List of National Historic Landmarks in Washington (state)

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This is a complete List of National Historic Landmarks in Washington. The United States National Historic Landmark program is operated under the auspices of the National Park Service, and recognizes structures, districts, objects, and similar resources nationwide according to a list of criteria of national significance.[1] The state of Washington is home to 24 of these landmarks, extensively highlighting the state's maritime heritage (with eight individual boats) and contributions to the national park movement (including three sites within Mount Rainier National Park, which is also listed), while recognizing a range of other aspects of its historic legacy.


A view of the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard in Bremerton, a National Historic Landmark since 1992.

Current NHLs in Washington[edit]

The table below lists the 24 Washington sites (including one that spans the Washington-Oregon state line) that are currently designated as National Historic Landmarks, along with descriptions and other details.

[2] Landmark name[3] Image
Date of designation[3] Locality
[3][4]
County
[3]
Description
[5]
1 ADVENTURESS (Schooner) Adventuress Under Sail.jpg April 11, 1989 Seattle
47°37′59″N 122°19′39″W / 47.6329993782°N 122.327501718°W / 47.6329993782; -122.327501718 (Adventuress (schooner))
King Built in 1913 as a yacht for private Arctic exploration, this schooner actually spent most of its career as a pilot boat at San Francisco. It is significant as an example of the work of the naval architect Bowdoin B. Crowninshield, who greatly influenced 20th century American yacht and schooner design.
2 American and English Camps, San Juan Island Officer's Quarters SJNHP.jpg November 5, 1961 Friday Harbor
48°27′49″N 123°1′14″W / 48.46361°N 123.02056°W / 48.46361; -123.02056 (American and English Camps, San Juan Island)
San Juan Both of these camps were set up in 1859 as response to the hostilities of the Pig War. The camps were occupied for 12 years, until the Treaty of Washington was signed, negotiated by Kaiser Wilhelm I of Germany. The British abandoned their camp in November 1872, while the American camp was disbanded in July 1874.[6]
3 ARTHUR FOSS (Tug) Photograph of the tug Arthur Foss at dock on Lake Union as a museum ship, white with green trim, showing the stern and a view across the lake. April 11, 1989 Kirkland
47°40′22″N 122°12′26″W / 47.6729004589°N 122.207093544°W / 47.6729004589; -122.207093544 (Arthur Foss (tug))
King Built in 1889, the Arthur Foss is one of the oldest wooden-hulled tugboats afloat in the United States. She gained worldwide fame when the Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer movie studio leased the vessel for its 1933 production Tugboat Annie, starring Marie Dressler and Wallace Beery.[7] In World War II, Arthur Foss was the last boat to escape before the Battle of Wake Island began in late 1941.[8]
4 B Reactor Hanford B Reactor.jpg August 19, 2008 Richland
46°37′49″N 119°38′51″W / 46.63028°N 119.64750°W / 46.63028; -119.64750 (B Reactor)
Benton The B-Reactor at Hanford Site, Washington, was the first large scale plutonium production reactor ever built. The project was commissioned under the Manhattan Project, during World War II, to develop the first nuclear weapons.
5 Bonneville Dam Historic District Photograph of the gigantic spillways at the Bonneville Dam marching in a line across the wide Columbia, facing north, with the Cascade mountain country stretching to the horizon. Power lines lead away to the distribution networks. June 30, 1987 North Bonneville, WA and Bonneville, OR
45°38′38″N 121°57′42″W / 45.64389°N 121.96167°W / 45.64389; -121.96167 (Bonneville Dam Historic District)
Skamania, WA and Multnomah, OR Built in the 1930s to harness the Columbia River for power generation, this was the first hydroelectric dam with a hydraulic drop sufficient to produce 500,000 kW of hydropower. The NHL district covers the dam and other elements of the federal dam project, including the #1 powerhouse, navigation lock, fish ladder, and hatchery. The site is also listed in Oregon.
6 Chinook Point Chinook Point.jpg July 4, 1961 Chinook
46°15′7″N 123°55′24″W / 46.25194°N 123.92333°W / 46.25194; -123.92333 (Chinook Point)
