] NGC 4569   Messier object 090.jpg Galaxy, spiral 55,900-61,500 Virgo 10.3
M91[93] NGC 4548   Messier91.jpg Galaxy, barred spiral 47,000-79,000 Coma Berenices 11.0
M92[94] NGC 6341   Globular Cluster M92.JPG Cluster, globular 26.7 Hercules 6.3
M93[95] NGC 2447   Messier object 093.jpg Cluster, open 3.6 Puppis 6.0
M94[96] NGC 4736   Messier object 094.jpg Galaxy, spiral 14,700-17,300 Canes Venatici 9.0
M95[97] NGC 3351   Messier95 spitzer.jpg Galaxy, barred spiral 31,200-34,000 Leo 11.4
M96[98] NGC 3368   Messier object 096.jpg Galaxy, spiral 28,000-34,000 Leo 10.1
M97[99] NGC 3587 Owl Nebula M97 FTN.jpg Nebula, planetary 2.03 Ursa Major 9.9
M98[100] NGC 4192   M-98.jpg Galaxy, spiral 44,400 Coma Berenices 11.0
M99[101] NGC 4254   M99.jpg Galaxy, spiral 44,700-55,700 Coma Berenices 10.4
M100[102] NGC 4321   Spiral Galaxy M100.jpg Galaxy, spiral 55,000 Coma Berenices 10.1
M101[103] NGC 5457 Pinwheel Galaxy M101 hires STScI-PRC2006-10a.jpg Galaxy, spiral 19,100-22,400 Ursa Major 7.9
M102[104] (Not conclusively identified)[105]          
M103[106] NGC 581   Messier object 103.jpg Cluster, open 10 Cassiopeia 7.4
M104[107] NGC 4594 Sombrero Galaxy M104 ngc4594 sombrero galaxy hi-res.jpg Galaxy, spiral 28,700-30,900 Virgo 9.0
M105[108] NGC 3379   Messier object 105.jpg Galaxy, elliptical 30,400-33,600 Leo 10.2
M106[109] NGC 4258   Messier 106 by Spitzer.jpg Galaxy, spiral 22,200-25,200 Canes Venatici 9.1
M107[110] NGC 6171   Messier object 107.jpg Cluster, globular 20.9 Ophiuchus 8.9
M108[111] NGC 3556   Messier 108 Hubble WikiSky.jpg Galaxy, barred spiral 46,000 Ursa Major 10.7
M109[112] NGC 3992   Messier object 109.jpg Galaxy, barred spiral 59,500-107,500 Ursa Major 10.6
M110[113] NGC 205   Messier object 110.jpg Galaxy, dwarf elliptical 2,600-2,780 Andromeda 9.0
Messier number NGC Number Common name Picture Object type Distance (kly) Constellation Apparent magnitude

Star chart of Messier objects[edit]

