List of NASA missions

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
All Saturn V launches, 1967–1973.
Dryden pilot Neil Armstrong standing next to the X-15 ship #1 in 1960.

This is a list of NASA missions, both manned and unmanned, since its establishment in 1958.

X-Plane program[edit]

Main article: List of X-planes

Since 1946, NACA (NASA's predecessor), and since 1958, NASA have conducted the X-Plane Program. The program was originally intended to create a family of experimental aircraft not set for production beyond the limited number of each design built solely for flight research.[1] The first X-Plane, the Bell X-1 was the first rocket-powered airplane to break the sound barrier on October 14, 1947.[2] X-Planes have set numerous milestones since then, both manned and unmanned.[3]

Manned missions[edit]

See also: NASA - Manned missions
Shuttle launch profiles. From left to right: Columbia, Challenger, Discovery, Atlantis, and Endeavour.
Astronauts Andrew Feustel (right) and Michael Fincke, outside the ISS during the STS-134 mission's third spacewalk.

Human spaceflight[edit]

Main article: Human spaceflight

NASA has successfully launched over 100 manned flights. Two have ended in failure, causing the death of the entire crew: STS-51-L (the Challenger disaster) in 1986, and STS-107 (the Columbia disaster) in 2003. (Apollo 1 in 1967 lost three crew members but never launched.)

Program Start date End date No. of launched
crewed missions
Notes
Mercury program 1959 1963 6 First U.S. crewed program
Gemini program 1963 1966 10 Program used to practice space rendezvous and EVAs
Apollo program 1961 1972 11[a] Brought first human to the Moon
Skylab 1973 1974 3 The crewed missions only took place in 1973 and 1974; first American space station
Apollo-Soyuz 1975 1975 1 Joint with Soviet Union
Shuttle-Mir Program 1995 1998 9[b] Russian partnership
Project Constellation 2003 2010[4] 0 Cancelled program to bring humans to the Moon again, to Mars and beyond
Space Shuttle 1981 2011 135 First missions in which a spacecraft was reused
International Space Station 1998 On-going 36 Joint with Russia, Canada, ESA, and JAXA along with co-operators, ASI and AEB

Notes:

  1. Apollo 1 was unlaunched due to a fire during testing that killed the astronauts, and is not counted here.
  2. The Shuttle-Mir missions were all Space Shuttle missions, and are also counted under the Space Shuttle program missions in the table.

Airborne observatories[edit]

Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (NASA/DLR) with open telescope doors, allowing engineers to understand how air flows in and around the telescope.
Program Start date End date Aircraft
Kuiper Airborne Observatory 1974 1995 Modified Lockheed C-141A
Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) 2010 On-going Modified Boeing 747SP

Future[edit]

On May 7, 2009 the Obama Administration announced the launch of an independent review of planned U.S. human space flight activities with the goal of ensuring that the nation is on a vigorous and sustainable path to achieving its boldest aspirations in space. The review will be conducted by a blue-ribbon panel of experts led by Norman Augustine, the former CEO of Lockheed Martin, who served on the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology under Democrat and Republican presidents.

The "Review of United States Human Space Flight Plans" is to examine ongoing and planned National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) development activities, as well as potential alternatives, and present options for advancing a safe, innovative, affordable, and sustainable human space flight program in the years following Space Shuttle retirement. The panel will work closely with NASA and will seek input from the United States Congress, the White House, the public, industry, and international partners as it develops its options. It is to present its results in time to support an Administration decision on the way forward by August 2009.[5]

In February 2010, Obama announced he proposes to cancel the Constellation Program as part of the 2011 Economic Projects to goal the USA to be booming by 2020. Constellation was officially cancelled by the NASA Budget Authorization Act on 11 October 2010

Unmanned missions[edit]

Suborbital[edit]

Earth satellites[edit]

- Earth Observing System[8]

- Great Observatories

- High Energy Astronomy Observatory program

- Landsat program[10]

- Living With a Star

- New Millennium Program (NMP)

- Origins program

- Small Explorer program (SMEX)[13]

- Solar Terrestrial Probes program

Lunar[edit]

-Lunar Orbiter program

- Lunar Precursor Robotic Program (LPRP)

-Pioneer program

- Ranger program

- Surveyor program

Martian[edit]

- Mariner program

- Mars Exploration Rovers

- Mars Pathfinder

- Mars Polar Lander

- Mars Science Laboratory (MSL)

- Mars Scout program

- Viking program

Asteroidal/cometary[edit]

Interplanetary[edit]

- Mariner program – Venus

- New Frontiers program

- Pioneer program

- Voyager program

Solar[edit]

  • Genesis – returned sample of solar wind

- Living With a Star

- Solar Terrestrial Probes program

Planned missions[edit]

- Living With a Star

- New Frontiers program

- Origins program

- Solar Terrestrial Probes program

Cancelled missions[edit]

- Mars Scout program

- Origins program

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Dryden Historic Aircraft - X-planes overview". Dryden Flight Research Center. NASA. Retrieved 2012-06-01. 
  2. ^ "Bell X-1 "Glamorous Glennis"". Milestones of Flight. National Air and Space Museum. Retrieved 2012-06-01. 
  3. ^ "APPENDIX A; HISTORY OF THE X-PLANE PROGRAM". Draft X-33 Environmental Impact Statement. NASA. Retrieved 2012-06-01. 
  4. ^ http://www.spacenews.com/civil/100930-house-gives-final-approval-nasa-authorization-act.html
  5. ^ OSTP Press Release Announcing Review (pdf, 50k)
  6. ^ "Anomalous Transport Rocket Experiment (ATREX)". NASA. Retrieved 2012-03-15. 
  7. ^ "ATREX Launch Sequence". NASA. Retrieved 2012-03-15. 
  8. ^ http://science.nasa.gov/earth-science/missions/
  9. ^ "NPP Launch Information". NASA. Retrieved 2011-07-16. 
  10. ^ Landsat Missions Timeline
  11. ^ "RBSP Mission Overview". NASA. Retrieved 2012-08-31. 
  12. ^ "RBSP". NASA/APL. Retrieved 2012-08-31. 
  13. ^ "Explorer Missions". NASA. Retrieved 2011-11-26. 
  14. ^ Clark, Stephen (2012-04-03). "Launch of NASA X-ray telescope targeted for June". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 2012-05-15. 
  15. ^ "NuSTAR". NASA. 2012-06-05. Retrieved 2012-06-14. 
  16. ^ "GRAIL Mission: Fact Sheet". MoonKAM.UCSD.edu. Retrieved 2011-04-25. 
  17. ^ "Juno Mission to Jupiter". NASA. 04/09. p. 2. Retrieved April 5, 2011.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  18. ^ Karen C. Fox (2011-02-22). "Launching Balloons in Antarctica". NASA. Retrieved 2012-09-06. 
  19. ^ "NASA Selects Science Investigations for Solar Probe Plus". NASA. Retrieved 2012-08-31. 
  20. ^ "Johns Hopkins APL Team Developing Solar Probe Plus for Closest-Ever Flights Past the Sun". JHU APL. Retrieved 2012-08-31. 
  21. ^ "NASA To Launch New Science Mission To Asteroid In 2016". NASA. Retrieved 2011-08-25. 
  22. ^ "JWST Home Page". NASA. Retrieved 2011-04-25. 
  23. ^ "10-Year Plan for Astrophysics Takes JWST Cost into Account". SpaceNews.com. 2010-08-20. Retrieved 2011-04-25. 
  24. ^ "STP Missions". NASA. Retrieved 2011-09-06. 

External links[edit]