Pacific Captain Robert Gray became the first European to see the Columbia River at this location in 1792.[9] His explorations gave the United States a strong position in its later territorial contests with Great Britain.
7 DUWAMISH (Fireboat) Photograph of the fireboat Duwamish at dock as a museum ship. The picture clearly shows several items of firefighting equipment, including water cannons, ladders, floodlights, pipelines, hose fittings, and the Seattle Fire Department seal on the funnel. June 30, 1989 Seattle
47°39′50″N 122°23′39″W / 47.6637829817°N 122.394103001°W / 47.6637829817; -122.394103001 (Duwamish (fireboat))
King Built in 1909, the Duwamish is the second-oldest boat in the US built specifically for firefighting.
8 FIREBOAT NO. 1 Photograph of Fireboat No. 1 in drydock as a museum ship. Several water cannons stand prominently at the bow, atop the bridge, and in the crow's nest. June 30, 1989 Tacoma
47°17′13″N 122°29′22″W / 47.2868237253°N 122.489405169°W / 47.2868237253; -122.489405169 (Fireboat No. 1)
Pierce Built in 1929, Fireboat No. 1 is now in permanent dry dock in Tacoma.
9 Fort Nisqually Granary Factor's House at Fort Nisqually.jpg April 15, 1970 Tacoma
47°18′13″N 122°31′58″W / 47.303476°N 122.532685°W / 47.303476; -122.532685 (Fort Nisqually Granary and Factor's House)
Pierce Established in 1833, Fort Nisqually was the first European trading post on Puget Sound.[10] Both of these buildings have been moved to Point Defiance Park, and a replica of the original Fort Nisqually as a living museum.
10 Fort Worden Wintertime photograph of wood-frame Army buildings along the parade ground at Fort Worden. December 8, 1976 Port Townsend
48°8′0″N 122°45′55″W / 48.13333°N 122.76528°W / 48.13333; -122.76528 (Fort Worden)
Jefferson Fort Worden was built during the Endicott period of US seacoast defense building. It is now a Washington state park.
11 Lightship No. 83 "Relief" Photograph of Lightship No. 83, Relief, at dock in Seattle as a museum ship, its light masts rising to the sky and its red hull painted with its contemporary name Swiftsure. April 11, 1989 Seattle
47°37′40″N 122°20′12″W / 47.62778°N 122.33667°W / 47.62778; -122.33667 (Lightship No. 83, "Relief")
King Built in 1904, the Relief (along with its sister ship) is the oldest surviving American lightvessel. Now moored at Seattle's Northwest Seaport at Lake Union Park and named the Swiftsure.[11]
12 Longmire Buildings Photograph of the Hiker's Center, one of the Longmire Buildings at Mount Rainier National Park on a late spring day, a low, rustic, log building with a patch of long grass in front and deep green forest behind. May 28, 1987 Mount Rainier National Park
46°44′56″N 121°48′34″W / 46.74889°N 121.80944°W / 46.74889; -121.80944 (Longmire Buildings)
Pierce The three contributing buildings are the Service Station, the Community Building, and the third (former) Administration Building,[12][13] and are examples of National Park Service Rustic architecture.
13 Marmes Rockshelter Unknown officials in the Marmes Rockshelter, 1967. July 19, 1964 Lyons Ferry
46°36′52″N 118°12′09″W / 46.61431°N 118.20242°W / 46.61431; -118.20242 (Marmes Rockshelter)
Franklin Despite being the fact that human remains at the site are the oldest that have been found in Washington, and at the time of excavation, the oldest set of remains found in North America,[14] the site was submerged under water after the closing of the Lower Monumental Lock and Dam.[15]
14 Mount Rainier National Park Photograph of the snow-covered Mount Rainier, the centerpiece of Mount Rainier National Park. February 18, 1997 Mount Rainier National Park
46°50′N 121°50′W / 46.833°N 121.833°W / 46.833; -121.833 (Mount Rainier National Park)
Pierce and Lewis The National Park Service's master planning process at this national park in the 1920s marked a significant evolution in the professional management of scenic and recreational lands. The park retains most of the facilities that grew out of this pioneer plan.
15 Panama Hotel Photograph of the Panama Hotel, a squared-off brick building on a steep street. The NP Hotel stands behind. March 20, 2006 Seattle
47°36′00″N 122°19′34″W / 47.60003°N 122.32623°W / 47.60003; -122.32623 (Panama Hotel)
King Built in 1910, this building holds the last remaining Japanese bathhouse (sento) in the United States.[16]