Messier Star Chart.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "SEDS Messier Database". THE MESSIER CATALOG. 10-11-2007. 
  2. ^ "Original Messier Catalog of 1781". Original Messier Catalog of 1781. 10-11-2007. 
  3. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 1". Retrieved 2014-03-17. 
  4. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 2". Retrieved 2014-03-17. 
  5. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 3". Retrieved 2014-03-17. 
  6. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 4". Retrieved 2014-03-17. 
  7. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 5". Retrieved 2014-03-17. 
  8. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 6". Retrieved 2014-03-17. 
  9. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 7". Retrieved 2014-03-17. 
  10. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 8". Retrieved 2014-03-17. 
  11. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 9". Retrieved 2014-03-17. 
  12. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 10". Retrieved 2014-03-17. 
  13. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 11". Retrieved 2014-03-17. 
  14. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 12". Retrieved 2014-03-17. 
  15. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 13". Retrieved 2014-03-17. 
  16. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 14". Retrieved 2014-03-17. 
  17. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 15". Retrieved 2014-03-17. 
  18. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 16". Retrieved 2014-03-17. 
  19. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 17". Retrieved 2014-03-17. 
  20. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 18". Retrieved 2014-03-17. 
  21. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 19". Retrieved 2014-03-17. 
  22. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 20". Retrieved 2014-03-17. 
  23. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 21". Retrieved 2014-03-17. 
  24. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 22". Retrieved 2014-03-17. 
  25. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 23". Retrieved 2014-03-17. 
  26. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 24". Retrieved 2014-03-17. 
  27. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 25". Retrieved 2014-03-17. 
  28. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 26". Retrieved 2014-03-17. 
  29. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 27". Retrieved 2014-03-17. 
  30. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 28". Retrieved 2014-03-17. 
  31. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 29". Retrieved 2014-03-17. 
  32. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 30". Retrieved 2014-03-17. 
  33. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 31". Retrieved 2014-03-17. 
  34. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 32". Retrieved 2014-03-17. 
  35. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 33". Retrieved 2014-03-17. 
  36. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 34". Retrieved 2014-03-17. 
  37. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 35". Retrieved 2014-03-17. 
  38. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 36". Retrieved 2014-03-17. 
  39. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 37". Retrieved 2014-03-17. 
  40. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 38". Retrieved 2014-03-17. 
  41. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 39". Retrieved 2014-03-17. 
  42. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 40". Retrieved 2014-03-17. 
  43. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 41". Retrieved 2014-03-17. 
  44. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 42". Retrieved 2014-03-17. 
  45. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 43". Retrieved 2014-03-17. 
  46. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 44". Retrieved 2014-03-17. 
  47. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 45". Retrieved 2014-03-17. 
  48. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 46". Retrieved 2014-03-17. 
  49. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 47". Retrieved 2014-03-17. 
  50. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 48". Retrieved 2014-03-17. 
  51. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 49". Retrieved 2014-03-17. 
  52. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 50". Retrieved 2014-03-17. 
  53. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 51". Retrieved 2014-03-18. 
  54. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 52". Retrieved 2014-03-18. 
  55. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 53". Retrieved 2014-03-18. 
  56. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 54". Retrieved 2014-03-18. 
  57. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 55". Retrieved 2014-03-18. 
  58. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 56". Retrieved 2014-03-18. 
  59. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 57". Retrieved 2014-03-18. 
  60. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 58". Retrieved 2014-03-18. 
  61. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 59". Retrieved 2014-03-18. 
  62. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 60". Retrieved 2014-03-18. 
  63. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 61". Retrieved 2014-03-18. 
  64. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 62". Retrieved 2014-03-18. 
  65. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 63". Retrieved 2014-03-18. 
  66. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 64". Retrieved 2014-03-18. 
  67. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 65". Retrieved 2014-03-18. 
  68. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 66". Retrieved 2014-03-18. 
  69. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 67". Retrieved 2014-03-18. 
  70. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 68". Retrieved 2014-03-18. 
  71. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 69". Retrieved 2014-03-18. 
  72. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 70". Retrieved 2014-03-18. 
  73. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 71". Retrieved 2014-03-18. 
  74. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 72". Retrieved 2014-03-18. 
  75. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 73". Retrieved 2014-03-18. 
  76. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 74". Retrieved 2014-03-18. 
  77. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 75". Retrieved 2014-03-18. 
  78. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 76". Retrieved 2014-03-18. 
  79. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 77". Retrieved 2014-03-18. 
  80. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 78". Retrieved 2014-03-18. 
  81. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 79". Retrieved 2014-03-18. 
  82. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 80". Retrieved 2014-03-18. 
  83. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 81". Retrieved 2014-03-18. 
  84. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 82". Retrieved 2014-03-18. 
  85. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 83". Retrieved 2014-03-18. 
  86. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 84". Retrieved 2014-03-18. 
  87. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 85". Retrieved 2014-03-18. 
  88. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 86". Retrieved 2014-03-18. 
  89. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 87". Retrieved 2014-03-18. 
  90. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 88". Retrieved 2014-03-18. 
  91. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 89". Retrieved 2014-03-18. 
  92. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 90". Retrieved 2014-03-18. 
  93. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 91". Retrieved 2014-03-18. 
  94. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 92". Retrieved 2014-03-18. 
  95. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 93". Retrieved 2014-03-18. 
  96. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 94". Retrieved 2014-03-18. 
  97. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 95". Retrieved 2014-03-18. 
  98. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 96". Retrieved 2014-03-18. 
  99. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 97". Retrieved 2014-03-18. 
  100. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 98". Retrieved 2014-03-18. 
  101. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 99". Retrieved 2014-03-18. 
  102. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 100". Retrieved 2014-03-18. 
  103. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 101". Retrieved 2014-03-18. 
  104. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 102". Retrieved 2014-03-18. 
  105. ^ Frommert, Hartmut; Kronberg, Christine (1995-05). "Messier 102". Usenet. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  106. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 103". Retrieved 2014-03-18. 
  107. ^ Messier, Charles (1771). "Messier 104". Retrieved 2014-03-18. 
  108. ^ Messier, Charles (1783). "Messier 105". Retrieved 2014-03-18. 
  109. ^ Messier, Charles (1783). "Messier 106". Retrieved 2014-03-18. 
  110. ^ Messier, Charles (1783). "Messier 107". Retrieved 2014-03-18. 
  111. ^ Messier, Charles (1783). "Messier 108". Retrieved 2014-03-18. 
  112. ^ Messier, Charles (1783). "Messier 109". Retrieved 2014-03-18. 
  113. ^ Messier, Charles (1783). "Messier 110". Retrieved 2014-03-18. 

External links[edit]