List of Mongolic states

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This is a list of Mongolic states. 'Mongolia' is understood in the broader historical sense (see Greater Mongolia and Mongolian plateau). The Mongolic peoples established many states such as Xiongnu, the Xianbei, the Nirun, the Khitan and the Mongol Empire from the 3rd century BC. The list of states is chronological but follows the development of different dynasties.

Ancient and postclassical states[edit]

Name Years Area Map Capital Today part of
Bida state
(Our state)[1]
 Mongolia
Xianyu people – an ancestor of the Xiongnu
Zhongshan VI BC–296 BC  China
Xiongnu
Xiongnu 209 BC–93 AD 4,030,000 km2
(176 BC)[2]
Hunnu.png Luut city
(Dragon city,
Lungcheng)
Mongolia
 Mongolia
 China
 Kazakhstan
 Kyrgyzstan
 Russia
Yueban 160–490 Nirun Khaganate.png  Kazakhstan
Han Zhao
(Former Han)
304–329 2,000,000 km2
(316 AD)[3]
Lishi (304-305)
Liting (305-308)
Puzi (308-309)
Pingyang (309-318)
Chang'an (318-329)
Shanggui (329)
 China
Northern Liang 397–460 China400ce.png Jiankang (397-398)
Zhangye (398-412)
Guzang (412-439)
Jiuquan (440-441)
Dunhuang (441-442)
Shanshan (442)
Gaochang (442-460)
 China
Xia state 407–431 Tongwan (418-427)
Shanggui (427-428)
Pingliang (428-430)
 China
Xianbei
Xianbei state 93–234 Xianbei state.png Orda,
Khangai Mountains,
Mongolia
 Mongolia
 China
 Kazakhstan
 Russia
Western Qin 385–431 Yongshicheng (385-386)
Wanchuan (386-388, 400, 410-412)

Jincheng (388-395)
Xicheng (395-400)
Dujianshan (409-410)
Tanjiao (412)
Fuhan (412-429)
Dinglian (429-430)
Nan'an (430-431)

 China
Murong Xianbei
Former Yan 337–370 Jicheng (337-341)
Longcheng (341-350)
Jicheng (350-357)
Yecheng (357-370)
 China
Western Yan 384–394 Chang'an (385-386)
Zhangzi (386-394)
 China
Later Yan 384–409 Asia 400ad.jpg Zhongshan (386-397)
Longcheng (397-409)
 China
Tuyuhun Kingdom 284–672 Nirun Khaganate.png Fuqi  China
Tuoba Xianbei states
Southern Liang 397–414 Asia 400ad.jpg Lianchuan (397-399)
Ledu (399, 402-406, 410-414)
Xiping (399-402)
Guzang (406-410)
 China
Dai state 315–377 Shengle  China
Northern Wei 386–535 2,000,000 km2
(450)[3]
Nirun Khaganate.png Shengle (386-398,
capital of former
Dai, near modern Huhhot)
Pingcheng (398-493)
Luoyang (493-534)
Chang'an (534-535)
 China
Eastern Wei 534–550 1,000,000 km2
(550 AD)[3]
西魏・東魏・梁.PNG Luoyang (534)
Yecheng (534-550)
 China
Western Wei 535–557 1,300,000 km2
(557 AD)[3]
Chang'an  China
Yuwen Xianbei
Northern Zhou 557–581 1,500,000 km2
(577 AD)[3]
Northern and Southern Dynasties 560 CE.png Chang'an  China
Nirun
Nirun Khaganate
(Rouran Khaganate)
330–555 4,000,000 km2
(405 AD)[3][4]
Nirun Khaganate.png Mumo City,
in Mongolia
 Mongolia
 China
 Kazakhstan
 Russia
Khitans
Khitan Empire
(Liao dynasty)
907–1125 2,600,000 km2
(947)[4][5]
4,000,000 km2
(1111)
Khitans.png Shangjing  Mongolia
 China
 Kazakhstan
 North Korea
 Russia
Dongdan Kingdom 926–936  China
Northern Liao 1122–1123  China
Kara-Khitan Khanate 1124/
1125–1221
2,500,000 km2
(1210)[4]
KaraKhitaiAD1200.png Balasagun  Kyrgyzstan
 Kazakhstan
 China
 Turkmenistan
 Tajikistan
 Uzbekistan
Easthern Liao 1211–1220  China
Khar-Khitan Sultanate 1220s–1306  Iran
Tatabi (Kumo Xi)
Great Xi 1123  China
Khanates in the X-XII centuries
Khamag Mongol Khanate 900s–1206 Mongol Empire c.1207.png  Mongolia
 China
 Russia
Khereid Khanate 900s–1203  Mongolia
 China
Merkit Khanate XI–mid XII  Mongolia
 Russia
Naiman Khanate –1204  Mongolia
 China
 Kazakhstan
 Russia
Tatar Khanate VI—X
(IX – mid XII?)
 Mongolia
 China
Flag of the Mongol Empire.svg Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire 1206–1271
(1368)
33,000,000 km2[4][6] Mongol dominions.jpg Avarga (1206–35)
Karakorum (1235–60)
Dadu (1260–1368)
 Mongolia
 Afghanistan
 Armenia
 Azerbaijan
 Belarus
 Bulgaria
 China
 Georgia
 Hong Kong
 India
 Iran
 Iraq
 Kazakhstan
 Kyrgyzstan
 Laos
 Lithuania
 Macau
 Moldova
 Myanmar
 North Korea
 Pakistan
 Romania
 Russia
 South Korea
 Syria
 Tajikistan
 Turkey
 Turkmenistan
 Ukraine
 Uzbekistan
Yuan Dynasty 1271-1368 14,000,000 km2
(1310)[5]
Yuan Dynasty 1294.png Khanbaliq
(Beijing)
 Mongolia
 China
 Hong Kong
 Macau