16 Paradise Inn Paradise Inn.jpg May 28, 1987 Mount Rainier National Park
46°47′06″N 121°43′58″W / 46.7849804094°N 121.73264202°W / 46.7849804094; -121.73264202 (Paradise Inn)
Pierce Opened in 1917, and built in the National Park Service Rustic style of architecture, the Inn was closed in 2005 to undergo major remodeling to conform to safety standards, and scheduled to reopen in 2008.[17]
17 Pioneer Building, Pergola, and Totem Pole Historic photograph of the Pioneer Square Pergola with the Pioneer Building behind. Many people wait under the Pergola as the cobbled streets bustle around them. May 5, 1977 Seattle
47°36′02″N 122°19′57″W / 47.6005460021°N 122.332440872°W / 47.6005460021; -122.332440872 (Pioneer Building, Pergola, and Totem Pole)
King The Pioneer Building is a Richardsonian Romanesque building built in 1892. The Pergola was formerly a cable car stop built in 1909,[18] and the Totem Pole, which was originally carved around 1790, was stolen from a Tlingit village, and presented to the city of Seattle by its Chamber of Commerce in 1899.[19]
18 Port Gamble Historic District A mill in Port Gamble. November 13, 1966 Port Gamble
47°51′18″N 122°35′2″W / 47.85500°N 122.58389°W / 47.85500; -122.58389 (Port Gamble Historic District)
Kitsap This company town was founded in 1853, and ran the longest running timber mill in the US, which just closed in 1995. Seattle architect Charles Bebb designed many of the town's buildings.[20]
19 Port Townsend Photograph of the Port Townsend waterfront from seaside, showing several Victorian residences and commercial buildings in tiers on a hillside. May 5, 1977 Port Townsend
48°6′54″N 122°45′19″W / 48.11500°N 122.75528°W / 48.11500; -122.75528 (Port Townsend)
Jefferson Formerly a prosperous customs station, this town retains a significant collection of 19th century commercial and residential buildings.
20 Puget Sound Naval Shipyard Photograph of the strategic missile submarine USS Ohio in drydock at the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard as night falls. The ship is surrounded by scaffolding and equipment, and several shipyard buildings appear in the background. August 27, 1992 Bremerton
47°33′32″N 122°38′17″W / 47.55889°N 122.63806°W / 47.55889; -122.63806 (Puget Sound Naval Shipyard)
Kitsap This shipyard was the primary repair destination for damaged battleships during World War II. Of the eight ships bombed in the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, five were repaired here.
21 Seattle Electric Company Georgetown Steam Plant Photograph of the Seattle Electric Company Georgetown Steam Plant, from outside the compound in an industrial district. The peak of the large, dominating, white building shows the date 1906. July 5, 1984 Seattle
47°32′01″N 122°19′18″W / 47.5337177828°N 122.321597424°W / 47.5337177828; -122.321597424 (Seattle Electric Company, Georgetown Steam Plant)
King Originally built in 1906 to power interurban rail transport between Seattle and Tacoma, the building is now a museum, and houses the only functioning Curtis Vertical Steam Turbogenerator in existence.
22 VIRGINIA V (Steamboat) Photograph of the Virginia V at dock on a sunny day, a high-bowed, white vessel with banners and signal flags flying in the wind. October 5, 1992 Seattle
47°37′48″N 122°22′54″W / 47.629884489°N 122.38158346°W / 47.629884489; -122.38158346 (Virginia V (steamboat))
King Constructed in 1922, the Virginia V is the last functioning ship of the Puget Sound Mosquito Fleet, and the only "wooden-hull, steam-powered, passenger vessel" that operates on the West Coast of the United States.[21]
23 W.T. PRESTON (Snagboat) The WT Preston. May 5, 1989 Anacortes
48°30′58″N 122°36′33″W / 48.51611°N 122.60917°W / 48.51611; -122.60917 (W.T. Preston (snagboat))
Skagit From 1929 to 1981, the Preston worked clearing rivers of debris, to make them passable to ship traffic. Today the boat is in permanent dry dock, and houses a museum.
24 Yakima Park Stockade Group Yakima Park Stockade Group.jpg May 28, 1987 Mount Rainier National Park
46°54′42″N 121°38′32″W / 46.911732968°N 121.642354622°W / 46.911732968; -121.642354622 (Yakima Park Stockade Group)
Pierce Log building complex of four individual buildings in Mount Rainier National Park that is architecturally significant on its own.