 India
 North Korea
 South Korea
 Laos
 Myanmar
 Russia

Flag of Golden Horde-2-.svg Golden Horde
Golden Horde
(See also
List of Khans of the Golden Horde and Hordes of the Jochid Ulus)
1240–1502 6,000,000 km2
(1310)[4]
MongolEmpireDivisions1300.png Sarai Batu  Russia
 Ukraine


 Kazakhstan
 Moldova
 Belarus
 Romania
 Uzbekistan
 Turkmenistan
 Georgia
 Azerbaijan
 Bulgaria
 Poland

Great Horde 1466–1502  Russia
 Kazakhstan
Flag of the Chagatai Khanate.svg Chagatai Khanate
Chagatai Khanate
(See also
List of Chagatai khans)
1225–1340s 3,500,000 km2
(1310)[4][5]
Chagatai Khanate map en.svg Almaliq
Qarshi
 Uzbekistan
 Kyrgyzstan
 China
 Kazakhstan


 Tajikistan
 Afghanistan
 Pakistan
 Turkmenistan
 India

Western Chagatai Khanate 1340s–1370
Moghulistan 1340–1462 Mongolia XVI.png
Kara Del Khanate 1383–1513 Hami Prefecture,  China
Flag of the Ilkhanate.svg Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate 1256–1335 3,750,000 km2
(1310)[4][5]
Ilkhanate in 1256–1353.PNG Maragha (1256–1265)
Tabriz (1265–1306)
Soltaniyeh (1306–1335)
 Iran
 Azerbaijan
 Armenia
 Afghanistan
 Turkey
 Turkmenistan
 Pakistan
 Iraq
 Georgia
 Syria
 Tajikistan
 Russia
Chobanids 1335–1357 IranaftertheIlkhanate.png Tabriz  Iran
Injuids 1335–1357 Baghdad (Till 1411)
Basra (1411-1432)
 Iran
 Iraq
Jalayirid Sultanate 1335–1432 Baghdad (Till 1411)
Basra (1411-1432)
 Iran
 Iraq
Arghun dynasty 1479?–1599?  Afghanistan
 Pakistan
Genghisid Mongolian Khaganate
Mongolian Khaganate
(State of Mongolia,
Northern Yuan)
1368–1691 5,000,000 km2
(1550)[5]
Mongolia XVI.png Shangdu (1368–69)
Yingchang (1369–70)
Karakorum (1371–88)

 Mongolia
 China
 Kazakhstan
 Russia

Khotogoid Khanate
(subject of the Mongolian Khaganate)
late XVI–
late XVII
Mongolia XVII.png in Mongolia  Mongolia
 Russia
Oirats - Non-Genghisid states
Four Oirat 1399–1634 1,000,000 km2
(15th - late 16th)
~1,600,000 km2
(early 17th century)
Mongolia XVI.png  Mongolia
 China
 Kazakhstan
 Kyrgyzstan
 Russia
Zunghar Khanate 1634–1758 ~ 3,500,000 — 4,000,000 km2 Mongolia XVII.png  Mongolia
 China
 Kazakhstan
 Kyrgyzstan
 Russia
 Tajikistan
 Uzbekistan
Khoshut Khanate 1642?–1717 ~1,400,000 km2  China
Kalmyk Khanate 1630–1771  Russia
 Kazakhstan

Modern states[edit]

Name Years Area Map Capital Today part of
Buryat's
Balagad state
1919–1926[7][8][9][10] Kizhinginsky District, Flag of Buryatia.svg Buryatia,
 Russia
Republic of Oirat-Kalmyk 1930 Flag of Kalmykia.svg Kalmykia,
 Russia
Republic of Southern Mongolia 1945 Inner Mongolia,  China
Flag of Mongolia (1911-1921).svg State of Mongolia
(Bogd Khaganate)
1911-1924 Mongolia 1915.jpg Ikh Khuree
(Ulaanbaatar)
 Mongolia
 China
 Russia
Flag of the People's Republic of Mongolia (1940-1992).svg People's Republic of Mongolia 1924-1992 Ulaanbaatar  Mongolia
 China
 Russia
Flag of Mongolia.svg Mongolia 1992–present 1,564,115.75 km2 Un-mongolia.png  Mongolia