Historic areas in the United States National Park System[edit]

National Historic Sites, National Historic Parks, National Memorials, and certain other areas listed in the National Park system are more highly protected than other historic sites, and are often not also named National Historic Landmarks. There are five of these in Washington (six are listed, but San Juan National Historic Park is already listed here as "American and English Camps"), which the National Park Service lists together with the National Historic Landmarks in the state.[22]

[23] Landmark name Image Date established Location City or Town Summary
1 Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve Ebey's Landing shoreline.jpg November 10, 1978 Whidbey Island Island County, Washington The only National Historic Reserve, this park consists of a mixture of public and private lands,[24] including the Central Whidbey Island Historic District, which is listed on the National Register.
2 Fort Vancouver National Historic Site Ft. vancouver.jpg June 19, 1948 Vancouver, Washington and
Oregon City, Oregon
This site consists of the location of Fort Vancouver in Washington, and the house of John McLoughlin in Oregon City, Oregon. All the buildings at the fort burned in 1866, but were all rebuilt in their original places in 1966.[25]
3 Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park Klse cadillac hotel.jpg June 30, 1976 Skagway, Alaska and
Seattle, Washington
This park, with units in Washington and Alaska, is part of the Klondike Gold Rush International Historical Park, along with British Columbia's Chilkoot Trail National Historic Site.
4 Nez Perce National Historical Park Big Hole Battlefield May 15, 1965 Sites in Idaho, Montana
Oregon and Washington
Of the 38 sites in this park that commemorates the history of the Nez Perce people, two are in Washington: the Burial Site of Chief Joseph the Younger and Nez Perce Campsites at Nespelem.
5 Whitman Mission National Historic Site Whitman Mission National Historic Site.jpg June 29, 1936 Walla Walla Walla Walla This was the site of a mission founded by Oregon Trail emigrants. In 1847, members of the Cayuse tribe killed thirteen of the settlers, prompting the US to annex the land as the Oregon Territory, and begin the Cayuse War.

Former NHL in Washington[edit]

Landmark name Image Date of
designation[3]
Date of
move[3]
Locality[3] County[3] Description
1 USCGC Fir[26] Historic photograph of the lighthouse tender USCGC Fir at sea with the Cape Flattery Light in the background. April 27, 1992 September 2002 Seattle (formerly)[26]
47°35′18″N 122°20′19″W / 47.5884351948°N 122.338713015°W / 47.5884351948; -122.338713015 (USCGC Fir)
King (formerly)[26] This lighthouse tender was the last working vessel in the fleet of the United States Lighthouse Service, the ancestors of today's Coast Guard buoy tenders. Built in 1939 and decommissioned in 1991,[27] it is the last surviving ship of its type, and was largely unmodified at the time of its nomination. Fir was once expected to be a museum ship in Staten Island, New York, but was moved to California.[26][28] In 2010 she was reported to be moored in San Francisco.[29]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ National Park Service. "National Historic Landmarks Program: Questions and Answers". Retrieved 2007-09-21. 
  2. ^ Numbers represent an ordering by first significant word in landmark name. Various colorings, defined here, differentiate the National Historic Park, National Historic Landmark Districts and other higher designations from NHL buildings, structures, sites or objects.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h National Park Service (June 2011). "National Historic Landmarks Survey: List of National Historic Landmarks by State" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-07-04. .
  4. ^ National Park Service. "National Historic Landmark Program: NHL Database". Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  5. ^ Except as otherwise noted, descriptions are drawn from National Park Service. "National Historic Landmark Program: NHL Database".  Retrieved on various dates.
  6. ^ "San Juan Island National Historical Park". Retrieved 2008-02-27. 
  7. ^ McKenna 2001, p. 377
  8. ^ Brahms 2005, p. 536
  9. ^ Brokenshire 1993, p. 47
  10. ^ Robertson 1995, p. 313
  11. ^ "Lightship SWIFTSURE (LV-83, then WAL-508)". Historic Naval Ships Association. Retrieved July 26, 2010. 
  12. ^ "National Historic Landmark Nomination" (PDF). Retrieved 2008-02-27. 
  13. ^ "National Historic Landmarks Program". Retrieved 2008-02-27. 
  14. ^ "The Man They Ate for Dinner". Time Magazine. May 10, 1968. Retrieved 2008-02-27. 
  15. ^ LeWarne 2003, pp. 23–24
  16. ^ Alanen 2000, p. 166
  17. ^ Samson 2006, p. 311
  18. ^ Gene Johnson (January 15, 2001). "Pioneer Square pergola leveled by truck". Retrieved 2008-02-27. 
  19. ^ David Wilma. "Stolen totem pole unveiled in Seattle's Pioneer Square on October 18, 1899.". Retrieved 2008-02-27. 
  20. ^ Carlson 2003, p. 232
  21. ^ Larry E. Johnson. "Virginia V, Last Mosquito Fleet Steamer". Retrieved 2008-02-27. 
  22. ^ These are listed on p.116 of "National Historic Landmarks Survey: List of National Historic Landmarks by State", covering the six directly administered areas.
  23. ^ Numbers represent an ordering by significant words. Various colorings, defined here, differentiate the National Historic Reserve, National Historic Sites, and other types of NPS designations.
  24. ^ Roberts 1999, p. 171
  25. ^ Roberts 1999, p. 338
  26. ^ a b c d National Park Service. "National Register Information System". Archived from the original on 2007-08-15. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  27. ^ "USCGC FIR History". Retrieved 2008-02-28. [dead link]
  28. ^ Ralph Shanks (1991). "U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Fir (WLM 212) National Historic Landmark Study". Retrieved 2008-02-28. 
  29. ^ "USGC Fir (WLM-212)". The Royal Court of the United States Coast Guard. Retrieved 2013-10-21. 

Sources[edit]

  • Alanen, Arnold Robert; Melnick, Robert (2000). Preserving Cultural Landscapes in America, JHU Press, ISBN 0-8018-6264-7.
  • Brahms, William B. (2005). Notable Last Facts: A Compendium Of Endings, Conclusions, Terminations And Final Events Throughout History, Reference Desk Press.
  • Brokenshire, Doug (1993). Washington State Place Names: From Alki to Yelm, Caxton Press, ISBN 0-87004-356-0.
  • Carlson, Linda, (2003). Company Towns of the Pacific Northwest, University of Washington Press.
  • LeWarne, Charles (2003). Washington State, Seattle: University of Washington Press, ISBN 0-295-97301-3.
  • McKenna, Robert (2001). The Dictionary of Nautical Literacy, McGraw-Hill Professional, ISBN 0-07-141950-0.
  • Robertson, Donald B. (1995). Encyclopedia of Western Railroad History, Caxton Press, ISBN 0-87004-366-8.
  • Samson, Karl (2006). Frommer's Washington State, Frommer's, ISBN 0-470-03684-2.

External links[edit]