Autonomous areas[edit]

In Russia[edit]

Name Years Capital Area Map
State of Buryat-Mongolia 1917–1921 Chita
Mongol-Buryat Autonomous Oblast 1922–1923
Buryat-Mongol Autonomous Oblast 1921–1923
Buryat-Mongol Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic 1923–1958 Ulan-Ude Buryat-Mongol ASSR in 1925.jpg
Buryat Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic 1958–1992 Russia - Buryat Republic (2008-01).svg
Republic of Buryatia 1992-present 351,300 km2
Agin Buryat-Mongol National Okrug 1937–1958 Aginskoye Russia - Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug (2008-01).svg
Agin-Buryat National Okrug 1958–1977
Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug 1977–2008
Ust-Orda Buryat-Mongolian Autonomous Okrug 1937–1958 Ust-Ordynsky Ust Orda Buryatia.png
Ust-Orda Buryat National Okrug 1958–1978
Ust-Orda Buryat Autonomous Okrug 1978–2008
Kalmyk Autonomous Oblast 1920–1935
1957–1958
Astrakhan (till 1928)
Elista
Атлас Союза Советских Социалистических Республик 1928 - Автономная Калмыцкая область.jpg
Kalmyk Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic 1935–1943
1958–1990
Elista Russia - Republic of Kalmykia (2008-01).svg
Kalmyk Soviet Socialist Republic 1990–1992
Kalmyk Republic-Halmg-Tangch 1992–1994
Kalmyk Republic 1994–present 76,100 km2

In China[edit]

Name Years Capital Area Map
Mengjiang state 1936–1945 Kalgan
(Khaalgan)
Mengjiang.png
Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region 1947–present Huhhot 1,183,000 km2
Inner Mongolia in China (+all claims hatched).svg
Gansu Province
Subei Mongol Autonomous County Location of Subei within Gansu (China).png
Hebei Province
Weichang Manchu and Mongol Autonomous County
Heilongjiang Province
Dorbod Mongol Autonomous County
Jilin Province
Qian Gorlos Mongol Autonomous County
Liaoning Province
Harqin Left Mongol Autonomous County
Fuxin Mongol Autonomous County
Qinghai Province
Haixi Mongol and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture Qinghai subdivisions - Haixi.svg
Henan Mongol Autonomous County
Xinjiang Province
Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture Korla 462,700 km2
China Xinjiang Bayingolin.svg
Bortala Mongol Autonomous Prefecture Bortala
(Bortal)
China Xinjiang Bortala.svg
Hoboksar Mongol Autonomous County Hoboksar
(Khovogsair)
Location of Hoboksar within Xinjiang (China).png

See also[edit]

Maps[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ The Blue Chronicle, Vanchinbalyn Injinash
  2. ^ Claudio Cioffi-Revilla, J. Daniel Rogers, Steven P. Wilcox, & Jai Alterman, "Computing the Steppes: Data Analysis for Agent-Based Modeling of Polities in Inner Asia", Proceedings of the 104th Annual Meeting of the Amer. Pol. Sci. Assoc., Boston, Massachusetts, p. 8 August 28–31, (2008)
  3. ^ a b c d e f Rein Taagepera "Size and Duration of Empires: Growth-Decline Curves, 600 B.C. to 600 A.D.", Social Science History Vol. 3, 115-138 (1979)
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Jonathan M. Adams, Thomas D. Hall and Peter Turchin (2006). East-West Orientation of Historical Empires.Journal of World-Systems Research (University of Connecticut). 12 (no. 2): 219–229.
  5. ^ a b c d e Rein Taagepera (September 1997). "Expansion and Contraction Patterns of Large Polities: Context for Russia". International Studies Quarterly 41 (3): 475–504.
  6. ^ Morgan. The Mongols. p. 5.
  7. ^ Бидия Дандарон (Russian)
  8. ^ Балагатское движение (Russian)
  9. ^ Теократическое движение в Хоринском ведомстве Бурятии :1919–1926 гг. (Russian)
  10. ^ БАЛАГАТСКОЕ ДВИЖЕНИЕ (Russian)

Bibliography[edit]

  • Weiers, Michael (ed.) (1986): Die Mongolen. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.
  • Dughlát Muhammad Haidar, Norbert Elias, Edward Denison Ross - The Tarikh-i-rashidi
  • Henry Hoyle Howorth-History of the Mongols
  • Herbert Franke, Denis Twitchett, John King Fairbank -The Cambridge History of China: Alien regimes and border states, 907–1368
  • William Bayne Fisher, Peter Jackson, Laurence Lockhart, J. A. Boyle -The Cambridge history of Iran, 5
  • Konstantin Nikolaevich Maksimov - Kalmykia in Russia's past and present national policies and administrative system